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Full text of "Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science"

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in 2012 with funding from 

LYRASIS Members and Sloan Foundation 



http://archive.org/details/proceedingsofin401930indi 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



Forty-sixth Annual Meeting 

Indiana Academy 
of Science 

FOUNDED DECEMBER 29, 1885 
VOLUME 40 



Stanley A. Cain, Editor 



Held at Franklin College 
Franklin, Indiana 

December 5-6, 1930 



FORT WAYNE: 

FORT WAYNE PRINTING CO., CONTRACTOR FOR STATE PRINTING AND RINDING 

19 3 1 



Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 
TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Page 

Officers and Committees for 1930 5 

Past Officers of the Academy 7 

Minutes of the Spring Meeting 8 

Winter Meeting — - 

Program (with information as to publication of papers) 10 

Minutes of the Executive Committee 15 

Minutes of the General Session 19 

Memorials — ■ 

Grace Barkley 21 

Emiel DeWulf 22 

Alma Marie Bell Haas 23 

Oliver P. Hay 24 

David Allen Owen 30 

Brother Alphonsus (Paul Sweet) 31 

President's Address 33 

Papers of the General Session — 

Scholarship, Intelligence and Personality: Will E. Edington 45 

Science in Secondary Schools: Florence A. Gates 51 

References to Scientific Literature: M. G. Mellon 57 

The Fifth International Botanical Congress: T. G. Yuncker 61 

Fourteen Papers on Botany — 

Liverworts of Spring Mill State Park: F. M. Andrews 67 

Attack of Fungi on the Wooden Lids of Water Culture Jars: 

F. M. Andrews 68 

A Study of Pollen, VI : F. M . Andrews 69 

Notes on Uncinula circinata Cooke and Peck: R. C. Busteed 73 

Additions to the Vascular Flora of Parke County, Indiana: Rexford F. 

Daubenmire 75 

Plants New or Rare to Indiana, XVI: Chas. C. Deam 77 

An Apparatus for Use in Freezing Studies on Fruits, Bulbs, and Tubers: 

Raymond E. Girton 81 

Ecological Relationships of the Most Common Mosses in a Certain 

Vicinity Near Bloomington, Indiana: Gail C. Glenn and Winona 

H. Welch 87 

The Altered Rate of Growth of Freesia Conns: W. P. Morgan and 

L. J. Michael 103 

Algae of Indiana: Additions to the 1875-1928 Check List: C. Mervm 

Palmer 107 

The Algae Schizomeris and Lemanea in Indiana: C. Mervin Palmer .... Ill 
The Stanley Coulter Herbarium at Purdue University: C. L. Porter and 

J.N.Porter 115 

Additions to the Vascular Flora of Jasper County, Indiana, I: Winona 

H.Welch 119 

The Phytoplankton of a Solution Pond with Special Reference to the 

Periodicity of Certain Algae: Helen L White 123 



Table of Contents 3 

Ten Papers on Chemistry and Bacteriology — 

Organic Compounds of Selenium, III: W. E. Bradt 141 

Chemistry in Farm Overalls: R. H. Carr 165 

The Use of Metallic Electrodes as Indicators: S. J. French and John M. 

Hamilton 171 

The Relation of pH to the Absorption of Dyes by Bacteria: S. J. French 

and Wm. H. Wright 175 

A New Gas Circulation Absorption Stirrer: J. A. Nieuwland and R. R. 

Vogt 179 

The Serum Neutralization of Hemotoxins: H. M. Powell 181 

The Production of Hydrogen Sulphide by Heating Paraffine and Other 

Hydrocarbon Mixtures with Sulphur: E. D. Scudder and R. E. Lyons 185 

Chemistry Projects and Exhibitions: J. Lyman Sheean 189 

Mental Performance and the Acid Base Balance of the Blood in Normal 

Individuals: N. W. Shock 193 

The Reaction of Boron Fluoride with Alcohols and glycols: T. H. 

Vaughn, H. Bowlus and J. A. Nieuwland 203 

Ten Papers on Geology and Geography — 

Micro-organisms from the Waldron Shale of Cliffty Creek, Indiana: 

Willard Berry 207 

Areal Geology of Putnam County, Indiana, as Indicated by the Soil 

Survey: T. M. Bushnell 209 

Notes on Outcrops of Silurian Near Sunman, Ripley County, Indiana: 

J. W. Huddle 213 

Geologic Structure in the Indian and Trinity Springs Locality, Martin 

County, Indiana: Clyde A. Malott 217 

Model of the Two Medicine Valley, Glacier National Park, Montana: 

E. S. Martin and V. D. Martin 233 

Parent Materials of Pike County, Indiana Soils: John T. Miller 235 

Two Subterranean Cut-offs in Central Crawford County, Indiana: W. D. 

Thornbury 237 

Some New Tertiary Pecteus: H. I. Tucker 243 

Contrasts Between the Twelve Richest and Poorest Indiana Counties: 

Stephen S. Visher 247 

A Probable Fault Near Bretzville, Dubois County, Indiana: George 

Whitlatch 251 

Eight Papers on Physics, Astronomy and Mathematics — 

The effect of Humidity on the Reverberation Period of a Room : Halson 

V. Eagleson 259 

A Theoretical Lower Limit to the Mass of a Stable Asteroid: Oliver E. 

Glenn 265 

An Audio-Frequency Laboratory Oscillator: J. B. Hershman 267 

The Load of a Power Tube: R. R. Ramsey 271 

A Momentum Analysis of Proton and Electron Masses: E. A. Smith 

and J. A. Vogelmann 277 

Cosmolar Rays: E. A. Smith and J. A. Vogelmann 281 

Cosmolar Rays: E. A. Smith and J. A. Vogelmann 287 

Notes on Photo-Electric Phenomena: H. A. Zinszer 291 



4 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

Fifteen Papers on Zoology 

A List of the Birds Seen in Marion County, Indiana: F. M. Baumgartner 295 

Insects of Indiana for 1930: J. J. Davis 307 

Four Rare Species of Birds in Indiana in 1930: Sidney R. Esten 321 

Birds of Greene and Noble Counties: Sidney R. Esten 323 

Some Observations on the Seasonal History of the European Corn 

Borer, Pyrausta Nubilalis HBN., in Indiana: G. A. Ficht 335 

The Amphibia of Montgomery County, Indiana: B. EL Grave 339 

Waste in Scientific Research: Robert Hessler 341 

The Relation of Oxygen Tension to Oxygen Consumption in the Insects 

and the Crayfish: Wm. A. Hiestand 345 

Records of Indiana Dragonflies, V. 1930: B. Elwood Montgomery 347 

Preliminary List of the Butterflies of Indiana: Robert W. Montgomery . . 351 
Records of Indiana Coleoptera, I. Cicindelidae : B. E. Montgomery and 

R. W. Montgomery 357 

Herpetological Report of Morgan County, Indiana: Jean Piatt 361 

Local Movements of Birds: Louis Agassiz Test and Frederick H. Test . . 369 
Birds of Tippecanoe County, Indiana: Louis Agassiz Test and Frederick 

H. Test 371 

A New Ilynassa: H. I. Tucker 375 

List of Members 377 

Index 398 



Officers and Committees 



OFFICERS AND COMMITTEES FOR 1930 



President, R. R. Ramsey, Indiana University, Bloomington. 
Vice-President, M. S. Markle, Earlham College, Richmond. 
Secretary, Ray C. Friesner, Butler University, Indianapolis. 
Treasurer, Marcus W. Lyon, Jr., South Bend. 
Press Secretary, W. E. Edington, DePauw University, Greencastle. 
Editor, Stanley A. Cain, Butler University, Indianapolis. 



Andrews, F. M. 
Arthur, J. C. 
Behrens, C. E. 
Blanc hard, W. M. 
Blatchley, W. L. 
Bruner, H. L. 

BURRAGE, S. 

Butler, A. W. 
Cogshall, W. A. 
Coulter, Stanley 



Executive Committee 

(Officers and Past Presidents) 

Cumings, E. R. 
Deam, C. C. 
Enders, H. E. 
Edington, W. E. 
Foley, A. L. 
Friesner, R. C. 
Hessler, R. 
Jordan, D. S. 
Lyon, Jr., M. W. 
Mahin, E. G. 



Markle, M. S. 
Mees, C. L. 

MOENKHAUS, W. J. 

Mottier, D. M. 
Naylor, J. P. 
Noyes, W. A. 
Ramsey, R. R. 
Rettger, L. J. 
Wade, F. B. 
Williamson, E. B. 
Wright, J S. 



Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 



COMMITTEES, 1930 



Academy Foundation 
Amos Butler, Chairman, Indianapolis 
Frank B. Wade, Shortridge H. S. 

Archaeology Survey 

E. Y. Gurnsey, Bedford, Chairman 

F. W. Breeze, Ball Teachers College 
Amos W. Butler, Indianapolis 

J. A. Culbertson, Shortridge H. S. 
Mrs. Viva D. Martin, Indianapolis 
Ernest R. Smith, DePauw University 

Auditing 
W. E. Edington, DePauw University 
Frank W. Horan, South Bend 

Biological Survey 
Charles C. Deam, Bluffton, Chairman 
J. J. Davis, Purdue University 
Sidney R. Esten, Indianapolis 
M. W. Lyon, Jr., South Bend 
J. M. Van Hook, Indiana University 

E. B. Williamson, Bluffton 

Membership 
Howard E. Enders, Purdue Univer- 
sity, Chairman 

F. M. Andrews, Indiana University 
Edwin M. Bruce, State Normal, 

Terre Haute 
0. B. Christy, Ball Teachers College 
Sidney R. Esten, Indianapolis 
B. A. Howlett, Rose Polytechnic 
R. W. Hufferd, DePauw University 
E. S. Martin, Arsenal Technical H. S. 
R. E. Martin, Hanover College 
Father J. Nieuwland, Notre Dame 

University 
J. E. Smith, Franklin College 
Alvin Strickler, Evansville College 
Ernest A. Wildman, Richmond 



Program 
C. A. Deppe, Franklin College, 

Chairman 
F. M. Andrews, Indiana University 
W. M. Blanchard, DePauw Univ. 
J. E. Smith, Franklin College 

Publication of Proceedings 
Stanley A. Cain, Butler University, 

Chairman 
J. J. Davis, Purdue University 
R. C. Friesner, Butler University 
Nathan C. Pearson, Butler Univ. 
Frank B. Wade, Shortridge H. S. 

Relation of Academy to State 
W. N. Logan, Indiana Univ., Chairman 
Stanley Coulter, State Conservation 

Commission of Indiana 
L. M. Pittenger, Ball Teachers College 
Frank N. Wallace, Indianapolis 
John S. Wright, Indianapolis 

Research 
A. L. Foley, Indiana University, 
Chairman 

C. A. Behrens, Purdue University 

D. N. Mottier, Indiana University 
Charles Stoltz, South Bend 

L. J. Rettger, State Normal, Terre 
Haute 

State Library 
Stanley Coulter, Indianapolis, 

Chairman 
Stanley A. Cain, Butler University 
Harry F. Dietz, Indianapolis 
Joel W. Hadley, Indianapolis 

Academy Representative on the Council 

of A. A. A. S. 
Howard E. Enders, Purdue Univ. 



Officers and Committees 



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Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 



MINUTES OF THE SPRING MEETING 

Nashville, Indiana 



The Indiana Academy of Science met for its regular spring meeting at Nash- 
ville, May 22-24, 1930. The meeting was called to order by President Ramsey 
in Melodeon Hall at 7:30 p. m. The Secretary announced the ad interim appoint- 
ment of three committees as follows: Special Committee on Endowment: W. M. 
Blanchard, Stanley Coulter, John S. Wright, and M. W. Lyon; Special Committee 
on Preparation of Science Teachers: L. J. Rettger, R. H. Carr, W. M. Blanchard, 
A. L. Foley, and R. C. Friesner; A.A.A.S. Committee: Dean Coulter, John S. 
Wright, Col. Richard Licber, Frank N. Wallace, Henry T. Davis, and R. C. 
Friesner. 

A report of the progress made toward bringing the American Association for 
the Advancement of Science to Indianapolis for a winter meeting in the near future 
was given. Dr. Lyon read and the Academy adopted the following resolution on 
zoological nomenclature: 

WHEREAS, Certain propositions for changes in the International Rules of 
Zoological Nomenclature have been submitted to the International Commission 
for consideration; and, 

WHEREAS, Certain of these propositions, more especially Nos. 1930 A, 
1930 B, 1930 D, 1930 F, and 1930 G, as published in Entomological News, volume 
40, pages 329 and 330, December 1929 make radical departures from the well 
established principles of the International Rules of Zoological Nomenclature. 
particularly 

The proposition to have the Commission report to the Congress all 
propositions which obtain a majority instead of a unanimous vote in 
controversial cases which are then to be decided upon in open meetings 
of the general session of the triennial congresses, and 

The similar proposition for specifying a 5/6th majority, and 
The proposition to start the Rules of Nomenclature from the 12th 
edition of Linnaeus' Systema Naturae instead of the 10th edition; and, 

WHEREAS, The zoologists of the Indiana Academy of Science are of the 
opinion that the adoption of any proposition unless unanimously recommended 
by the Commission to the Congress will result in greater confusion in zoological 
nomenclature than now exists; and, 

WHEREAS, The zoologists of the Indiana Academy of Science are of the 
opinion that all questions of zoological nomenclature can be more justly de- 
termined and amicably settled by a representative and relatively stable Interna- 
tional Commission of persons especially interested and trained in zoological 
nomenclature than by a congress whose personnel changes from meeting to meet- 
ing and is determined in large part by the country in which the Congress is held, 
and which Congress has interests of wider scope than technical nomenclature, 
therefore be it 

RESOLVED, That on the recommendation of its zoologists the Indiana 
Academy of Science, assembled at the Spring Meeting of the Academy, at Nash- 
ville, Indiana, 1930, deplore any attempt or attempts to change the status of the 



Minutes of the Spring Meeting 9 

International Rules of Zoological Nomenclature unless unanimously recom- 
mended by the International Commission or to allow the International Zoological 
Congress to settle questions of nomenclature that have not been submitted to such 
Congress by the unanimous approval of the International Commission; and be it 
further 

RESOLVED, That these resolutions be spread upon the minutes and a copy 
sent to the Secretary of the International Commission on Zoological Nomen- 
clature. 

Mr. Ben Douglas gave an illustrated lecture on Brown Count}' Culture. 

Friday was spent visiting various places of interest including Bear Wallow 
Hill, Weed Patch Forest Preserve, and the Home of Colonel and Mrs. Richard 
Lieber. Lunch was served to 137 members and friends at Weed Patch. A chicken 
dinner was served to 161 members at the Nashville House in the evening. Col. 
Richard Lieber acted as toastmaster and short speeches were made by: Charles 
C. Deam, on the botany of Brown County; Dr. Paris Stockdale on the 
Geology of Brown County; and Mr. Carl Graf on the Artists of Brown County. 

The membership Committee read the names of 53 applicants for membership 
in the Academy. These were all unanimously elected. Father Nieuwland in- 
formed the Academy of the death of its esteemed member, Emil DeWulf. 

Dr. Lyon moved that the Academy go on record as favoring the sentiment of 
a letter read by Sidney Esten from the Biological Survey at Washington opposing 
state wide or local vermin hunts. 

It was moved and carried that a special committee be appointed to consider, 
and report at the next meeting of the Academy, the feasibility of placing markers 
of native stone on roads of Brown County where they cross the borders of the 
glacial drift. The President was instructed to appoint the committee with 
Dr. Logan as chairman. 

Chairman Rettger of the Committee on Resolutions gave the following report: 
Mr. President, Ladies, and Gentlemen: 

The very pleasant duty has been assigned to me by the President of the 
Academy to express on behalf of the Academy our appreciation of the many 
courtesies which we have received here in Nashville. This meeting has been one 
of the most successful Spring Meetings in the history of the Academy. 

We wish to thank Mr. Douglas for his entertaining talk on the history and 
scenery of Brown County, delivered on Thursday evening. We are indebted 
to Mr. D. Calvin for his demonstration of gold panning in one of the auriferous 
streams of Brown County. 

We appreciate the thoughtfulness of the Bright and Brown Garage for giving 
to the Academy the use of a service car througout our trip over the hills of Brown 
County. We are also pleased to acknowledge our appreciation of the splendid 
arrangements made by the Nashville House for our accommodation while in 
Brown County and for the dinner on Weed Patch Hill. 

We desire, however, in an especial manner to express our gratitude to the 
Conservation Commission for many courtesies received at their hands in visiting 
the game reservation in Brown County, and for the gracious hospitality accorded 
members of the Academy by the Director of the Conservation Commission, 
Colonel Lieber, and Mrs. Lieber, at a reception in their Brown County cabin. 

Mr. President, I move that the Secretary be instructed to, placed in the min- 
utes of this meeting a brief record of this public acknowledgment. 

Ray C. Friesner, Secretary. 



10 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 



WINTER MEETING 



Program of the Forty-Sixth Annual Meeting of 
THE INDIANA ACADEMY OF SCIENCE 

HELD AT 

FRANKLIN COLLEGE 

FRANKLIN, INDIANA 

December 4-6, 1930 

Thursday, December 4, 1930 
7:00 p. m. Meeting of Executive Committee, Stott Hall. 

8:15 p. m. Address on "What is Static Electricity," by Dr. K. Lark-Horowitz, 
head of the Physics Department of Purdue University. 

Friday, December 5, 1930 
8:00 a. m. Registration, Main Corridor, Stott Hall. 
8:30 a. m. Business Session, Auditorium, Stott Hall. 

9:00 a. m. General Program, Auditorium, Stott Hall. Address of Welcome, 
Dr. P. L. Powell, Dean of Men, of Franklin College. 

In Memoriam — 

Emiel F. DeWulf, by Fr. J. A. Nieuwland 
Grace Barkley, by T. G. Yuncker 
George F. Mannfield-j-, by Richard Lieber 
David A. Owen, by M. E. Crowell 
Oliver P. Hay, by W. P. Hay 
Harvey W. Wiley f, by H. E. Barnard 
Brother Alphonsus, by Fr. P. E. Hebert 
Marie Bell Haas, by Flora Anderson Haas 
Herman P. Wright f, by Will Scott 

Scholarship, Intelligence and Personality. Will E. Edington, DePauw University. 
Distribution of Membership in the Indiana Academy of Science f. Fred J. Breeze, 
Fort Wayne. 

Journies to Haunts of P]uropean Botanistsf. M. S. Markle, Earlham College. 
Chemistry Before the Time of Alchemistst- J. Lyman Sheean, Culver Military 
Academy. 

Report on The International Botanical Congress. J. C. Arthur, Purdue University 
and T. G. Yuncker, DePauw University. 

References to Scientific Literature (By Title). M. G. Mellon, Purdue University. 

Science in Secondary Schools. Florence A. Gates, Toledo, Ohio. 

11:00 a. m. Sectional Meetings. 

1:45 p. m. Sectional Meetings Resumed. 



* Preliminary report at Academy meeting; work in progress, to be published later. 
tNot published in this Proceedings. 



Program of Winter Meeting 11 

3:30 p. m. Tea to Wives of Academy Members at the home of President and 
Mrs. Homer P. Rainey. 

4:30 p. m. Tea to Members of the Academy by the Faculty of Franklin College. 

6:30 p. m. Academy Dinner. 

8:00 p. m. Brief Business Session. 

8:15 p. m. Address of the Retiring President — Physics, Past and Present. 
R. R. Ramsey, Indiana University. 

MEETINGS OF SECTIONS 

Botany 

(Room 101, Science Hall) 

F. M. Andrews, Indiana University, Chairman 

1. Plants New or Rare in Indiana, XVI. Chas C. Deam, Bluffton, Indiana. 

2. Additions to the Vascular Flora of Jasper County, Indiana. (By Title) 
Winona H. Welch, DePauw University. 

3. Factors Concerned in Hemlock Reproduction. Ray C. Friesner and J. E. 
Potzger, Butler University. (To be published in Butler Univ. Bot. Studies 
1931.) 

4. The Ecological Significance of Hemlock in Indiana. Ray C. Friesner and 
J. E. Potzger, Butler University. (To be published in Butler Univ. Bot. 
Studies 1931.) 

5. Additions to the Vascular Flora of Parke County, Indiana. (By Title) 
Rexford F. Daubenmire, Butler University. 

6. Algae of Indiana— Additions to the 1875-1928 Check List. (By Title.) 
C. Mervin Palmer, Butler University. 

7. The Algae, Schizomeris and Lemanea, in Indiana. C. Mervin Palmer, 
Butler University. 

8. An Apparatus for Use in Freezing Studies of Fruits and Tubers. Raymond 
E. Girton, Purdue University. 

9. Appendages of Uncinula Circinata. R. C. Busteed, Indiana University. 

10. New and Interesting Plant Records from Northern Indiana. Julius A. Nieuw- 
land and Theodore Just, University of Notre Dame. (Amer. Mid. Nat. 
12:217-223, 1931.) 

11. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration of Soils of Indiana Ferns. Joe R. Craw, 
Hagerstown, Indiana. (To be published in the Butler Univ. Bot. Studies, 
1931.) 

12. The Phytoplankton of a Solution Pond with Special Reference to the Peri- 
odicity of Certain Algae (By Title). Helen L. White, Larwill, Indiana. 

13. The Altered Rate of Growth of Freesia Corms. W. P. Morgan and Lyle 
J. Michael, Indiana Central College. 

14. A Comparison of Strip and Quadrat Analyses of Woody Plants on a Central 
Indiana River Bluff. Stanley A. Cain, R. C. Friesner and J. E. Potzger, 
Butler University. (Butler Univ. Bot. Studies 1:157-172, 1930.) 

15. The Stanley Coulter Herbarium of Purdue University. C. L. Porter and 
J. N. Porter, Purdue University. 



12 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

16. Phyllotaxy in Conifers*. Stanley A. Cain, Butler University. 

17. The Vegetation in Grand St. Bernard Passf. Millard S. Markle, Earlham 
College. 

18. Liverworts of Spring Mill Park. F. M. Andrews, Indiana University. 

19. Attack of Fungi on Water Culture Lids. F. M. Andrews, Indiana University. 

20. Studies on Pollen. F. M. Andrews, Indiana University. 

21. Ecological Relationships of the Most Common Mosses in a Certain Vicinity 
Near Bloomington, Indiana. Gail G. Glenn, Indiana University and 
Winona H. Welch DePauw University. 



Chemistry and Bacteriology 
(Room 301, Science Hall) 

1. Serum Neutralization of Hemotoxins. H. M. Powell, Lilly Research Labora- 
tories, Indianapolis. 

2. The Reaction of Boron Fluoride with Alcohols and Glycols. Thos. Vaughn, 
H. Bowlus and J. A. Nieuwland, Notre Dame University. 

3. A New Gas Circulating Absorption Stirrer. J. A. Nieuwland and Richard 
Vogt, University of Notre Dame. 

4. The Production of H 2 S from Paraffine and Sulfur. E. D. Scudder and R. E. 
Lyons, Indiana University. 

5. Paraclesus — The First Medical Chemist f. J. Lyman Sheean, Culver Mili- 
tary Academy. 

6. Chemistry Projects and Exhibitions. J. Lyman Sheean, Culver Military 
Academy. 

7. Chemistry in Farm Overalls. R. H. Carr, Purdue University. 

8. The Use of Metallic Electrodes as Indicators. Sidney J. French and J. M. 
Hamilton, Franklin College. 

9. Relation of pH to the Absorption of Dyes by Bacteria. S. J. French, Frank- 
lin College and W. H. Wright (Deceased) Wisconsin University. 

10. Mental Performance and the Acid-Base Balance of the Blood in Normal 
Individuals. N. W. Shook, University of Chicago. 

11. Variation in the Determination of the Minimum Lethal Dose for Rabies*. 
W. R, Greenwood, Purdue University. 

12. Antibody Response in Allergic Animals*. C. A. Behrens, Purdue University. 

13. The Production of Multiple Antibodies. C. A. Behrens and C. E. Heaton, 
Purdue University. (Abs. in Jour. Bact. 21:7. 1931.) 

14. The Production of Multiple Antibodies in Allergic Animals*. C. A. Behrens 
and A. W. Tallman, Purdue University. 

15. Peculiar Resimilation Properties of Some Antigens*. F. L. Willis, Purdue 
University. 

10. Furunculosis : Resulting from Working with Cutting Oils*. C. A. Behrens, 

Purdue University. 
17. Organic Compounds of Selenium (By Title). W. E. Bradt, State College 

of Washington. 



♦Preliminary report at Academy meeting; work in progress, to he published later. 
tNot published in this Proceedings. 



Program of Winter Meeting 13 

Zoology 
(Room 201, Science Hall) 

1. Insects of Indiana for 1930. J. J. Davis, Purdue University. 

2. A Set of Elk Antlers from St. Joseph County. M. W. Lyon, Jr., South Bend. 
(Am. Mid. Nat. 12:213-216. 1931.) 

3. Records of Indiana Coleoptera I. Cincindelidae. B. Elwood Montgomery 
and Robert W. Montgomery, Purdue University. 

4. Preliminary List of the Butterflies of Indiana. Robert W. Montgomery, 
Purdue University. 

5. Records of Indiana Dragon Flies— V. 1930 (By Title). B. Elwood Mont- 
gomery, Purdue University. 

6. Some Cytoplasmic Structures in the Male Reproductive Cells of Pseudo- 
scopion (Chelanops corticis.) Henry George Nester, Butler University. 
(Abstract in Anat. Record. 47:3-332. 1930.) 

7. Observations on the Seasonal Development of the European Corn Borer 
(Pyrausta nubilalis). G. A. Ficht, Purdue University. 

8. The Relation of Oxygen Tension to Oxygen Consumption in Insects. Wm. 
A. Hiestand, Purdue University. 

9. Birds of Tippecanoe County I. Louis A. Test and Frederick H. Test, Purdue 
University. 

10. Local Movements of Birds. Louis A. Test and Frederick H. Test, Purdue 
University. 

11. Herpetological Report of Morgan County (Ex. of Turtles). Jean Piatt, 
Butler University. 

12. Birds of Green and Noble County (From Van Gorder Notes). Sidney R. 
Esten, Department of Conservation. 

13. The Vampire Bat, An Overlooked Parasite of Man and Other Warm-blooded 
Vertebratesf. M. W. Lyon, Jr., South Bend. 

14. A List of the Birds Observed in Marion County (By Title). Frederick M. 
Baumgartner, Butler University. 

15. Waste in Scientific Research. Robert Hessler, Indianapolis. 

16. Four Rare Species of Birds in Indiana in 1930. Sidney R. Esten, Dept. of 
Conservation. 

17. A New Ilynassa. Helen I. Tucker, DePauw University. 

18. Some Data on the Lakes of North Eastern Indianaf. Will Scott, Indiana 
University. 

19. The Amphibia of Montgomery County. B. H. Grave, DePauw University. 

Geography and Geology 
(Room 209, Science Hall) 

1. Model of Two Medicine Valley, Glacier National Park, Montana. E. S. and 
V. D. Martin, Indianapolis. 

2. Excessive Silicification of Fossils and Its Bearing upon Certain Types of 
Geodes*. Paris W. Stockdale, Ohio State University. 

3. Some New Tertiary Pectens. Helen I. Tucker, Greencastle. 

4. Contrasts Between 12 Rich and 12 Poor Indiana Counties. S. S. Visher, 
Indiana University. 



*Preliminary report at Academy meeting; work in progress, to be published later. 
fNot published in this Proceedings. 



14 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

5. Buildings and Land Utilization Map of Terre Haute*. B. H. Schockel, 
Indiana State Teachers College. 

6. Horizon of Glacial Wood Found Near Terre Haute*. B. H. Schockel and 
J. E. Ewers, Indiana State Teachers College. 

7. An Analysis of River Transportation in IT. S.* J. E. Switzer, Bloomington. 

8. Micro-organisms from the Waldon Shale of Cliffy Creek. Willard Berry, 
Ohio State University. 

9. A Probable Fault Near Bretzville, DeBois County. George Whitlatch, 
Indiana University. 

10. Geologic Structure in the Indiana Springs Locality, Martin County, Indiana. 
Clyde A. Malott, Indiana University. 

11. Area Map of Pike County, Indiana (By Title). John T. Miller, Salem, 
Indiana. 

12. Notes on Areal Geology of Putnam County, Indiana. T. M. Bushnell, 
Purdue University. 

13. Studies in the Geography of Railroadsf. Fred J. Breeze, Fort Wayne. 

14. Two Subterranean Cut-offs in Central Crawford County, Indiana. W. D. 
Thornbury, Bloomington. 

15. Brief Report on The Geographic Significance of the Manufacture of Drain 
Tile in Indianaf. W. LeRoy Perkins, Indiana State Teachers College. 

16. Some Notes on the Ancient Earth-Lodge Peoples of the Unitah Basin, Utah 
(By Title). f Albert B. Reagan, Ouray, Utah. 

17. Outcrops of Silurian near Sunman, Ripley County, Indiana. J. W. Huddle, 
Indiana University. 

Physics, Astronomy and Mathematics 
(Room 109, Science Hall) 

1. Some Details of the Milky Wayf. A. A. Cogshall, Indiana University. 

2. Note on the Photoelectric Phenomena. Harry A. Zinszer, Kansas State 
Teachers College. 

3. Cosmosolar Rays I and II. Elmer A. Smith and J. A. Vogelmann, Secaucus, 
N.J. 

4. A Theoretical Lower Limit to the Mass of a Stable Asteroid. Oliver E. 
Glenn, Lansdowne, Pa. 

5. An Audio-frequency Laboratory Oscillator. J. B. Hershman, Indiana State 
Teachers College. 

6. A Momentum Analysis of Proton and Electron Masses. E. A. Smith and 
J. A. Vogelmann, Secaucus, N. J. 

7. Acoustical Absorption in Connected Chambersf. R. E. Martin, Hanover 
College. 

8. Effect of Frequency Upon End Correction for Closed Resonance Tubes. 
J. F. Mackell, J. Frushour and W. Parker, Indiana State Teachers College. 

9. The Load of a Power Tube. R. R. Ramsey, Indiana LTniversity. 

10. Ionization of Gases by Positive Ions. * Mason E. Hufford, Indiana University. 

11. Four Wheel Brakes*. Authur L. Foley, Indiana University. 

12. Relation between Transmission and Absorption Coefficients of Sound Ab- 
sorbing Materials*. Arthur L. Foley, Indiana University. 

13. The Effect of Humidity on the Reverberation Period of a Room. Halson 
V. Eagleson, Morehouse College, Ga. 



*Prelirninary report at Academy meeting; work in progress, to be published later. 
"["Not published in this Proceedings. 



Minutes of Winter Meeting 15 

MINUTES OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

The Executive Committee was called to order at 7:10 p. m., December 4, 
1930. The following members were present: F. M. Andrews, C. A. Behrens, W. M. 
Blanchard, H. L. Brunei*, W. A. Cogshall, E. R. Cumings, C. C. Deam, H. E. 
Enders, W. E. Edington, A. L. Foley, R. C. Friesner, M. W. Lyon, E. G. Mahin, 
M. S. Markle, W. J. Moenkhaus, D. M. Mottier, R. R. Ramsey, J. S. Wright. 

Reports of officers followed : 

Academy Foundation — Chairman Butler presented the following report: 

December 1, 1929, balance on hand $ 34.46 

Total receipts, interest and other additions 478.39 

Total $ 512.85 

Investments made during year 428.00 

Balance on hand December 1, 1930 $ 84.85 

Assets 

U. S. 4th L. L. Bond $ 50.00 

Muncie Masonic Temple, Preferred 200.00 

Railroadmens Bldg. and Sav. Assoc, 23 Shares 2,300.00 

Standard Oil Company of Indiana, 6 shares 328.00 

Balance as shown above 84.85 

Total Assets $2,962.85 

Archaeological Survey — Chairman Guernsey gave the following report: 

As a basis for a proper study of the various culture-groups believed to be 
represented in Indiana it is suggested that a map be prepared, upon which may be 
shown all of the known archaeologic sites within the state. From evidence already 
established it will be possible, through this means, to arrive at tentative conclu- 
sions in respect to the probable culture identities of the various areas within the 
state. A similar map, upon which have been indicated all of the known data re- 
specting the occupation of Indiana by Indians of historic time, has been in prep- 
aration for five years, and is now ready for publication. This work has been neces- 
sarily involved and laborious; but should be of considerable value in working out 
the relationship, if it exists, between the ethnology and archaeology of the state. 
It would be possible, it is thought, to prepare an archaeologic map within a month 
or so, from data already assembled. 

During the past year the State of Indiana has acquired the notable group 
of earthworks, at Anderson, to be preserved as a state park. The restoration of 
these earthworks, along with their study and identification, will provide an inter- 
esting and important problem for the forthcoming year. 

The survey of the Whitewater valley area, by Dr. Setzler, has supplied us with 
much new information with respect to the culture of that region. Mapping of 
other areas in Indiana, by Dr. Setzler and his successor, Mr. Eggan, will be of very 
great value in the future study of the territory covered by their operations. 



16 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

Your chairman has continued his studies of the area comprised in the valley 
of the east fork of White River, and it is hoped that his findings may be of suffi- 
cient interest to warrant their publication. At the same time he has completed 
the compilation of a survey of the Wyandotte Cave area begun some years ago. 

Work carried on during the past year through various agencies has served 
to place Indiana upon something like a satisfactory footing in respect to archaeo- 
logic study, and has been decidedly encouraging. It is expected that, in the future, 
archaeologic research in Indiana will be conducted upon the scientific basis which 
it deserves. 

As yet the lower Wabash region has received little or no attention. This 
area, as well as that which lies along the course of the Ohio, will prove to be vastly 
interesting, and it is hoped that a start toward the study of the remains of primi- 
tive man in this area will be instituted during the coming year. 

Auditing Committee — Chairman Edington reported that the books of 
both Editor and Treasurer had been audited and found to be correct. 

Biological Survey — Chairman Deam gave the following report: 

We compliment the State Conservation Department on its past activities 
in the preservation of original tracts and urge a continuation of the policy which 
will preserve for future generations other important ecological habitats still avail- 
able within the State. 

We approve the beginning made in the establishment of a museum illustrating 
the local natural history and geology at Turkey Run Park by the State Conserva- 
tion Department. It is believed that the development of similar state park 
museums, housed in properly equipped and fire-proof structures, is highly de- 
sirable and this is therefore recommended. 

We reiterate earlier recommendations to the effect that a properly equipped 
research museum supported by the State of Indiana is highly desirable and should 
be provided at an early date. 

It is recommended to the Botanical Society of America and to the American 
Forestry Association that they adopt the name "pigeon oak" as the official name 
of Quercus mutilenbergil. The fact that this name has already been used in litera- 
ture for this species of oak and the further fact that the fruit of this oak was the 
preferred food of the now extinct passenger pigeon, lends support for the common 
name herewith suggested. 

It is suggested that the Academy authorize the Biological Survey Committee 
to prepare a bibliography of publications dealing with the taxonomy and distribu- 
tion of the past and present fauna and flora of Indiana. We note with regret that 
most of the material representing the fauna and flora of Indiana is in the hands 
of private individuals or in museums outside of the state. 

The Committee has given consideration to a new questionnaire to be sent 
to all members of the Academy and requests all members to fill out questionnaire 
promptly when received to enable it to submit a complete report to the next 
annual meeting. 

Editor — Editor Cain reported that Volume 39 of the Proceedings was mailed 
to members in September. This volume contained 338 pages and 1,500 bound 
volumes besides authors reprints were published. In the publication of the 
Winter Program in the Proceedings the policy was adopted of indicating where 
papers are to be found in case they are not published in the present volume. 

The financial report follows: 



Mtnutes of Winter Meeting 17 



State Funds 



Annual Appropriation for 1929 Proceedings .$1,500.00 

Cost of 1929 Proceedings $1,686.26 

Balance paid from reprint fund 186.26 

Total $1,686.26 



Reprint Account 

Balance reprint fund from volume 38 $ 149.86 

Received from authors for reprints 288.30 

Total $ 438.16 

Extra cost of Proceedings 186.26 

Balance on hand $ 251.90 

Irvington State Bank, savings account $ 150.00 

Irvington State Bank, checking account 101.90 

Total $ 251.90 

Due from authors, reprints volume 39 20.20 

Total assets $ 272.10 



Membership Committee — Chairman Enders read the names of 64 appli- 
cants for membership in the Academy. These were accepted. 

Press Secretary — Secretary Edington discussed the problems of his office 
and urged members who have papers on the program to cooperate with him by 
submitting abstracts of their papers which he may use for publicity. 

He also recommended that a committee be appointed to cooperate with the 
Press Secretary and the Editor in securing photographs of past prominent mem- 
bers together with other valuable historical data which may be both for publicity 
purposes and for use in celebrating the fiftieth anniversary of the Academy four 
years hence. 

Upon motion such a committee was authorized to be appointed by the next 
President. 

Program Committee — Chairman Deppe presented the printed program 
of papers and meetings for Thursday and Friday. 

Relation of Academy to State — Chairman Logan reported that the annual 
appropriation from the State used for publication of Proceedings has been included 
in the State Budget for the coming year. 

Research Committee — Chairman Foley reported that members of the 
Academy have not cooperated with his committee as they should and urged that 
better cooperation be given his committee in the future. 

State Library — No Report. 



18 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

REPORT OF TREASURER, INDIANA ACADEMY OF SCIENCE 
FOR THE YEAR, 1930 

Receipts: 

Balance on hand January 12, 1930 $ 696.68 

Collected from members as dues and initiation fees. . . . 930.00 

American Association for Advancement of Science 108.00 .11,734.68 

Disbursements: 
President 

Postage $ 2.00 $ 2.00 

Secretary 

Clerical Expenses 13.65 

Stationery and printing (Includes 
stationery for all officers and 
committees) 37.95 

Postage (Includes postage for mail- 
ing Proceedings) 111.50 

Miscellaneous expenses 17.61 180.71 

Treasurer 

Clerical expenses 26.41 

Stationery and printing 44.05 

Postage 28.95 99.41 

Program Committee 

Stationery and printing 98.50 

Postage 78.00 

Miscellaneous expenses 7.50 184.00 

Membership Committee 

Printing and stationery 20.85 20.85 

Academy Foundation 

American Association for Advance- 
ment of Science fund 108.00 

Additional funds 500.00 608.00 $1,094.97 



Balance in Bank, January 3, 1931 639.71 $1,734.63 



Respectfully submitted, 
M. W. Lyon, Jr., Treasurer. 
Examined and found correct, January 19, 1931. 

Frank W. Horan, 

Member, Auditing Committee. 

REPORTS OF SPECIAL COMMITTEES 
Endowment Commit lee — Chairman Blanchard and Secretary Wright 
reported progress of an educational program looking toward receipt of gifts to the 
Endowment Fund. 

A.A.A.S. — Chairman Friesner reported activity of the committee endeavor- 
ing to raise necessary expense funds to bring the A.A.A.S. to Indianapolis. 
Prospects seem favorable for such a meeting in 1935 or 1936. The personnel of this 
committee is 11. T. Davis, John S. Wright, Richard Lieber, Frank Wallace and 
R. C. Friesner. 



Minutes of Winter Meeting 19 

Brown Count}' Marker — Chairman Logan gave the following report: Your 
committee appointed to locate the position of the glacial boundary in Brown 
County suggests that a marker be placed on the Mark Brown hill southwest of 
Needmore near the Enos Miller property; that a marker be placed on the Helms- 
burg, Nashville public road near a large oak tree on the property of the Steele heirs; 
and that the location of the third marker be made as soon as the Indianapolis- 
Nashville road has been determined. 

These three locations will serve to mark the position of the glacial boundary 
on the three important north-south roads in Brown County. 

The committee was instructed to continue and report upon the probable 
cost of suitable markers and a suitable method of defraying the necessary expenses. 
The personnel of this committee is: W. N. Logan, Chairman, B. W. Douglas, 
C. A. Malott, E. R. Smith, T. M. Bushnell. 

New Business- — Dr. Enders reported upon the action of other Academies 
in fostering Junior Academies of Science amongst high school students. 

Action was taken by the Academy authorizing the appointment of a committee 
to consider the advisability and prepare plans for the formation of Junior Acad- 
emies of Science in Indiana. The motion stipulated that Dr. Enders is to be 
chairman. 

The following committee was appointed to receive invitations for the next 
Annual Meeting: Chairman Enders, Wm. Blanchard, A. L. Foley. 

Moved, seconded and carried that programs be sent out in envelopes with 
Secretary's return. This will aid in keeping address file up to date. 

President Foerste of the Ohio Academy of Science presented in person an 
invitation to the Indiana Academy to meet with the Ohio Academy in joint session 
at Miami University during the first week in April. This invitation was received 
with thanks and referred to the Program Committee. 

It was moved, seconded and unanimously carried that the Academy send a 
letter of approval and a pledge of faith to Directer Lieber and the Conservation 
Commission approving and pledging faith in the activities and policies of the Com- 
mission. 

The meeting was then adjourned to hear an address by Dr. K. Lark-Horowitz, 
head of the Physics Department of Purdue University, on "What is Static 
Electricity." 

MINUTES OF THE GENERAL SESSION 

Minutes of Executive Committee were read and approved. 
Committee on Nominations recommended the following members for 
Fellows: 

S. R. Esten, Department of Conservation, Indianapolis. 
H. C. Cowles, University of Chicago. 
W. P. Morgan, Indiana Central College. 
Fred Donaghy, Terre Haute. 
E. J. Kohl, Purdue University. 

The committee appointed to receive invitations for the next meetings of the 
Academy recommended that the Indiana Academy meet with the Ohio Academy 
at Oxford, Ohio, in April and that we meet at Butler University for the next 
Winter Meetings. The report was accepted by the Academy. 



20 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

Dean P. L. Powell gave an Address of Welcome to the Academy after which 
the regular program of papers followed. 

At a brief business session following the annual Academy dinner the following 
business was transacted: 

The Secretary was instructed to send telegrams of sympathy and greetings 
to Dr. A. W. Butler, Dean R. B. Moore, and Dr. Charles Stolz. 

The Resolutions Committee proposed the following resolution which was 
unanimously accepted: The Indiana Academy of Science assembled at its forty- 
sixth annual meeting at Franklin College, desires to express its appreciation and 
thanks to the college authorities and faculty for the fine reception accorded the 
Academy, for the splendid entertainment arrangements and courteous treatment 
all of which has made our meeting here one of the most successful the Academy 
has ever held. 

Chairman Behrens of the Committee on Nominations reported the following 
recommendation for Officers of the Academy for the coming year: 

President, J. J. Davis, Purdue University. 

Vice-President, T. G. Yuncker, DePauw University. 

Secretary, R. C. Friesner, Butler University. 

Treasurer, M. W. Lyon, Jr., South Bend. 

Editor, S. A. Cain, Butler University. 

Press Secretary, W. E. Edington, DePauw University. 

Ray C. Friesner, Secretary. 



Memorials 



21 



GRACE BARKLEY 

Henrietta, Missouri. Greencastle, Indiana. 

February 23, 1878. April 1, 1930. 

The science of botany lost an earnest and devoted student, and DePauw 
University a valued member of its faculty, in the death of Doctor Grace Barkley 
which occurred April 1, 1930, following a cerebral hemorrhage. On the evening 
of March 25th she returned to her apartment after a day spent at the laboratory. 
She was stricken sometime early in the evening, being found by friends about ten 
o'clock at the foot of the stairs leading to her apartment in a state of coma. She 




GRACE BARKLEY 



was, so far as her associates knew, enjoying excellent health and was in the best 
of spirits at the time of the "stroke." She had made all arrangements to attend the 
Fifth International Botanical Congress at Cambridge and was busy making her 
preparations for a long anticipated summer of study and travel abroad. 

Doctor Barkley's training and experience was exceptionally broad and her 
interest in science covered practically every field. In addition to her chosen 
science she also had experience teaching college physics, chemistry and geology. 
This diversity of interest gave her a vast reservoir of material upon which to draw r 
in her teaching and enabled her to materially extend the student's horizon. 
She was thorough in her studies and was severely critical of shallowness or super- 
ficiality when detected in teaching or research. She had unlimited faith in the 
honor and integrity of students and it grieved her greatly when she discovered 



22 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

that one had taken undue advantage of her in any way. She was indefatigable 
in her labors in the classroom, often remaining through the lunch hour to prepare 
materials for the afternoon classes or assist a student who was behind in his work, 
and she was usually the last to leave the laboratory in the evening. 

Miss Barkley was born February 23, 1878 at Henrietta, Missouri. Her high 
school work was done at Woodson Institute at Richmond, Missouri. In 1907 she 
graduated from the University of Missouri with the A. B. degree and also with 
a B. Sc. in Education. All of her graduate work was done at the University of 
Chicago where she received the Master of Science degree in 1922 and the degree 
of Doctor of Philosophy in 1926. 

Following her graduation from the University of Missouri she became head 
of the Science Department of Meridian College, Meridian, Mississippi where she 
remained until 1915. The last two years of her stay at Meridian she was also 
Dean of Women. From 1915 to 1923 she held a professorship in the Department 
of Biology of John Fletcher College. During the year 1925-26 she was an in- 
structor of plant morphology at the University of Chicago. She came to DePauw 
University as Assistant Professor of Botany in 1926 which position she held to the 
time of her death. 

She was a lifelong member of the Methodist Episcopal Church and had deep 
religious convictions. She also was a member of the American Association for 
University Women, the Business and Professional Woman's Club, Sigma Xi, the 
American Association for the Advancement of Science, the Botanical Society of 
America, and the Indiana Academy of Science. She took great interest in all of 
these organizations and was a regular attendant at their meetings. 

She published two pieces of research. These reflect considerable credit on her 
as a technician and student. Her first paper was entitled "Secondary Stelar 
Structures of Yucca." Her second paper was on the " Differentiation of Vascular 
Bundle of Trichosanthes anguina." Both papers were published in the Botanical 
Gazette, the first, December 1924, and the second, April, 1927. 

Doctor Barkley was ever ready to come to the assistance of her associates 
with her knowledge and time. One of her striking characteristics was her fine 
spirit of cooperation. Her chief delight, however, was in working with students 
with whom she was always on most excellent terms. She was a frequent guest in 
their houses of residence and seemed to hold their confidence at all times. 

T. G. Yuncker, DePauw University. 

EMIEL DeWULF 

South Bend, Indiana. South Bend, Indiana. 

March 26, 1883. May 21, 1930. 

Death claimed an outstanding University official, a valued member of the 
Congregation of Holy Cross, and a faculty member in the person of the Reverend 
Emiel DeWulf, C.S.C., director of studies at the University, Wednesday evening 
in Saint Joseph's Hospital. Father DeWulf was ill but five days, his sudden death 
coming as a shock to faculty and students. 

When Father DeWulf entered the hospital his condition was not regarded 
as serious, his stay there being more for a rest than for anything else. Tuesday 
evening his condition became grave and on Wednesday morning he was admin- 
istered the Last Sacraments of the Church. Members of his family and members 
of the faculty of the University were present at the bedside when the end came at 
7:30 p. m. 



Memorials 23 

Father DeWulf was born in South Bend, Indiana, on March 26, 1883. He 
attended the parochial schools of South Bend, entered the University in 1899, and 
was graduated in 1903. He pursued his education at Holy Cross College, Washing- 




ton, D. C, and was ordained to the priesthood on June 28, 1908. He made a 
graduate study of mathematics at Catholic University and began his teaching- 
career at Saint Edward's University, Austin, Texas, where he also served as pre- 
fect of discipline and director of studies. In 1914 he succeeded the Reverend John 
Boland, C.S.C., as president of the University. 

Recalled to Notre Dame 

Being recalled to the University of Notre Dame in 1917, Father DeWulf 
taught in the College of Science, teaching astronomy and physics. He remained 
a member of the faculty until he was appointed director of studies in 1927, a posi- 
tion he has held for the past three years. 

As director of studies Father DeWulf was responsible for many improve- 
ments in the system of registration and choice of studies by the students. Through 
his duties as director of studies were arduous and time-consuming, Father DeWulf, 
courteous and quiet of voice, was always ready to help the student whether he was 
senior or freshman, and whether he wanted advice on a course of studies or merely 
a copy of the University catalogue. Father DeWulf was an inspiration to all who 
came in contact with him. His place will be hard to fill. — R. I. P. 

— Reprint, Notre Dame Scholastic. 

ALMA MARIE BELL HAAS 

Albany, Indiana. Sorrento, Florida. 

August 23, 1899 May 28, 1930. 

Alma Marie Bell Haas died suddenly May 28, 1930, at her home south of 
Sorrento, Florida. She had been ill a few days, but her condition was not con- 
sidered serious. 



24 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

She was well known to many members of the Indiana Academy of Science. 
She was interested in the Academy and its work. In 1923, she was elected Assist- 
ant Secretary and served in that office until she left the state of Indiana. 

Mrs. Haas was born near Albany, Indiana, August 23, 1899. She was the 
eldest child of Mr. and Mrs. John Bell. After graduating from the Albany High 
School in 1917, she entered the Normal School at Muncie where she prepared to 
teach in the intermediate grades. She taught fifth grade work in Albany and in 
Elkhart. Feeling the need of more training, she entered Indiana University where 
she received her A. B. degree in 1922. 

In the fall of 1922, she was appointed assistant in the Botany Department of 
Indiana University. She completed her studies and received her A. M. degree 
in Botany in 1924. Her thesis — "Some Anomalies in the Development of the 
Seed of Pinus," is published in the Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of 
Science, Vol. 34, 1925 (1926). 

In 1924, she accepted a position to teach Science in the Harrisburg, Illinois, 
High School where she remained for three years. 

On August 8, 1928, at Albany, Indiana, she was married to Mr. Frank H. 
Haas, Jr., of Sorrento, Florida. She went with her husband to their home about 
two miles south of Sorrento, Florida where she resided until her death. 

Mrs. Haas was a devout christian. Her interest in the church was deep rooted 
and continued from early childhood until her death. She was cultured, refined 
and artistic. She made and kept many friends wherever she lived. To know her 
was to love and respect her. Her influence in the Cosmopolitan Club on the Uni- 
versity Campus will be carried around the world by the foreign students who knew 
and loved her there. The same kind congenial disposition made the atmosphere 
of her home such that one wished to linger there. Now, only the memory remains. 

Flora A. Haas, Conway, Arkansas. 

OLIVER P. HAY 
Jefferson Co., Indiana. Washington, D. C. 

May 22, 1846. November 2, 1930. 

Oliver Perry Hay, an original member of the Indiana Academy of Science) 
and its sixth president, died at his residence in Washington, D. C. on the 2nd of 
November, 1930. 

Dr. Hay was born May 22, 1846, on a farm in Saluda Township, Jefferson 
County, Indiana. He was the eldest of fourteen children of Margaret (Craw- 
ford) and Robert Lyle Hay. His paternal ancestors were Scotch Dissenters 
who had come to America shortly before the war of 1812. His maternal an- 
cestors, of mixed Scotch and Irish blood, had come from New England by way 
of North Carolina and Kentucky, probably as members of one of the bands of 
settlers that followed the Wilderness Trail of the early pioneers. There is no record 
to show that any of these ancestors achieved any special prominence. 

In 1850, attracted by the cheap and more fertile lands farther west, several 
members of the Hay family migrated to central Illinois, where the father of the 
subject of this sketch settled on a farm about two miles east of the present town 
of Bradford. Most of the country about this farm was open prairie, but three miles 
to the east was an extensive piece of woodland, known as Boyd's Grove, where 
there were a school, a church, a store, and a few dwellings. 

In such surroundings the boy grew up. The necessity of wringing a living 
from the isolated farm during those early days called for the hardest kind of 



Memorials 25 

labor, to which, as soon as he could do it, he was introduced, and of which, it is 
recorded, he did his full share. His parents, however, were firm believers in educa- 
tion, and his regular attendance at the Boyd's Grove school was insisted upon. 
He is said, by former schoolmates, to have been a conscientious and bright pupil. 

The date at which he exhausted the resources of the country school is not 
known to the writer, but at some time before the close of the Civil War he deter- 
mined to continue his education and selected Eureka College as the most con- 
venient and suitable institution of learning. He was probably influenced in this 
selection by the fact that he had united with the Christian Church and looked 
forward to entering the ministry of that denomination. His college course was 
much protracted since he had to work his way by teaching alternate years in 
country schools, and it was not until 1870 that he received his diploma. 

On the evening of commencement day he married Mary Emily Howsman, 
who was to prove a true helpmate whose watchful care throughout his long life 
was to contribute in no small measure to his success. 

Toward the end of his college course his dreams of the ministry had faded 
away and he had applied himself more and more to science. He supplemented the 
meager courses offered by the college by reading such scientific books as he could 
buy or borrow, and before he graduated had impressed his professors with his 
ability and promise in this field of work. 

The following September he was appointed Professor of Natural Science in 
his alma mater. Two years later, having continued his studies while teaching, he 
was awarded his M. A. degree. 

In 1873 he left Eureka, and, after a year divided between schools in Neely- 
ville, Illinois, and Ghent, Kentucky, went to Oskaloosa, Iowa, where for two 
years he served as Professor of Natural Science in Oskaloosa College. 

In the summer of 1875 he gathered up the family which he had accumulated — 
a wife and three small children — and traveled to New Haven, Connecticut, where 
he matriculated as a graduate student in Yale University. Here he had courses 
m zoology under Verrill and Dana, in geology and mineralogy under Brush, and 
in botany under Eaton, and received from these men a stimulus to exact and 
patient work which remained with him for the rest of his life. 

Returning to Illinois, he spent a summer at Normal working with Prof. 
S. A. Forbes, and was then engaged by Abingdon College, where he remained for 
two years as Professor of Natural Science. It was while he was at Abingdon that 
he published his first three scientific papers: "An Examination of Prof. Leo 
Lesquereux's Theory of the Origin and Formation of Prairies, 1 " "Description 
of a new species of Crangonyx, 2 " and "Description of a new species of Asellus :i " 
His interest in the fresh-water crustaceans, as indicated by the last two of these 
early papers, remained with him for many years, and while he published only two 
later articles on them he collected them extensively and transmitted his specimens 
freely to specialists in this branch of zoology. 

In 1879 he accepted the position of Professor of Biology and Geology in 
Butler University, Irvington, Indiana, where he remained until 1892. During 
a large part of his tenure of this position he discharged not only the duties indi- 
cated by his title, but also taught physics and chemistry. In the field of biology 
he had classes in zoology, botany, histology, and embryology; the preparation of 
material for laboratory work and the directions for his students calling for an 



1 American Naturalist, XII, pp. 299-305. 
-Privately printed, issued by the author. 
:j Bull. Illinois Lab. Nat. Hist., I, No. 2, pp, 90-93. 



26 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 




OLIVER p. hay 



Memorials 27 

amount of labor and time that the modern college professor can not appreciate. 
During this period he made two trips to Mississippi to collect fishes 4 , spent a sum- 
mer in Arkansas tracing the northern limit of the Mesozoic rocks of that state 5 , 
and devoted another summer to collecting Cretaceous vertebrate fossils in western 
Kansas. He took a course in medicine at the Indiana Medical College receiving 
the degree M. D. and carried on post-graduate studies in paleontology, for which, 
in 1884, Indiana University granted him the degree Ph. D. From 1884 to 1888 he 
was associated in an advisory capacity with the Geological Survey of Arkansas, 
and from 1891 to 1894 with the Geological Survey of Indiana. 

His publications during this period numbered over thirty : They were mostly 
short papers treating of fishes, amphibians, and reptiles, but among them were 
two on fresh-water crustaceans, two on birds, and one on histological methods. 
In the last mentioned paper 6 he described a method of preparing museum speci- 
mens of animals by infiltrating their tissues with waxes or gums which appears 
to have escaped the notice of certain recent "inventors" of the process. 

In 1892, his position at Butler having become untenable because of his views 
on evolution, he resigned and removed to Chicago. Here, after an unhappy year 
of teaching in the public high schools, he secured a fellowship in Chicago Uni- 
versity, and, with Dr. George Baur and others, had an opportunity to study the 
rapidly accumulating paleontological collections of that institution and of the 
Field Columbian Museum. In 1896 he joined the staff of the Field Museum as 
Assistant Curator of Zoology, a position which he occupied for about two years. 
He then removed from Chicago to Washington, D. C, where he remained 
until 1901, carrying on independent investigations in paleontology. 

During the period between 1892 and 1901 his published papers 
numbered twenty-six, and, with the exception of nine, were on paleon- 
tology. Among the exceptions were his extensive reports on "The Batra- 
chians and Reptiles of the State of Indiana 7 " and on "The Lampreys 
and Fishes of Indiana 8 ". Shorter papers include one on the fishes of 
the Kankakee and Illinois rivers, several on the development of the 
vertebral column of fishes, and one or two on other subjects. It was toward the 
end of this period that he spent much of his time preparing for publication 
his "Bibliography and Catalogue of the Fossil Vertebrata of North America" 9 , 
in which was given, first, as complete a bibliography as it was possible to secure 
of the books and papers containing references to or descriptions of this group of 
fossils and, second, a catalogue of species with page references to the literature 
covered by the bibliography. The bibliography included 4,600 titles of papers, 
the catalogue probably over 40,000 references, all of which had been verified 
personally by the author. Published in 1902, the book at once became an indis- 
pensable tool for any worker in vertebrate paleontology. 

In 1901 Dr. Hay joined the staff of the American Museum of Natural History 
as Assistant, and later as Associate Curator of Vertebrate Paleontology. During 
the seven years of his association with this museum he published thirty-seven papers. 
They were all on vertebrate paleontology, at least a third being on fossil turtles. 
His interest in the latter group became so great that during the last three or four 
years he was induced by the Carnegie Institution of Washington to give an in- 

4 Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. Ill, pp. 488-515. 

5 Ann. Rept. Geol. Surv. Ark. for 1888, II, pp. 261-290. 

"American Naturalist, XIX, pp. 526-529, 1885. 

7 17th Ann. Rept. Dept. Geol. and Nat. Resources of Indiana, pp. 409-602 (1893). 

si9th Ann. Rept. Dept. Geol. and Nat. Resources of Indiana, pp. 146-296 (1895). 

9 Bull. U. S. Geol. Survey, No. 179, pp. 1-868, 1902. 



28 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

creasing amount of his time to the preparation of a monograph on these animals 10 . 
In the course of this work it was necessary to visit all the larger museums of Europe 
and America. While he was abroad he served as American delegate to the Inter- 
national Zoological Congress. 

In 1907 Dr. Hay returned to Washington, where he continued to reside until 
his death, spending his working hours at the U. S. National Museum in the study 
of the collections that were constantly coming in to that great institution. In 1912 
he was appointed Research Associate, and in 1917 Associate of the Carnegie 
Institution, and began to devote his energies to the study of the Pleistocene verte- 
brate faunas of North America, a task at which he labored until the publication 
of his reports in 1927 11 . Meanwhile about ninety other papers issued from his hand. 
Some of these were brief notes or articles of a page or two, but quite a number 
were of considerable length and of a monographic character. Notable among the 
latter were his papers on "The Pleistocene Period [in Indiana] and its Verte- 
brata 1 -," "The Extinct Bisons of North America; with Description of One New 
Species 13 ," "The Pleistocene Mammals of Iowa 14 ," "Contributions to the Knowl- 
edge of the Mammals of the Pleistocene of North America 15 ," and "Observations 
on some Extinct Elephants 16 ." There were also several papers on the phylogeny 
of the shell of turtles, which constitute a real contribution to the knowledge of 
that debated subject, and a number of papers on the various finds in this country 
of the remains of human beings in association with the remains of extinct animals. 
It was his contention that many, if not all, such finds indicate a much greater 
antiquity of man in North America than most anthropologists have been willing 
to concede. His interest in this subject was so great that, despite his advanced 
age, he made long trips to Florida, Oklahoma, and Texas to study the geology 
of the localities in which particularly interesting discoveries of this nature had 
been made and to satisfy himself of their authenticity. 

In 1926, having attained the age of eighty, he adhered to his often expressed 
intention to retire. But he was still vigorous both in mind and body. The last 
volume of his report on the Pleistocene vertebrates was still in press, a number of 
small pieces of work needed to be done and retirement for him meant only the 
relinquishing of a salary and such rearrangement of his affairs as his relatively 
small retirement pay would necessitate. His working hours remained unchanged. 
Finally, with minor things cleared away he set himself for the crowning 
work of his career — the continuation of his bibliography and catalogue of the 
fossil Vertebrata of North America. He had been accumulating material for this 
undertaking for several years, reading the literature at night and utilizing other- 
wise idle time of his typist during the day, but to put it in shape for the printer 
and to read the proofs was an undertaking which would have utterly discouraged 
many a much younger man. His great fear was that he would not live to complete 
the work, but his rugged health and his unquenchable enthusiasm carried him 
through. The plan of the "Second Bibliography and Catalogue of the Fossil 

10 The fossil turtles of North America. Pub. Carnegie Inst, of Washington, No. 75, 190S; pp. 
I-IV-H-568, pis. I-CXIII. 

u The Pleistocene of North America and its vertebrated animals from th° States east of the 
Mississippi River and from the Canadian Provinces east of longitude 95°. Pub. Carnegie Inst. 
Washington, No. 322, 1923, pp. I-VII + 1-499. 

The Pleistocene of the middle region of North America and its vertebrated animals. Pub. 
Carnegie Inst. Washington, No. 322 A, 1924, po. I-VII + 1-385. 

The Pleistocene of the western region of North America and its vertebrated animals . Pub. 
Carnegie Inst. Washington, No. 322B, 1927, pp. I-V + 1-346. 

i2Geol. Surv. Indiana XXXVI, pp. 538-784, 1912. 

"Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. XLVI, pp. 166-200, 1913. 

i^Iowa Geol. Surv. XXIII, pp. 1-662, 1914. 

isProc. U. S. Nat. Mus. XLVII, pp. 515-575, 1915. 

"Issued by the author, pp. 1-19, 1922. 



Memorials 29 

Vertebrata of North America 17 " was like that of the volume published in 1902, 
and will be for all time to come equally indispensable to any worker in vertebrate 
paleontology. The tremendous growth of the subject is shown by the fact that while 
the volume of 1902 covered the literature of more than one hundred years, the second 
bibliography required two much larger volumes to cover the work of slightly less 
than thirty years. It contained the titles of close to 20,000 papers, and the page 
references to these, given in the species catalogue, considerably exceed 100,000. 
As before, all these had been verified by the author. In bringing this monumental 
work to a conclusion the author had only the intermittent help of a typist and 
of the expert proofreaders of the printer and of the Carnegie Institution. 

Subsequent to the completion of the bibliography Dr. Hay occupied his time 
in writing short papers, and his family was able to induce him to leave his work 
a little earlier in the afternoons and even now and then to remain away altogether 
for a day or two. But his real enjoyment was in work. Throughout his life it was 
his habit to retire at ten o'clock and to arise not later than six. He was at his 
office by eight, and usually remained there until around five. After dinner there 
was an hour or two with his family, and then his study claimed him. The learn- 
ing of language was his only hobby. During his college days he had courses in 
Greek and Latin, and his acquaintance with both was kept up to the end of his life. 
While he was in New York he took up the study of French and German, and be- 
came able to read both languages easily and to converse fluently in them. Italian, 
modern Greek, and Russian were acquired much later sufficiently well to be read 
with more or less ease. He was always a busy man, carried on from one piece of 
work to another by boundless enthusiasm and an insatiable desire for knowledge. 
Nevertheless he was never too busy to lay his own work aside to assist a fellow 
worker who appealed to him for help or who was seen to be in difficulty from which 
he needed to be extricated. His fund of humor was one of his most marked 
characteristics, and he derived even more enjoyment from some joke on himself 
than on some other person. His preoccupation with his work led him into many 
an amusing situation, about which he would tell with much gusto and with no 
attempt at concealment. Until his hearing began to fail, as it did considerably 
in the last years, he greatly enjoyed attending meetings of the societies to which 
he belonged, concerts, and the theater. Short automobile excursions into the 
country where he could wander through the woods, especially if he could be ac- 
companied by his grandchildren, of whom he had five, were a great delight, but 
long trips, unless there was some definite objective, were not so much enjoyed. 
His unusual ability to draw enjoyment out of the little things of life as well as the 
big ones, his happy home life, and his interest in his work kept him voung through 
all his years. 

Dr. Hay's last paper 18 was completed less than two weeks before his death 
and he did not live to see it in print. Another paper 19 came from the press during 
his last illness, but had been read by him in proof. He left one unfinished manu- 
script which he laid aside only when he was assured that the sharp pains he had 
felt about his heart indicated most serious trouble, and that the remedy he had 
been using would no longer avail. From that time on his submission to the doctor 
and the nurses was absolute. He soon became unconscious, and after a week 



17 Pub. Carnegie Inst. Washington, No. 390. Vol. I (1929), pp. I-VIII + 1-916; Vol. II, (1930), 
pp. I-XV + 1-1074. 

18 On the fossil Mammalia of the first interglacial stage of the Pleistocene of the United States. 
Jour. Wash. Acad. Sci. Vol. 20, pp. 501-509, Dec. 19, 1930. 

19 Fossil vertebrates collected near, or in association with, human artifacts at localities near 
Colorado, Texas; Frederick, Oklahoma; and Folsom, New Mexico. O. P. Hav and H. J. Cook. 
Proc. Colorado Mus. Nat. Hist., Vol. IX, No. 2, pp. 1-40, pis. I-XIV. 



30 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

quietly passed away. He is survived by his wife, two sons, two daughters, and 
five grandchildren. 

At the time of his death Dr. Hay was a fellow of the American Association 
for the Advancement of Science, The Geographical Society of America, The 
American Geological Society and the Indiana Academy of Science. He was 
a member of the American Anthropological Association, American Society of 
Mammalogists, Paleontological Society of America, The Biological Society of 
Washington, and the Washington Academy of Sciences. 

A complete bibliography of Dr. Hay's writings would extend this article far 
beyond the space that can be given to it. His most important papers and all his 
books have already been mentioned and in them will be found lists of his other 
contributions. 

W. P. Hay 



DAVID ALLEN OWEN 

WORTHINGTON, INDIANA. FRANKLIN, INDIANA. 

December 11, 1852. October 27, 1930 

David Allen Owen was born on a farm near Worthington, Indiana, December 
11, 1852, a son of Wilson and Lucinda Owen. He attended the rural school of that 
vicinity as a boy, and at the age of 18 went to a high school at Point Commerce. 
After two terms of high school work he secured a teacher's license and taught his 
first school at Bloomfield, Indiana. These experiences aroused his interest in edu- 
cation and through the influence of friends he enrolled in Franklin College at 
Franklin, Indiana, from which he was graduated in 1878. The following year he 
was principal of the High School at Salem, Indiana, and from this position was 
elected to the faculty of Franklin College, as a teacher of Science, which he held 
until 1909, when, on account of failing health, he retired under the Carnegie 
Foundation. 

In 1881 he completed the required work and was granted a Master's degree 
by Franklin College, and on the 50th anniversary of his graduation his Alma 
Mater gave him an honorary degree of Doctor of Science. In addition to his regu- 
lar college duties he served a term (1881-2) as Superintendent of Schools of Johnson 
County, and since 1882 he was U. S. Weather Observer for Johnson County. He 
did graduate work at the University of Chicago and Woods Hole, Mass. He was 
a member of the Baptist Church of Franklin, a charter member of the Indiana 
Academy of Science, and a member of the Phi Delta Theta Fraternity. 

In 1880 he married Miss Nettie Paynter of Salem, who survives. An onh 
son, Asa Gray Owen, died in his early boyhood. 

Professor Owen's thirty years' service to Franklin College might well be 
called a heroic adventure in the teaching of science. He was undaunted by meager- 
ness of salary and equipment and the vastness of the field to which he had to intro- 
duce his students. He had rare skill in improvising and using simple apparatus 
that made his laboratory a favorite workshop for students and has developed into 
the present commodious biological plant. Nor did he allow his own department 
to absorb all of his enthusiasm. He was constantly on the alert for the general 
interests of the whole College, and the buildings and grounds show many evidences 
of his thoughtful planning and care. He was a fine example of a man of deep active 
Christian convictions who is an enthusiastic scientist. To him every discovery and 



Memorials 31 

advancement in science enlarged the boundaries of his faith and multiplied the 
means of its realization. Who can estimate how much this has meant in the lives 
of his students? He died at his Franklin home October 27, 1930, after an acute 
illness of several months. 

Melvin E. Crowell. 



BROTHER ALPHONSUS, C.S.C. (Paul Sweet) 

Washington, D. C. South Bend, Indiana. 

April 10, 1872. June 14, 1930. 

Brother Alphonsus, C.S.C, known to the work as Paul Sweet, was born at 
Washington, D. C, on April 10, 1872. After completing the courses in the ele- 
mentary grades of his native city he entered the preparatory school of the Uni- 
versity of Notre Dame where he pursued his high school subjects and later took 
up college work in literature and science. On September 1, 1888, he became a 
Brother of Holy Cross. 

From that date until the spring of 1928 Brother Alphonsus acted almost 
uninterruptedly in the capacity of prefect in Brownson Hall at Notre Dame. He 
became interested in birds about the year 1900 and what at first seemed but an 
engaging hobby gradually developed into an absorbing passion. Many an hour 
found him about the lakes at the University or along the St. Joseph river with 
field glass in hand for observations of his little friends in feathers. Records of 
these observations he carefully tabulated and preserved, and from time to time 
articles from his pen appeared in the American Midland Naturalist, a magazine 
devoted to natural history, and edited by Doctor Julius A Nieuwland, C. S. C, of 
the University of Notre Dame. On various occasions he addressed the members 
of the Audubon Society of the state of Indiana. 

In April of the year 1928, Brother Alphonsus was taken ill and was compelled 
to retire from active life. He died June 14, 1930. Surviving him are his mother 
and brother living in Los Angeles, California. Bibliography: Articles on his 
favorite subject, the birds, appear as follows in the American Midland Naturalist: 
Vol. 1. Tentative List of the Birds of St. Joseph County and Vicinity, pp. 21, 161. 
Migration of Birds in St. Joseph County, Indiana, pp. 47, 69, 97, 159, 186, 218, 265. 
Migration of Birds in Van Buren County, Michigan, pp. 123. Vol. II. Our 
Winter Birds, pp. 25, 149, 260. Our Song Birds, pp. 27, 67, 95, 165, 195. Our 
Birds in March and April, p. 54. Migration of Birds, p. 167. Bathing Habits 
of Our Birds, p. 193. Our Non-Musical Birds, p. 196. Migration of Our Birds 
in the Autumn of 1911, p. 262. Migration of Our Birds in Spring of 1912, p. 303. 
Vol. III. Daily Observation of Our Local Birds, p. 23. Song Season of Our Birds 
in 1912, p. 48. Our Birds in the Spring of 1912, p. 50. Nesting Habits of Our 
Birds, p. 60. Nesting Habits of Our Birds, p. 65. Our Birds in the Summer of 
1912, p. 70. Migration of Birds in the Autumn of 1912, p. 125. Our Birds in 
the Winter of 1912-1913, p. 158. Comparative Migration of Our Birds in Spring, 
p. 161. Our Birds in the Spring of 1913, p. 201. Our Birds in the Autumn of 
1912, p. 243. Our Birds in the Summer of 1913, p. 248. Migration of Our Birds 
in the Spring of 1913, p. 271. Our Birds in the Autumn of 1913, p. 305. Migra- 
tion of our Birds in the Autumn of 1913, p. 327. Comparative Migration of Our 
Birds in Autumn, p. 355. Vol. IV: Distribution of Birds in Spring, p. 15; 
Spring 1914, p. 487; Winter, p. 29; Winter 1914, p. 165; Winter 1914, 1915, 



32 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

p. 497; Autumn p. 327; The Year of 1915, pp. 366, 401. Migration of Birds in: 
Spring 1914, p. 168; Summer 1914, p. 214. The Bird Lover, p. 521. Vols. V, 
VI, VII: Our Birds in December, p. 148. Our Birds in November, p. 145. Our 
Sparrows, p. 51. Birds found in Northern Indiana and Southern Michigan, 
p. 242. Shooting Birds for the Purpose of Identification, p. 225. Migration of Our 
Birds in the Spring of 1917, p. 178. Our Winter Birds, p. 150. Our Warblers, 
p. 129. Distribution of Our Birds in Winter, p. 88. Introduction to a Study of 
Bird Life, p. 14. An All-Day Bird Trip at Washington, D. C, p. 103. Birds 
observed at Notre Dame, Indiana, in the Spring of 1919, p. 98. Our Fly-Catchers, 
p. 78. Vols. VIII, IX: Bird Migration Record Made at Notre Dame, Indiana, 
September 9 to November 30, 1920, p. 81. Birds of Watertown, Wisconsin, p. 172. 
The First Robin, p. 209. Birds of Notre Dame, Indiana, pp. 257, 283. Birds of 
Bankson Lake, Michigan, p. 260. 



Physics, Past and Present 33 



PHYSICS, PAST AND PRESENT 1 



R. R. Ramsey, Indiana University 

During the brief time I have been associated with the subject of physics 
I have witnessed numerous changes. Scientific discoveries have been introduced 
which were unbelievable only a few years ago. I consider myself fortunate to have 
lived, and to be living, through such a period of scientific development. 

My first acquaintance with physics was made in the Oxford, Ohio, High 
School about 1890, where I enrolled in Steele's "Fourteen Weeks in Physics." 
One impression which I gained from this course, and about the only clear recol- 
lection I have of it, was that the electric dynamo was a piece of apparatus, the 
functions of which were too complicated to understand. From the present day 
viewpoint this seems an impossible situation. However, one must take into con- 
sideration the fact that the teacher, who was one of the best I ever knew, had 
only within the last year found an opportunity to examine his first dynamo, 
when Oxford installed an electric lighting system. 

Just a few years before, the county-seat of a neighboring county had lighted 
the entire town by placing arc lights on two high steel towers, probably 75 or 100 
feet high— one by the courthouse and the other about eight squares away, near 
the railroad station. 

According to the newspapers of the time, if a town had one of these mysterious 
arc lights the entire town would be as light as day. Why did we believe this to be 
true? you may ask. I could see, when the climatic conditions were right, the glow 
in the sky from the arc light of Eaton, which was thirteen miles distant from my 
home. I had seen the towers, but we never staid in Eaton after four p. m., due 
to the long journey of thirteen miles we made going home, therefore, I did not 
know just how effective these lights were. 

During the "gay nineties" there were no automobiles, no hard roads, no rural 
mail deliveries, and no telephones. Even the appearance of the men and women 
was entirely different. Men wore cut-away frock coats and plug hats, especially 
in campaign years. Women wore yards and yards of material in their dresses. 
In order to increase the yardage women invented certain elevators or props 
called the bustle which was seen but not spoken of in polite society. 

We hear that physics has undergone a complete change ; that the old theories 
have been cast aside in favor of an entirely new type of physics. The physics of 
today is fundamentally the same as it was in the earlier days. The old is no more 
different from the new than men and women of today are different from those 
of 1895. It is evident that outward appearances have been altered in both cases, 
but the essential features of both have remained the same. 

Certain aspects have been changed in order to accommodate the necessary 
additions which resulted from progress. The old turnpikes with toll gates were 
considered fine roads and served their purpose admirably in the early days, but 
the driver of the modern car or twenty-ton truck, tearing down the road at fifty 
to eighty miles per hour, does not care to come to a dead stop every four miles 



President's Address. 

Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 40:33-44. (1930) 1931. 



34 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

to hand the gate keeper three cents. He prefers to pay his toll when he must, of 
ne3essity, stop to take on gasoline. 

The old high school teacher and the "Fourteen Weeks" high school physics 
text were up to the times and served their purposes as well as the modern specialist 
and texts serve our times. The professor of that time was a learned man, as was 
the text book writer — learned in the broad sense. The author of this "Fourteen 
Weeks" physics had become famous for his "Fourteen Weeks" series in all the 
then known sciences. 

In the nineties we had Newton's laws of motion, and the laws of falling bodies, 
the same as we have now. We knew then as well as we know now that a stone 
thrown up will come down. Just why it comes down — the real reason why it falls — 
is as much of a mystery now as it was then. We called it gravitation then as now, 
and knew the laws governing falling bodies, but just why every particle in the 
universe attracts every other particle remains a mystery. 

The same can be said about hydrostatics and perhaps about hydraulics. We 
have learned some cf the experimental laws of wind pressure, and of fluids in 
motion since that time. These are discoveries which have come about due to 
necessity since man has learned to fly. Aeronautics in the nineties could perhaps 
be summed up by repeating "Jarius Green and His Flying Machine." 

The fundamental laws of electricity were stated in Ohm's law, the same then 
as now. Perhaps there was some haziness about alternating currents due to the 
fact that the electromotive force in coils due. to induction, was not as clearly under- 
stood then as now. Our hazy conception of alternating currents explains our 
ignorance of high frequency currents or radio currents. Electromagnetic radiation 
of electromagnetic waves then were a set of mathematical equations which had 
been given to us by Maxwell. These mathematical laws had no material meaning 
until the celebrated experiments of Hertz, in 1887-90. It was some four or five 
years later that these experiments began to soak into the mind of the average 
physicist of that time. The high perfection of Radio today, with all its faults, is 
largely due to an almost endless amount of experimentation made between 1890 
and 1922. The average man thinks of the beginnings of Radio as being about 
January or February, 1922, when the broadcast craze stuck the country. 

The wave theory of light was firmly established and Newton's corpuscular 
theory was only mentioned in Histories of Physics or when an illustration of 
ancient loose thinking was stressed. The wave theory explained every known 
phenomena of light — Velocity of Light, Interference, Diffraction, Polarization, 
Reflection and Refraction were all accounted for by the wave theory. Radiation 
formulae were somewhat emperical and unsatisfactory. Banner's formula for the 
hydrogen spectrum had been worked out, but attempts to correlate the formula 
with the wave theory involved several assumptions which did not exactly fit 
with the wave theory. 

The age old problem of "What is Matter?" received some attention and 
produced such theories as that of Sir William Thomson (Lord Kelvin) in which 
he postulated that the atom or the ultimate division of matter was composed of 
ether whirls something like the smoke rings or vortex produced by the expert 
smoker. These vortices could be shown to attract and repel one another under 
certain conditions, the same as well behaved atoms are supposed to do. 

Physicists, as well as chemists, had proved to their satisfaction that the atom 
was the ultimate division of matter, that the exact number of atoms in the uni- 
verse was fixed, and that an atom of iron or of any other element was doomed to 



Physics, Past and Present 35 

everlasting fixation, in that it was absolutely impossible to change one element 
into another element. 

At that time all the natural laws of any consequence had been discovered and 
the laws were also absolutely fixed. Professor Michelson, of Chicago University, 
is credited with the assertion that the future discoveries in physics would be made 
in the fourth decimal place. The physicist of the nineties knew all the laws of 
physics and he knew that the laws were exact, but as yet he had not discovered 
just how exact they were. 

Michelson had been busying himself with measuring the exact length of the 
meter in terms of the wave length of light as represented in one of the green lines 
in the spectrum of cadmium — the argument being, we might lose the platinum 
bar which is kept in Paris and which is known as the standard meter, but we would 
always have cadmium, and since cadmium is an element we could not lose nor 
change it in any way. Therefore it was well to know the exact length of the 
meter in terms of the wave length of cadmium light. 

The ink on the Chicago University catalog was scarcely dry when Roentgen, 
of Wurzberg, Germany, announced that he was able to photograph the bones in 
the hand, or the money in one's purse. In fact, according to the newspapers, 
you could look right through most opaque objects. This was a new discovery 
entirely new and foreign to any of the old ideas of Michelson and other physicists. 
Roentgen's discovery was made in 1895, but it did not become newspaper material 
until the early months of 1896. In 1896, Lorentz put forth a theory that matter 
or atoms were made up of smaller divisions called corpuscles or electrons, as he 
called them. Durirg the next year Becquerel discovered that uranium gave off 
some sort of radiation which would fog a photographic plate through opaque 
material, much as X-rays, as the Roentgen radiation was called, did. Thus the 
electron theory of matter may be said to have originated in 1896 or 1897, a short 
time after Michelson had made his statement to the effect that all the laws of 
physics were known. 

Some time before, in 1879, Sir William Crookes pointed out that in a highly 
evacuated glass tube with terminals, there was a peculiar something given off 
from the negative terminal when the tube was connected to an induction coil. 
This something, or radiation, could be deflected by means of a magnet and also 
caused certain substances to glow. Crookes called this peculiar substance or state, 
the fourth state of matter — solid, liquid, and gaseous being the first three states 
of matter. 

This phenomena discovered by Crookes prehaps would have received little 
notice if it had not been for the ingenuity of the glass blower, who, possibly at 
Crookes' suggestion, made up tubes containing chunks of certain stones and ores 
so placed that when this fourth state of matter stuck, the ore was made to glow 
like a ball of fire. Some chunks glowed red, some blue, some green, or almost any 
color wished. The ingenious glass blower was able to make up bunches of glass 
which would glow and resemble a bouquet of actual flowers when the induction 
coil was operated. Due to this spectacular feature every laboratory in the country 
possessed these tubes which, together with the noise of the induction coil, were 
a great help in waking up the average student in physics. 

The discovery of the X-rays was a great impetus to the study of the Crookes' 
tubes and the fourth state of matter. The result was that it was proven that 
Crookes' fourth state of matter was a stream of negatively charged particles, 
or a stream of negative particles of electricity, which were forced out of the nega- 



36 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

tive terminal, or cathode, of the tube, and which proceeded in a straight line until 
they hit some material body and were stopped and absorbed. 

The body on which these particles impinged usually glowed with a brilliant 
color and became hot. It was also noticed that Roentgen's X-rays seemed to 
emanate from the surface which stopped these electrons. This showed that these 
moving charges of electricity had something to do with the X-rays. At first 
these X-rays were explained by the casual observer by saying they were the same 
as ordinary light, but of shorter wave length — an ultra violet radiation. This 
explanation was given up when it gradually became known that Roentgen had 
failed to reflect, refract, or polarize these rays. They absolutely failed to respond 
to the tests to which ordinary well behaved wave motion, such as light, is supposed 
to respond. 

Later these rays were explained by saying that they were a disturbance in the 
ether, but instead of being a train of waves they were a single pulse or wave, the 
analogy being that of a report of a gun in contrast to that of a sustained sound 
such as that from a tuning fork. 

Later, about 1912, it was found that the first explanation was perhaps more 
to the point. The reason that the reflection experiments of Roentgen had failed, 
was due to the roughness or lack of polish of the mirror. Ordinary mirrors, which 
are polished so that the bumps on the mirror are not higher than a fraction of a 
wave length of light, become very rough when compared to the wave length of the 
X-rays. The hills on the mirror are hundreds, perhaps thousands of X-ray waves 
high. To illustrate: certain cliffs will produce excellent echoes; that is, they are 
good mirrors for sound. When compared to waves of sound, which are several 
feet long, they are smooth, the elevations being a fraction of a wave higher than the 
depressions. But no one would, on account of the excellent echo produced, expect 
to use the bluff as a shaving mirror. 

Due to the work of Becquerel, Madame Curie, Rutherford and others, it was 
proven that the blackening of the photographic plate discovered by Becquerel was 
due to certain radiations given off spontaneously from the piece of uranium. These 
radiations were very much the same as the cathode rays in the Crookes tube, and 
the X-rays from, the Roentgen tube. There was also a radiation which seemed to be 
moving charges of positive electricity. The radiations are: the alpha rays, or com- 
paratively heavy moving atoms which carry positive charges; beta rays, which are 
lighter moving bodies carrying negative electricity (moving electrons); and the 
gamma rays, or radiations which have all the characteristics of the X-rays. 

It was proven that the electron was a mass 1/1800 part of the hydrogen atom 
whose mass is 1.61 x 10- 24 grams. The diameter of the electron was found to be 
less than .4 x 10- 12 cm. The alpha ray was found to have a mass four times that 
of the hydrogen atom, and that it weighed exactly as much as the helium atom. 
The gamma rays had all the characteristics of X-rays except that, as a general 
thing, they were more penetrating. This was found later to be due to the fact 
that the average gamma ray has a wave length much shorter than the average 
X-rays produced by the ordinary tube. 

The fact that the mass of the electron was found to be much smaller than the 
mass of the hydrogen atom made it imperative that there must be some change 
in the theory of matter. The atom could not be the ultimate division of matter 
since these were small particles or electrons, thrown out of atoms which were 
much smaller than the atom. This caused the structure of matter, the old prob- 
lem of what and how things are made, to come in for revision. 



Physics, Past and Present 37 

Since the electron is much smaller than the atom, theories were advanced by 
J. J. Thomson, Rutherford, and others, that the atom is a miniature solar system, 
like the sun and the various planets revolving about the sun as a central nucleus. 
From this analogy we have the Thomson atom with the electrons revolving about 
the positive nucleus. 

Thomson had very little to say about the positive nucleus except that the 
positive charge was great enough to neutralize the negative charges of the elec- 
trons. Rutherford's atom was very much like that of Thomson except that in- 
stead of having a central positive nucleus a positive sphere of influence was 
proposed. According to this theory the electrons floated, as they revolved, in a 
sphere or space which held the electrons or kept them from repelling their 
neighboring electrons. 

In order to settle the question as to the nature of the nucleus Rutherford and 
others performed certain experiments. These experiments justified Thomson's 
central nucleus theory and also showed that the diameter of the nucleus was about 
the same or a little less than the diameter of the electron. These experiments were 
made by determining the scattering of alpha particles when the atom is bom- 
barded with alpha-rays. Since the atom is a solar system, a body from the outside 
comes into the solar system something like a comet swinging around the sun. 
However, in this case there is repulsion instead of attraction, causing the comet 
or alpha particle to swing away from the nucleus instead of around the nucleus. 
The amount of bending or the amount of scattering depends upon how close the 
alpha-ray comes to the positive nucleus. If the atom is bombarded with a large 
number of alpha rays, as when the atoms in very thin gold leaf is bombarded by 
a large number of alpha-rays by applying the laws of probability it can be deter- 
mined how many alpha-rays on the average will be bent five degrees and how many 
will be bent ten degrees, etc. If the central nucleus has a large diameter compar- 
able to that of the atom due to direct hits and otherwise, there will be a different 
distribution or scattering than if the nucleus is small. If the nucleus is a sphere 
of influence through which the electrons can be shot, the closer the electron comes 
to going through the exact center the less the amount of bending, while if the 
nucleus is a small central body the closer the electron comes to the exact center 
of the atom, barring direct hits, the greater will be the bending. By methods simi- 
lar to the one outlined, it was proven that the nucleus was a central body and that 
its diameter was about the same or a little less than the diameter of the electron, 
the diameter of the nucleus of the gold atom being equal to or less than .4 x 10- 12 
centimeters. From other assumptions, namely, that the mass is electromagnetic 
in origin, the diameter of the nucleus is shown to be much smaller than that of the 
diameter of the electron. The mass of the nucleus is thousands of times greater 
than the mass of the electron, but the diameter of the nucleus is smaller than that 
of the electron. 

It has been long known that when atoms are excited or disturbed that they 
radiate or give off light of some definite color. One method of exciting sodium 
atoms is to heat them in a colorless Bunsen flame. Just how these waves get 
started has been a question which has become more puzzling the more we know 
about the atom. 

It was at one time assumed that the electron rotating in its orbit shakes or dis- 
turbs the ether, due to the simple harmonic motion or apparent simple harmonic 
motion of the electron. After the dimensions of the orbits and diameters of the 
electrons were known more exactly it became evident that the frequency of 



38 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

rotation of the electron in its orbit was not the right frequency to get the frequency 
of light, and this assumption could not be made. 

In fact, radiation was a subject which seemed to defy the reasoning of the 
physicist. Using the usual or classical assumptions it was found that when the 
frequency was low the experimental and calculated results agreed, but when these 
formulae were applied to high frequency the experimental results failed to check 
with theory. 

About 1910 Planck overcame the difficulty by a rather arbitrary assumption, 
this assumption being that the frequency of the radiation was related to the 
energy radiated by the simple equation, Energy = hv where v is the frequency 
of the energy radiated, and where h is a universal constant known as Planck's 
constant. h = 6.545xl0 -27 ergs/sec. This assumption says that when a radi- 
ator radiates, it radiates a definite amount of energy. This definite amount de- 
pends solely on the frequency. Thus if we are receiving energy from one or more 
radiators the amount received consists of one or more of these definite quantities 
of energy or quanta. Thus we receive energy in definite amounts. 

The electron theory of electricity assumes that electricity is divided into 
chunks or electrons whose charge is e=4.774 x 10- 10 E.M. units of electricity. 
The electron theory of electricity is a quantum theory of electricity in that elec- 
tricity is divided into elementary charges all of which are alike. 

It has been said at times that energy is divided into quanta. It is true that 
according to the theory of quanta we receive energy in quanta or chunks, as it 
were, but the size of the chunks depends on the frequency of the radiator. The 
higher the frequency the larger the chunk. 

The assumption that energy = hv without any apparent justification was 
a rather radical assumption. The only justification for this assumption, according 
to Planck, was the fact that it worked*. 

Bohr, in 1913, made use of this quanta assumption in what is known as 
Bohr's atom. He assumed that the atom like the Thomson atom, consisted of 
a positive nucleus with electrons revolving about the central nucleus in orbits 
much like the planets about the sun. These orbits are definite orbits, paths, 
grooves or levels, which bear certain relations, one to the other, the radii being 
to each other as the squares of the natural numbers. Thus the ratio of the radii are 
1, 4, 9, 16, etc. When the electron is in one of these orbits or grooves it is stable. 
When it falls out of one orbit it descends to another. In a normal atom all the 
electrons are in their proper orbits rotating about the nucleus. In the normal con- 
dition electrons are found in the orbits nearest to the nucleus. 

When the atom has been excited, one or more of the electrons has been lifted 
or knocked out of its normal orbit into an orbit of greater radius. This necessarily 
required work or energy to move the electron against the attraction of the nucleus. 
When the electron falls back to its normal orbit or level it radiates a certain amount 
of energy. This energy radiated is the difference in the potential energy of the 
electron in the two orbits or levels. The loss of potential energy is Wi -Wj, and 
this is equal to hv. When the change of energy from one level to another is great 
the frequency of the radiation is great, and the light radiated is violet or ultra- 
violet light, while if the energy levels are not greatly different the light radiated 
has low frequency such as red or infra red light. 

According to the Bohr theory the simplest atom — hydrogen — consists of 
a positive nucleus and one satelite or electron revolving about it. The normal 

*Planck's Heat Radiation, Marius, p. 120,153. 



Physics, Past and Present 39 

position of the electron is necessarily in the inner ring or in the ring whose radius 
is proportional to unity. 

If a mass of hydrogen gas is excited, as in a Plucker or Hittorf tube attached 
to an induction coil, the electrons in certain atoms are lifted from the orbit of 
radius one to the orbit of radius two. Others are lifted to orbit three, and others 
to higher levels if the discharge of the coil is sufficiently intense. If these electrons 
fall or jump to the home orbit, then the frequency is proportional to the difference 
of energy, or the frequency v = Rz 2 (l/n 2 i — l/n 2 2 ). If the electron falls from the 
second orbit to the first, the frequency is proportional to (1/1—1/4), or to 3/4. 
If it jumps or falls from the third to number one, the frequency is proportional 
to (1/1 — 1/9), or to 8/9. The frequency due to a jump from any orbit to the home 
orbit is proportional to (1/1 — 1/n 2 ) where n is the number of the orbit from which 
it fell. 

If the electrons fall from higher orbits to orbit number two, then the fre- 
quency is proportional to (1/2 2 — 1/n 2 ) where n is a number greater than two; 
i.e., 3, 4, 5, etc. 



(27r 2 e 2 m z 2 \ / 1 1 \ 
1 1 I 
h3 / V 2 2 n 2 / 



where e is the charge of the electron, m is the mass of the electron, h is Planck's 
constant, and z is the atomic number which is equal to the positive charge of the 
positive nucleus. 

When the above formula is calculated the frequency of the lines in the Balmer 
spectrum of hydrogen is given exactly. 

Years ago Balmer had noted that the wave length or frequency of certain 
lines in the hydrogen spectrum could be expressed in a formula like the above, in 
that it might be expressed in terms of the difference of terms proportional to the 
square of the natural numbers. Balmer developed his formula by a cut and try 
process from the measured values of the lines in the hydrogen spectrum. 

When the electrons fall into orbit number three the calculations agree with the 
frequency of certain lines which Paschen had noted belonged to a certain series, 
known as the Paschen series. 

When the end orbit is number one we have what is known as the Lyman 
series. When the electrons fall into orbit four from the higher orbits we have the 
Brackett series. 

The frequencies of the Lyman series are necessarily greater than those of the 
Balmer series. The Lyman series is in the ultra violet spectrum of hydrogen. 
The Balmer series have frequencies which correspond to the frequencies of the 
visible spectrum. This accounts for the fact that the Balmer series was the first 
series worked out. 

The Bohr atom model works very well for hydrogen and the more simple 
atoms. When the number of electrons or planets increases it will be seen that the 
theory becomes very complicated and hard to manipulate. 

The Bohr theory does not attempt to tell how the atom radiates. It simpty 
says that the potential energy of the atom in a certain orbit is a certain amount ; 
that when it jumps to an inner orbit the energy in that orbit is a smaller amount 
and the difference of these two energies somehow is radiated into space and the 
frequency of the radiation or light is such that h times the frequency is equal to 
the change in energy. 



40 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

The old classical or ordinary laws of mechanics such as: forces, proportional 
to the products of electric quantities and inversely proportional to the square of 
the distance; the kinetic energy of the moving electron equals 3^mv 2 , and such 
laws apply while the electron is in an orbit. 

The ordinary mechanics apply until the electron jumps to a new orbit then 
the energy appears as light of frequency v. After we have transformed the energy 
of the jump into light by the hv process, then the Maxwell classical equations 
of wave motion apply. The justification for the queer assumption is that in the 
case of the Balmer series and like cases, it works. 

The hydrogen spectrum is comparatively a very simple spectrum. Spectra 
of certain other elements are very complicated. Certain lines in the spectrum 
when analyzed are found to consist of two or more lines. This is known as fine 
structure. In trying to account for fine structure, relativity, and many arbitrary 
assumptions are resorted to. After one has made so many of these assumptions 
that seem necessary, it is almost as difficult to remember the assumptions as it is 
to remember the structure of the lines, one by one. 

Any theory or model is useful, if for nothing else, in helping us to make a card 
catalog, as it were, of our knowledge. When the card catalog becomes more com- 
plicated and confusing than the pile of objects or data to be catalogued, the system 
has lost its usefulness. In like manner the Bohr theory, when applied to the more 
complicated cases, becomes quite unsatisfactory. 

In the early nineties we knew what an atom was. In the early part of this 
century we knew what an electron was. In like manner we knew what X-rays 
were. During the last few years we are not so sure of our knowledge. 

Certain experiments indicate that light, X-rays and radiation in general 
is radiated in quanta. Not only is the energy radiated hv but the waves, if waves 
they be, all tend to go from one point to a second definite point, instead of being 
radiated in all directions from the source of the radiation. Thus light seems to go 
and come in chunks, or bunches of waves, or in quants. 

In a photoelectric cell we have a coating of sodium, potassium or some such 
metal. When light strikes the metal, electrons are given off. The velocity with 
which these electrons are shot off depends upon the frequency of the light, not on 
the intensity. A very feeble violet light will cause electrons to leave the surface 
of the cell with a greater velocity than the velocity imparted to electrons by a 
strong red light. If the intensity of the light is increased, the number of electrons 
given off is increased but the velocity of the electrons remains the same. The 
hv relation holds for the feeblest light. The velocity of the electron depends on 
the frequency of the light and is independent of the intensity. 

If in an atom such as a mercury atom a certain electron falls between two orbits 
so that the loss of energy is equal to h times the frequency of green mercury light, 
and if this light falls upon a photoelectric cell and liberates an electron with the 
proper velocity so that its kinetic energy is equal to h times the frequency of the 
green mercury light, then the energy of the electron shot from the coating of the 
photoelectric cell is just equal to the energy lost by the electron in the mercury 
atom. If this be true, then it seems to be unthinkable that this can happen unless 
all the energy from the electron in the mercury atom was used to shoot the electron 
out of the surface of the photoelectric cell. This seems to indicate that all the 
energy from the mercury atom went in a bunch to the surface of the photoelectric 
cell. 



Physics, Past and Present 41 

Light from any source apparently goes out in all directions. However, all 
known sources of light consist of millions of radiating atoms. If we could get 
light from a source consisting of a single atom, we presume that it would not spread 
through space but perhaps go in one direction as a group of waves, something like 
a small school of minnows moving in water — all the little wiggles stay together 
and move together in the same direction. 

On the other hand, light from the faintest stars produces interference patterns. 
Light which traverses one side of the lens of a telescope interferes in such a manner 
with light from the other side of the lens as to indicate that light from the two 
sides of the telescope came from the same source or electron. Thus the diameters 
of a quant is equal to or greater than the diameter of the largest telescope lens. 
The size of the quant as this bunch of waves or radiation is called is perhaps com- 
parable to the size of a barrel. 

The quanta radiation of X-rays is borne out by the Compton effect in which 
a quantum of X-rays of known wave length or frequency is so directed that the 
X-ray lifts an electron out of the material target upon which the X-rays impinge. 
It is found that the reflected or scattered X-ray has a lower frequency than the 
frequency of the primary X-ray. The difference in frequency can be accounted 
for if we assume that the difference in energy of the X-ray bundles is equal to the 
energy given to the electron. The calculations are made in the same manner as 
if we were to assume that we were dealing with two balls which strike each other 
and bound off at different velocities. The striking ball is the quant of X-rays; 
the electron is the ball struck. The quant and the electron rebound from each other 
in such a way that there is conservation of energy and conservation of momentum, 
as is the case when two elastic balls strike. 

In the above we have X-rays acting like material balls, the same as electrons. 

On the other hand we have electrons acting like waves. In 1924 L. de Broglie 
showed that the dynamics of any particle could be expressed in terms of the propa- 
gation of a group of waves. Later Davisson and Germer were able to show experi- 
mentally that electrons gave diffraction or interference patterns when they were 
shot through thin gold foil in the same manner that X-ray diffraction patterns 
are obtained when the X-rays are passed through thin foil or crystals. Here we 
have electrons giving diffraction patterns like light should. In the Compton 
effect we have light acting much the same as moving particles should. 

I believe Davisson and Germer stated the dilemma something like the fol- 
lowing: "We all know a rabbit when we see it, and we all know a cat when we 
see it. When we see a cat with a cotton tail on the lawn chewing its cud we won- 
der, but when we see a rabbit with a long tail climbing a tree, we are seeing things." 

When we light a lamp and all the light goes in one direction to a certain 
point exactly like bullets from a machine gun, and when we take an electron gun 
and shoot electrons through a crystal grating and these electron bullets arrange 
themselves in orderly lines on a photographic plate, like light from an arc lamp 
which has been passed through a grating, we begin to wonder if we really know 
what wave motion or electrons are. 

In an atom such as that of the Bohr atom we have an electron which is moving 
with a velocity V and obeys all the laws of the planets and other moving bodies. 
We may place rather more or less of a boundary for this electron, a boundary in 
which the electron must obey the classic theories of moving bodies. Suddenly 
there is a change and we have light or X-rays. We may perhaps place a boundary 
on this condition in which Maxwell's electrodynamic wave theory holds. We had 
energy in one box or boundary and this was ^mv 2 . The »ime energy is suddenly 



42 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

found in the other box or boundary and now it is h^. The only connection we have 
between the two is the two short horizontal lines in the equality sign in the equa- 
tion ^2mv 2 =h^. 

This dilemma can perhaps be smoothed out if we assume that the electron 
is a wave and that wave motion has mass and some of the properties of material 
particles. After we have reached this state of mind we are ready for wave me- 
chanics, a mechanics something like Schrodinger's Mechanics, a mechanics in 
which an electron has no real position but a more or less probable position, where 
position and velocity seem to be two contradictory states. 

Eddington says "Schrodinger's wave mechanics is not a physical theory but 
a dodge," and Eddington adds, "A very good dodge too." 

Mathematically it is quite easy to see that we can pass from material bodies 
to waves, or vice versa, if we make certain assumptions. As a simple case we need 
not make more assumptions than those made by Planck, that energy is radiated 
in quanta, and this, according to Planck, is equal to hv and hv, the energy of a 
moving ball, is equal to 3^niv 2 , which is supposed to apply to light or radiation. 

If the energy of the ball is ^mv 2 , which is equal to hv, v is the frequency of 
the ball. Mathematically it may be either the frequency of the ball or the fre- 
quency of the light, or we can let it alone without designating just what vibrates. 
If we are very mathematically minded we can say we have a frequency and do 
not need a model to picture something vibrating. We simply have a vibration. 
Why worry about what vibrates? 

2(3^mv 2 ) is momentum = h*>/c where c is the velocity of light. Thus we can 
say waves have momentum and electrons have frequency. 

Why is this so? Because Planck made a lucky guess. I can not help thinking 
that he made his guess intuitively, after he had consciously or unconsciously 
observed how things radiated. To my mind there is something in the inner me- 
chanism which makes radiators radiate in such a manner as to make the radiation 
received act as Planck guessed. 

Because Planck made a lucky guess several others have attempted to imitate 
this method. As it has been said, "You can fool some of the people all of the time 
and all of the people some of the time, but you cannot fool all the people all the 
time." Likewise, some of the people may "guess" right all of the time, and all the 
people may guess right some of the time, but all the people can not guess right 
all the time. In other words, those who guess right all the time do not do much 
guessing. 

There has recently been an excessive amount of unsubstantiated guessing. 
The more absurd the guess, the more newspaper space it commands. As soon 
as the ink is dry these authors feel that their work has been completed. The 
most objectionable feature is that many will not even admit that they are guessing, 
but state their theories as substantial facts. Others, like Sommerfeldt, are willing 
to admit their theory is a bold guess made to fit conditions, in the hope that their 
information is complete enough to justify their assertions. 

When you hear a man make the assertion that the new theory of whatever 
kind, quanta or otherwise, has overthrown all the old theories and absolutely 
explains the universe, you may put it down that this particular man does not know 
the theory of which he is talking. Perhaps this person may be like the relativity 
expert whose mind had become so mathematically profound, and had become so 
much divorced from all things physical, that he firmly expected to get measurable 
relativity effects with such small velocities and accelerations as those of the earth 
rotating on its axis. 



Physics, Past and Present 



CONCLUSION 



I have traced physics from the time when everything was known and definite, 
to a time when some things in it are neither very well known nor very definite. 
Some of the best authorities say that it is impossible to have, or to imagine, a work- 
ing model of the modern theories. It would seem that some of the theories of 
physics are not physical; that our imaginations have carried us away from the 
known into the unknown for our explanations. 

There is danger in making an assumption which may not be borne out in 
experiment, even though it seems quite logical. To the average mind, it seems 
entirely plausible that a ten pound weight should fall ten times as rapidly as a one 
pound weight. At one time theory said such was the case. However, experiment 
failed to substantiate this theory. 

What is the exact condition of physics, you may ask. The great majority 
of the theories of physics are the same today as they were twenty-five or thirty 
years ago. The great changes are in relation to things of which little or nothing 
was known a few years ago. The uncertainty is concerned with some things such 
as atoms and electrons and how they behave. No one has ever seen an atom or an 
electron. We have assumed that they are like balls or like rings, or like solar 
systems, or perhaps they are as Planck guessed, hv. So far, nothing has explained 
everything in detail. And, of course, we always have the privilege of making fur- 
ther investigations. 

I have already mentioned the changes in the appearances of men and women. 
Sabine, the father of modern acoustics, found that the acoustics of a room or 
theater were often improved by filling the room with people. Echoes and rever- 
berations are due to sound waves bounding and rebounding from the walls and 
objects in the room. This continues until all the sound is absorbed. In a room 
filled with people the reverberation does not last so long. Sabine found that an 
average man absorbed a certain amount of sound and an average women absorbed 
more. During the past few years the order has been reversed. Due to the modern 
clothing, men absorb more than women. 

Our knowledge of electrons, atoms, X-rays, and light waves is about as meager 
as that obtained about men and women by reverberation experiments. We observe 
some more or less indirect effects and then draw our conclusions and make our 
models of the atom and try to picture to ourselves what a light wave looks like. 
Imagine a blind intelligent being from Mars coming to earth and making rever- 
beration experiments on theaters filled with men and women and then taking his 
data back home and there drawing a picture of a man or of a woman. It is pos- 
sible that he might omit some of the details. The dimple on the chin perhaps. 

In the structure of the atom, electron, and wave motion we may have made 
some mistakes. Even if we have been on the wrong track in many instances, our 
efforts have revealed some worth while facts. We have been able to assemble our 
theories in such a manner that we have developed many important industries. 
The vacuum tube, in which we assume we have a stream of electrons, has revolu- 
tionized and quickened telegraphy and telephony, to say nothing of radio and other 
uses of the tube. Nowadays such prosaic occupations as picking or sorting beans 
may be accomplished with vacuum tubes, even if we do not know what is in the 
tube. 

The physics of the nineties applies today to most things to which it applied 
then, and in the same manner. In some few cases our conceptions and the appli- 



44 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

cations have changed, such as those regarding the structure and habits of the 
atom, the electron, and wave motion in the ether. 

The cases where radical changes are noted are those in which we have made 
conjectures concerning structure and motion — surmises which have been based 
upon meager and indirect experimental evidence. We have guessed repeatedly. 
We have made assumptions until we have vibrations without anything vibrating. 
We have momentum and change of momentum without anything moving. We 
have come to the place where to quote some of the leaders of modern Physics 
"it is impossible for the human mind to conceive of a physical model which will 
act according to the theory." It is in cases of the unknown or of the unseen such 
as atoms and electrons where the classical physics has failed to explain. 

I firmly believe that the fundamentals of physics have not changed in the last 
few years. We have broadened our knowledge and conceptions but as yet all is not 
known concerning atoms, electrons and wave motion. 

At present there are several seeming conflicts in our theories. But the time 
is coming when our knowledge will be increased to the point where it will be shown 
that our seeming conflicts are particular cases of a broader general conception. 
A conception which will be as simple and as universal as the law of gravitation. 



Scholarship, Intelligence and Personality 45 



SCHOLARSHIP, INTELLIGENCE AND PERSONALITY 



Will E. Edington, DePauw University 

That a science may become exact it is necessary that it become more or less 
mathematical, and until its phenomena are related if not explained by means of 
mathematical equations or in numbers, its deductions must be based on obser- 
vations whose interpretations are largely matters of opinion. Of course a set of 
observations may lead to a conclusion which may be formally enunciated as a law 
which may not be mathematical in form, but nevertheless it is based on the laws 
of probability. 

Again a science, mathematical or non-mathematical, is no truer than the set 
of assumptions on which it is based. These assumptions may be purely arbitrary 
or be based on probability, and we judge the reliability and the validity of the 
assumptions according to the consistency of the results deduced from them. In 
other words the final test is whether one may safely forecast results. The dangers 
of extrapolation are well known so that one must use extreme care in making 
deductions whose scope is greater than the scope of the observations upon which 
the set of assumptions was made. 

At the present time psychologists and educationists are in the throes of testing 
and they busy themselves in devising various and sundry tests for determining the 
gifts and talents, or the lack of them, in individuals and sets of individuals. 
Munsterburg, of Harvard, began the application of such tests in business and since 
his time most psychologists and educators, good, bad, or indifferent, have entered 
into the game, so that now the field of mental science and its principal branches, 
education, business psychology, abnormal psychology and penology, have been 
reduced to observational studies whose conclusions should depend largely on the 
laws of probability as enunciated by various statistical formulas. 

Modern scientific magazines contain many statistical studies of one kind or 
another in which the authors prove or think they prove that when certain sets 
of conditions exist one may conclude that certain results will follow. Other studies, 
in which the authors are not so speculative or overzealous, give the results of a 
large number of observations and point out the attributes which seem to be related 
through cause and effect or which may depend on a common cause but may be 
more or less independent of each other. The reliability and validity of the con- 
clusions, however, depend in every case on the reliability and validity of the tests 
or observational methods employed. By reliability is meant the degree of accuracy 
with which a test or observation measures what it is designed to measure, and 
by validity is meant the degree with which a test actually measures what it was 
designed to measure. It is just here that most tests and observations are open to 
question, so that any conclusions that may be drawn or any speculations that 
may be made must await confirmation or rejection according to what follows after 
a sufficient period of time has elapsed. 

The results to be discussed in this paper are based on three distinct sets of 
measurements and observations made on the class of engineers who graduated 
at Purdue University in 1930. The first set of data was obtained through the 
orientation tests given to those engineers by the University Division of Educa- 

Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 40: 45-49. (1930) 1931. 



46 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

tional Reference in the fall of 1926. The test whose results are discussed here was 
the Psychological Examination of the American Council on Education prepared 
by Dr. L. L. Thurstone, of the University of Chicago, and it will be referred to 
here as the test of intelligence. The second set of data was obtained from Mr. 
J. E. Walters, Director of Personnel in the engineering schools at Purdue and these 
data are known as personality ratings and referred to here as personality. The 
traits of personality, namely, Address and Manner, Attitude, Character, Cooper- 
ative Ability, Disposition, Industry, Initiative, Judgment, Leadership, and Na- 
tive Capacity, were rated for each student by the fifteen references given by the 
student and which included five teachers, five students and five others. Each 
trait is rated on the basis of 10 and the general personality rating of each student 
is the average of his ten ratings. The third set of data was derived from the grades 
made by these students at Purdue and will be referred to here as scholarship. 
Mr. Walters also secured these and supplied them to the author. 

Three distinct studies were made under the author's direction during three 
different years by classes in mathematical statistics. Each member of a class was 
assigned a certain portion of the study and then the results were compiled and 
the work carried to completion. The names of the members of the three classes 
whose work forms the basis of this report are given at the end of this paper. 

The first study was made in the year 1927-1928 when the group of students 
studied were Sophomores. Of these Sophomore engineers there were 423 whose 
personality records were complete, with an average personality rating of 7.2. The 
average of the Freshman grades of 424 of these students was 80.7, and the general 
psychological test average for 461 of these students was 59.6. A random sample 
of 100 students whose records were complete was chosen with the following 
averages: Freshman grades, 81.53 ±.459; intelligence test, 59.56 ±1.78; person- 
ality, 7.31 ±.042. The difference of these averages from the averages of the whole 
class are such as would be expected in random sampling. Using the subscripts 
1, 2, 3, to refer to grades, intelligence and personality, respectively, the following 
correlations were determined: ri 2 = . 458 ±.0532, r 13 = .610±.0424, r 23 = .286± 
.0619, r 12 . 3 = .84, r 13 . 2 = .56fi, r 23 .i = .0i0. These partial correlation coefficients 
indicate a high correlation between grades and intelligence, a lesser, but still 
significant, relation between grades and personality, and practically no relation- 
ship between intelligence and personality. The first result is to be expected. The 
second result raises the question of the possible influence of personality in the 
teacher's grading. However, as only one third of the students' references were 
teachers, this influence is probably not as serious as it might at first seem. The 
third result is surprising and interesting but not inconsistent with the results of 
other observations. 

The regression equation for the whole class is: 

Xi = .113(X 2 -59.fi) +6.1 (X 3 -7.2) +80.7, 

and the multiple correlation coefficient is ri.23 = .679. As a check on this 
multiple correlation coefficient and the regression equation, a sample of 53 
student records was taken by Mr. Walters and their actual grade averages were 
compared with those predicted by the equation with the resultant multiple 
coefficient equal to .694, which checks very well. This value would indicate that 
one would not be justified in predicting the Freshman grade average for any given 
individual whose intelligence and personality ratings were known, but that for 
a group of individuals from a given county or large city the formula might be used. 



Scholarship, Intelligence and Personality 47 

The second study was made during 1928-1929 by taking another random 
sample of 100 of these engineers and comparing their Freshman grades with their 
intelligence ratings and their particular personality traits of Industry and Judg- 
ment. Using the subscripts 1, 2, 3, 4, to refer to grades, intelligence, industry and 
judgment, respectively, the following results were obtained: 

Ai=81.5, A 2 = 59.5, A 3 = 7.64, A 4 = 7.22, 

n 2 = .44±.081, n 3 = .65±.058, r 23 = .18 ±.097, ri 4 = .58±.066, 

r 24 = .28 ±.092, r 34 = .68±.054, 

n 2 . 3 = .434 ±.081, n 2 . 4 = .357 ±.087, r 23 .4= -.015±.100, 

ri 3 . 4 = .43 ±.082, r 13.2 = .654 ±.057, r 14 . 2 = .534 ±.072, 

r 2 4. 3 = .220 ±.095, n 4.3 = .25 ±.094, r 23 .i =.156±.098, 

r 24.1 = .034 ±.100, r 34 . 2 = .670±.055, r 34 .i = .49±.076, 

ri 2 .34 = .403±.083, ri 3 . 24 = .469±.078, r 23 .i 4 = -.199±.096, 

ri 4 . 23 = .172±.097, r 24 . 13 = .128±.098, r 34 .i 2 = .500±.075. 

These results indicate some relationship between grades and intelligence and 
between grades and industry, but nothing significant between grades and judg- 
ment. There is some relationship between industry and judgment but practically 
none between intelligence and industry and none between intelligence and judg- 
ment, the negative value for r 23 .i4, if at all significant, indicates an inverse rela- 
tionship between intelligence and industry. These results may arise out of mass 
education, since the brighter student must in general follow the pace set by the 
mediocre student and the slower student. Also possibly the subject matter of 
many of the courses may leave little to the judgment of the student. There is 
much food for thought in these results. 

From the above data the following regression equations were obtained: 

Xi=.115(X 2 -59.5) +81.5, 

X r = . 086 (X 2 -59.5) +4.84(X 3 -7.64) +81.5, 

Xi=.0794(X2-59.5)+3.91(X 3 -7.64)+1.78(X 4 -7.22)+81.5. 

The corresponding multiple correlation coefficients are ri. 23 = .74±.045, and 
ri. 2 34 = .748±.044. For a random sample of 25 students, where their actual 
grades were compared with the grades predicted by the last two regression equa- 
tions, the values ri. 23 = .785±.035, ri. 2 34 = .79±.045, were obtained, which agree 
very well and indicate that the regression equations might be used in predicting 
not what any individual might do, but what a group of individuals might be ex- 
pected to do in scholarship in their Freshman year. 

The third study was made during 1929-1930, and a new set of personality 
ratings obtained during the Junior year of the class of 1930 was used. Also the 
average of the grades of each of these students was obtained for their first three 
years in Purdue, and then these students were classified according to rank in 
scholarship and grouped into ten groups, the ten per cent whose averages were 
the lowest being given the rank value one, and the ten percent whose averages 
were the highest being given the rank value ten, with the other eight groups ranked 
in between. Also the grades were not expressed in percentages but were determined 
by the formula 

6.5H+5A+4B+3P+2C + 1D + 1F 

S = , 

H+A+B+P+C+D+F 



48 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

where H,A,B,P,C,D,F are the numbers of semester hours in which those particular 
letter grades were received. The intelligence test grades are still the same as in 
the previous two studies. There were only 350 students left of the original group 
for whom the data on grades and personality were complete and only 210 of these 
for whom all three sets of data were complete. Using the subscripts 1,2,3 to refer 
to grades, intelligence and personality, respectively, the following results for the 
350 students were found : Ai = 5.77, A 3 = 5.465, ri 3 = .571 . Thus there is still a sig- 
nificant relationship between scholarship and personality, but it is not quite so 
high as in the first study where i'i 3 = .610. 

The preliminary results for the 210 students for whom all the data were 
complete are as follows: 

Ai=5.24±.128, A 2 =67.57±1.13, A 3 = 5.066 db 133, 
r r > = .368 ±.0402, ri 3 = .551 ±.0324, r 23 = .165±.053. 

The difference between the grade averages A for the 350 students and the sample 
of 210 students is just about sufficient to indicate a lower scholarship standard 
for the smaller group. No explanation has been given for this. The intelligence 
average for this group, however, is significantly higher than for the original group 
studied as Freshmen. The correlation between grades and personality is still 
significant, but the relation between grades and intelligence is distinctly less than 
for the Freshman grades and intelligence. This would indicate that the intelli- 
gence test loses its value for forecasting results for even a group, as the group as 
a whole continues its study. There appears to be little relation between intelli- 
gence and personality, as was also found in the previous studies. 

Continuing the study of these 210 students the results are ri 2 . 3 = -340 ±.0411, 
ri 3 .2 = .536±.0331, r 23 -i = -.047±.0464, which further confirm the preceding 
results. It would thus appear that there is a closer relation between scholarship 
and personality when these are brought up to date than between the intelligence 
test given in the Freshman year and the average grade of three years of subsequent 
work. In fact the intelligence test given at the beginning of the Freshman year 
is of little value for the purpose of predicting the scholarship of even a large group 
of students during their college course. This may be due to a number of causes. 
First, this widely used intelligence test may be neither valid nor reliable. This, 
of course, cannot be settled here. Second, the large number of students with- 
drawing includes both strong and weak students, but generally more of the latter 
class, and as the remaining students continue into the more advanced courses 
of their choice where their interest is certainly greater than in the required courses, 
their work will be of a higher standard with the corresponding higher grades. This 
would indicate that a display of intelligence depends to a certain extent upon the 
attitude of the individual, or the intelligence displayed may up to a certain point 
vary directly as the interest of the individual is aroused. Hence any intelligence 
test which ignores that fact fails to a certain degree to accomplish its purpose. 
Third, one may even question whether the results of the correlation methods are 
valid. However, the methods of correlation are the methods of the theory of least 
squares which are the best we have, and the results based on this theory have 
proved fairly reliable in other scientific work. And, fourth, many factors that 
enter into the determination of grades, due to the lack of uniformity and standard- 
ization, are not taken into account in the bare grade data, so that grades may not 
be as great a measure of intelligence and scholarship as we have been inclined to 
believe. They may measure industry to a far greater degree than we realize, and 



Scholarship, Intelligence and Personality 49 

hence what we call scholarship may not be so much a measure of intelligence as it 
is a measure of industry and interest and the other factors of personality. 

In conclusion these studies seem to indicate that grades which are used to 
measure scholarship are not so much a measure of intelligence as they are a measure 
of personality, as personality is defined here. They indicate further the necessity 
of a revaluation of our grading methods so that they may be both reliable and 
valid. And finally they show that one may not safely use an intelligence test, 
which may or may not be valid and reliable, as a means of predicting the schol- 
arship performance of an individual or a small group of individuals over any great 
period of time subsequent to the test. 

The author hereby acknowledges the contributions of the following students 
in this report: 1927-1928, T. C. Bennett, Mildred Borum, W. E. Howland, 
J. B. Kohlmeyer, H. K. Riley, Dorothy M. Thompson, C. C. Yund; 1928-1929, 
A. C. Bates, S. Bolks, H. M. Cleaver, P. L. Frost, L. Greene, G. T. Miller, Delia 
Vanderberg, Mary M. Webster; 1929-1930, A. C. Graf, Ruth Jordan, A. W. 
Koenig, Lois Mahin, I. D. Mayer, E. B. Robbins. His thanks are also due Mr. 
J. E. Walters for furnishing the data used in these studies. 



Science in Secondary Schools 51 



SCIENCE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS 



Florence A. Gates, Toledo, Ohio 

After reading a series of articles on this subject in numerous educational 
magazines and books, published during the last five years, we started to list the 
adverse and constructive criticisms, as well as favorable characteristics of present 
work. Our fingers cramped as we listed the adverse criticisms, the suggestions 
for betterment were few and far between, and the strong points of our present 
work were almost conspicuous by their absence. We are wondering if some good 
Samaritan will not come to our rescue and remind us that life is worth living. 

Science enrollment in secondary schools has greatly decreased during the 
past decade, with a decided decline in physics, chemistry barely able to hold its 
own, an upward stride in biology, not due to attractions offered by the course, 
but a uniting of the old semester courses of botany and zoology; and last, but not 
least, a rise in general science, which replaces the almost extinct courses of physiol- 
ogy, physical geography, hygiene and agriculture. 

Furthermore, we teachers have no appreciation of the objectives of science 
or principles of subject matter or its organization. We lack breadth of education, 
or, we are not specialists; we make physics and chemistry too difficult; we waste 
too much time in demonstration and lecture, or we allow too much time for indi- 
vidual laboratory work, and thus waste fifty percent of the time and nearly double 
the expense. We attempt to educate for college with the result that "the average 
college preparation presents to the university, the most narrow and unevenly 
trained material that can be imagined." We teachers have failed to note the 
popular demand for science reading and have failed to develop a corresponding 
interest. One writer states that we have scarcely begun to teach possibilities. 
Our pupils are simply "patient sufferers with poor teachers," who are taught 
daily, material that is seldom or never met with in business. Too much emphasis 
has been placed on methods of teaching, while the organization of the curriculum 
and provision for suitable teachers has been neglected. Superintendents and 
principals discourage pupils from entering these courses, on account of cost. 

We have found a few defenders in our search for rebuttals. Dr. Downing 
(1) of Chicago, in his replies to Dr. Millikan of Los Angeles (2), tells us that men 
who are supposed to be saturated with the scientific attitude of mind, fail to see 
that the problems of teaching must be attacked in the same way as problems of 
physical and biological sciences. Curtis (3), of Michigan, has listed a great series 
of experiments along the lines of secondary science, which have led to greater 
efficiency in teaching methods, and conservation of time, money, and energy. 
Harris (4), of Minnesota, has been a source of great inspiration in showing the 
value of biology in our secondary schools. 

In the past ten years, we have seen the practical annihilation of semester 
courses in science, the old-fashioned book with its uniform lists of questions and 
answers, experiments and drawings, the courses so closely modeled after ones in 
colleges that our graduates boasted that they were excused from some college 
work, the herbariums of pressed flowers, the over emphasis of mathematics in the 

Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 40: 51-56. (1930) 1931. 



52 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

physics work, and of morphology and taxonomy in biology, together with a lessen- 
ing in the use of the microscope in the first two years. 

With these eliminated from our work, someone may wonder just what we 
are trying to do. We cannot say that all of the following are being carried out in 
all schools of the country, but there are trends in the various directions, that are 
outstanding. 

First, there has been a radical change in the curricula of secondary schools, in 
that courses are planned that will fit the individual for life and special courses for 
those who prepare especially for college entrance. General science, fighting for its 
life for a number of years, has now been generally recognized as a ninth year 
science and to be a requirement in all courses, replacing, as we have mentioned 
before, the old semester ones. In New England, both general science and biology 
are taught as ninth year sciences, while in the state of New York, biology is still 
required in this year, with opposition to it on the increase. In the Central states, 
there is quite a variation in the first year requirement, with the swing toward 
general science. 

Biology is now generally recognized as a tenth year subject, but it is usually 
classed as an elective. There was a trend, a few years ago, towards placing it in 
the required class, but because of it laboratory periods interfering with the com- 
plex curricula of our larger high schools, it is required in but few courses. From 
a recent survey of our own biology courses, we found that fifty percent elect it be- 
cause of interest in plants and animals, twenty percent as a preparation for life 
work, sixteen percent because it is required and the remaining fourteen percent 
as a substitute for a more difficult subject. 

Physics is settling in the third, with chemistry in the fourth. With the fewer 
pupils enrolling in the college preparatory courses, we are seeing a decline in phys- 
ics enrollment, the Bureau of Education report for 1928 showing a fall of eight 
percent. While chemistry is fairly stationary, some believing that its enrollment 
is maintained by interest emanating from scientific societies, we find that local 
conditions vary. In the secondary school, with which we are most familiar, we 
have a present enrollment of 99 in physics and over 300 in chemistry, including 
three night classes. 

However in our larger high schools, both academic and technical, we are 
offering numerous specialized courses, either one or two semesters, either for col- 
lege entrance or preparation for various professions or occupations, most of these 
courses coming in the third or fourth year. In one of our secondary schools, where 
a number of graduates enter eastern colleges, and where our freshmen are grouped 
according to age and mentality, we are giving the four so-called ''master groups" 
a year's work in physical geography for college entrance, thus catering to the east- 
ern group, who do not as yet, recognize general science. 

Courses in human biology, bacteriology, specialized botany or zoology are 
being offered in the third and fourth year. Our chemistry and physics classes are 
now being divided into general and academic, those in the general classes in 
physics having less mathematics, and a closer application to everyday life. Our 
academic classes in chemistry are receiving more theory and do more individual 
experiments, while the general students, those of average ability or less, are having 
more work of the lecture-demonstration type. 

Our biology pupils no longer have one microscope for one or even two pupils 
in a class, but a few microscopes in each class. Microscopic work to a great extent, 
has been eliminated. We feel that the movie picture machine, the balopticon and 



Science in Secondary Schools 53 

simple charts, can create an understanding superior to that of the microscope for 
the average pupil, though we realize that no demonstration can replace it for 
some topics, or that we would abandon its use in case of superior pupils, who 
readily interpret what they see. There is a tendency, too, for a reduction in the 
time and energy given to dissection, much of this work now being done by the 
teacher or specially interested pupils, who then demonstrate to the class. 

The content of our courses is becoming more or less woven about large 
objectives, or which the outstanding seems to be those, which deal with the ad- 
justment of the individual to his environment. One author (5), states in writing 
of biology, but the same could be applied to all sciences, that the highest objective 
is a scientific attitude of mind, which will enable him to meet all sorts of situations 
with sanity and confidence, which is another way of expressing the same thought. 
The findings of science that approach in the lives of our pupils, the ability 
to interpret natural phenomena, the understanding and ability to use methods 
of study, all of these are objectives upon which the modern courses are based. 

We are weaving our courses around life interests. We have seen a good 
working course in chemistry, worked out on the unit plan, for use in a high school 
in Hilo, Hawaii, with the units bearing titles as The Chemistry of Fire, The 
Chemistry of Warfare, Chemistry and its Relation to Agriculture. Most modern 
chemistry courses stress its application to industry. Biology courses are beginning 
to follow similar lines, and instead of the old topics of Insects, Fishes, Thallo- 
phytes, etc., we read Biology and Its Relation to Health, Biology and the House- 
hold, Biology in the Field, Garden, and Stream. Live headings of this nature can- 
not fail to attract students and sustain interest. The topics in most general 
science courses have the vital element in them. Attempts have been made to 
vitalize physics, but the tendency seems to hold rather firmly to the old 
traditions. 

"Our newer textbooks are lending themselves more to human interest," 
the statement coming from a college professor. One authority, who criticized our 
present work adversely, claims that one textbook is as good as another. We have 
wondered just how many he had examined, and how many of these he had tried 
out with pupils of high school age. However, our modern teachers agree with 
another authority, that whenever we teach from logical texts, we wrongly attempt 
to induce pupils to accept topics as their projects. The tendency these days is to 
treat the so-called physics, chemistry or biology textbook as a reference text, 
choosing one that is more or less general, and supplementing this with much read- 
ing in other texts, other books, magazines and papers. The amount of reference 
work, however, again varies with the mentality of the pupil. 

The notebook is undergoing keen revision. Some of us can remember the days 
when the notebook in secondary science was considered as a showpiece for visitors, 
or for the annual school exhibition or the county fair, when the teacher's reap- 
pointment hung on whether or not his or her notebooks received prizes. Uniform- 
ity of notebooks was held before the pupils and woe to the pupil, who attempted 
anything original. We have seen biology units, cleverly illustrated with cartoons, 
done by a boy, who professed a dislike for study, but he managed to maintain 
a high rank in this subject. Elaborate microscopic drawings, often surreptitiously 
copied from books filling page after page, drawings of simple things that wasted 
time of pupils, who learned nothing new by this work, detailed shaded and colored 
drawings showing structure, experiments which the teachers practically dictated, 
are done away with by progressive teachers. 



54 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

Pupils are taught that the purpose of a drawing is to fix another impression 
in their minds. Detailed representative drawings, exact representations, are being 
replaced by analytical drawings, which are combinations of main points, diagrams 
and parts not seen by the pupil. If a pupil asks us these days "Do you care if 
I represent this by a circle?" we are delighted, because we know that his note book 
is no longer a showpiece, with answers to questions some one worked out, but pages 
that show original thought. The old notebook had drawings neatly placed on 
separate sheets, in many cases far from the notes referring to them, but the 
modern notebook has drawings and notes on the same page, notes not in long 
essay form, but organized by topics and closely related to the drawings. The num- 
ber of drawings required is not the same for all pupils, this depending upon the 
mentality of the pupil, his interests and his ambitions. If we have been studying 
bread mold, following which a pupil brings in mush covered with Monilia, the 
time for that pupil to study Monilia is then, and his interest is increased and his 
ambitions quickened, if he can add a drawing of Monilia to his notebook. 

Teachers in science need to teach pupils how to study. Newer laboratory man- 
uals are being published, in which completion paragraphs are to be filled in. Train- 
ing in making charts is gained after a few have been completed. The outline form 
of writing notes adds to the thought process. No two notebooks need be alike and 
a repeated use of the above methods leads to the eradication of copying notes 
from texts, which we hesitate to say, is still being practiced. 

We still have the teachers who make out their science tests the evening before, 
or a few minutes before school, and we have heard of teachers, who rave about the 
poor grades of their pupils, who at the same time, boast that they never make out 
the questions until they go to the board. However, these are few in number, and 
we rejoice in the number who write down questions, as the work suggests them, 
and gradually work out thought-provoking objective tests. We have seen a 
science test notebook made by one teacher, with objective tests of the best- 
answer, multiple choice, modified true-false, completion and association types 
filed according to topic and type, the questions gained from experience and corres- 
pondence with other schools, and gleaned from educational periodicals and books. 
All of these take more thought on part of both teacher and pupil, than the hoary 

one of "Give three characteristics of " to be completed by "levers, 

halogens, blue-green algae" or the "human heart," depending on the course and 
topic. With the increase in the number of schools, using the unit or project plan, 
we find a decrease in the number of pupils, who cram for a test the evening before. 
As one pupil naively stated it, "Gee, when you work out the unit yourself, you 
always pass the test." 

We have shown you some of the things that we are attempting, not for- 
getting that some educational authorities give as an efficiency test, a rating of 
forty percent for the pupil, thirty percent for the teacher, ten percent for the 
equipment, and twenty percent for the plan. Teachers who have had years in 
science realize the problems of teaching today are far more complicated than those 
of years ago. School attendance is now compulsory in some states up to eighteen 
years, with the privilege of continuation part time work after sixteen. These 
pupils enter our high schools, our own city showing an increase of 300 percent 
during the past decade. The mentality of many is far below normal, and work 
has to be devised to fit this mentality. The problem of the boy, and in rare cases, 
the girl, who is remaining in school to wait for the birthday, is a serious one. Can 
you imagine such a one entering a physics class? 



Science in Secondary Schools 55 

The more diversified curriculum has drawn students from our science classes 
into courses with more interesting titles. The rise of the commercial courses to as 
great as thirty percent in an average city high school, is draining our resources. 
In former years, weaker pupils were led blindly out of academic courses into com- 
mercial ones, but a fact recently noted, is that these latter courses are drawing 
more and more from our superior pupils. We do not know whether or not this is 
general but in our own high school this year, the grouped freshmen rate higher 
in the commercial groups than in the others. 

Classes in science are larger and the number of classes per teacher shows an 
increase in the cities. Just a few years ago, our city science classes were seven 
periods each per week and three classes to a teacher. Today the classes are the 
same size or larger, and we find our general science teachers running five classes 
per day and the other classes increased to four per teacher. Detroit recently 
opened two new secondary schools by drawing all their teachers from the other 
schools, thereby increasing the teaching load, and Toledo is forging to the front 
in that respect. 

For years, elementary teachers have had their work carefully supervised, 
while the secondary schools were neglected, but in recent years has come the high 
school supervisor, whose duties are varied, but whose work includes the curriculum, 
inspection of finances and equipment, and visitations to classrooms. Thus far, 
our experience has been that such an individual can be considered a source of 
inspiration and a constructive critic. 

As to equipment, most of us have all we need, but we do need to know how 
to make better use of it. Laboratory supply houses are equipped with intelligent 
salesmen, and helps of various kinds are furnished free of charge. The budget 
plan of ordering supplies has proved invaluable to both teacher and board of 
education. School libraries are no longer shelves filled with English and history 
books, but a section has been set apart for science. 

Perhaps we have deserved all the adverse criticisms mentioned at the be- 
ginning of this paper. If, however, we bear in mind that we are not only training 
faculties of our pupils, but we are aiding in developing the finest and most effective 
types of citizenship, if we can constantly balance the energy given to pupils and 
subject matter, if we can teach our pupils to think and to carry over into life the 
science work they have studied with us, then we believe you will agree with us 
that science in secondary schools is contributing its share to the educational 
progress of today. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

1. Downing, E. R., Problems of Science Teaching in Secondary Schools. 
School and Society, January 16, 1926. 

2. Millikan, R. A., Problems of Science Teaching in Secondary Schools. 
School and Society, November 21, 1925. 

3. Curtis, F. D., Investigations in the Teaching of Science. 1926. 

4. Harris, J. A., Real value of Biology in Secondary Education. School and 
Society, September 4, 1926. 

5. Walter, H. E., Teaching Biology in Secondary Schools. School and 
Society, January, 1925. 

6. Powers, S. R., Educational Values of Science Teaching. Teachers' 
College Record, October, 1930. 



56 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

7. Hunter, G. W., Place of Science in Secondary Schools. School Review, 
May- June, 1925. 

8. Downing, E. R., Objectives of Science in Secondary Schools. School 
Review, November, 1925. 

9. Woodhull, J. W., Teaching of Science. 1918. 

10. Smith, V. C, Science Methods and Superstitions. School and Society, 
January 11, 1930. 

11. Monahan, A. G., Science and Its Recognition in the High School Cur- 
riculum. School Science and Mathematics, November, 1930. 

12. Brownell, H., Wade, F. B., The Teaching of Science and the Science 
Teacher. 1925. 



References to Scientific Literature 57 



REFERENCES TO SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE 



M. G. Mellon, Purdue University 

Nearly everyone who contributes to scientific publications, or who has 
occasion to make any extensive use of them, has to deal more or less with refer- 
ences to various sources of information. While one who merely uses the works 
of others may take little notice of the practice followed in placing and stating such 
references, the individual who is making contributions to the literature, or who 
is editing others' productions, must face the question of how to handle these 
items. 

In an effort to determine what was considered editorially acceptable practice 
in chemical journals, the writer examined, in 1929, the references in the issue for 
November of the Journal of the American Chemical Society, the Journal 
of Physical Chemistry, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, and the 
Journal of Chemical Education. In doing this all the different methods of 
stating references were compiled for each journal and from the combined list 
typical examples were selected of all the different ways employed. It is sufficient 
here to state that, in the one issue of the four journals, there were found seventeen 
methods of stating references to periodicals and twenty-eight to books. Since 
these periodicals, all sponsored by the American Chemical Society, are probably 
as carefully edited as any other similar group, it is assumed that such variations 
are more or less common. 

The kinds of variations found may be summarized as relating to the following 
items : 

1. Author's name — -inclusion or omission, inclusion or omission of initials, and 
use of different punctuation marks following name. 

2. Titles of articles in periodicals — inclusion or omission. 

3. Names of periodicals — 'different abbreviations and different kinds of type. 

4. Titles of books — -use of quotation marks. 

5. Publishers of books — inclusion or omission of names, together with inclusion 
or omission of place of publication. 

6. Details for given periodical or book — -variations in statement of series, num- 
ber, volume, part, page, and date. 

Such divergent practice as that just noted would seem to merit our attention 
and to raise the question of what is the most efficient and desirable thing to do, 
considered both from the viewpoint of the user and the producer of the literature. 
Probably no one individual has a sufficiently comprehensive knowledge of all the 
situations likely to arise in giving references to the different kinds of scientific 
publications that he could state definitely what one thing should be done under 
all circumstances; but, from the expressed views of those interested, a committee 
should be able to formulate a proposal, the practice of which, by both authors and 
editors, would lead to general improvement in the present situation. In at least 
one scientific organization the writer has been unaware of any opposition on the 
part of authors toward the editorial board's insistence on following a standard 
practice in handling references. 



Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 40: 57-59. (1930) 1931. 



58 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

During 1930 1 this matter has had editorial consideration by at least part of 
the American chemists, but no general agreement seems forthcoming. Even if 
each periodical follows some one procedure consistently, one not only has to dis- 
cover what that procedure is, but also to face the possibility of having to rewrite 
an article if the editor to whom it was first sent turns it over to another editor, 
who follows a different system, as being more suitable for his publication. 

Suggested Practice 

Two important questions are involved: the best place in a publication to 
locate a reference, and the details to include for each reference, including the man- 
ner of arranging these details with respect to each other. 

Referring first to the former of these, in the writer's opinion the only question 
of place in a journal article should be between footnotes at the bottom of each 
page, with the references consecutively numbered (in Arabic italics) throughout 
the article, and a bibliography at the end of the article, with the separate entries 
arranged serially, if they are cited by a number indicating the numerical order 
in which they are mentioned, or chronologically, if cited by the year of publica- 
tion 2 . An alphabetical arrangement by authors is advantageous if there is included 
in the text the name of the author cited followed (in parentheses) by the year in 
which he published the work. Personal preference would decide a vote for the 
footnotes, although either is satisfactory. Printing and editorial efficiency should 
decide the question of the use of superior numerals or numbers in parentheses 
(either serial number or year of publication) set in the line of reading matter. 

In considering what would be satisfactory for the details of each reference, 
perhaps first of all account should be taken of the various kinds of publications to 
which references are made, 3 since what is sufficient for one may well be either too 
limited or entirely inapplicable for another. It is believed that, for the present 
purpose at least, scientific publications may be divided into four groups: periodi- 
cals, institutional publications (such as governmental bulletins), patents, and 
books. 

Whatever data are given in a reference to anyone of these groups, the items 
included should be such as to guide the searcher uneiringly to the source sought 4 . 
At the same time they should be as brief as possible in the interest of efficiency in 
reading, proof reading, writing, and preventing errors. With this thought in mind 
there is indicated below what seems a reasonable and workable proposal for each 
of the above classes. At least it is hoped it will serve as a basis for discussion from 
which will develop a moie nearly uniform practice. 

1. Periodicals — -author's name; abbreviation of name of periodical, in 
italics; series (if there is one), in brackets; volume, iir bold face type and Arabic 
numerals, using Roman numerals only when necessary to indicate parts, and then 
as subscripts; page (indicating beginning of article or place where cited material 
is located), preceded by no abbreviation (such as p. or pp.), and followed by none 
(such as ff.), and in Roman numerals only when referring to a section where they 
are used to distinguish it from another section using Arabic numerals; and year, 
in parentheses. 

In each class the author's name would not include initials unless necessary 
for identification. A standard abbreviation, such as those adopted in 1922 for 
chemistry by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistrv and used 



ilnd. Eng. Chem. News Ed., 8, Nos. 2 and 21 (1930). 

2St. John. Science, 70, 217 (1930). 

••'Mellon, "Chemical Publications," p. 11 (192S). 

^Merrill, Science, 62, 419 (1925). 



References to Scientific Literature 59 

in Chemical Abstracts would seem to be desirable. In many cases the inclusion 
of titles merely adds to the labor and uses space as they are often not indicative of 
the actual contents; but, if given, they should follow the year. The value of in- 
clusive pages in abstracts is evident but they may well be neglected here unless 
only a specific part of a publication is of value. The year is valuable but should 
not be insisted upon until we have available much more comprehensive volume- 
year tables for individuals who do not have access to the journals themselves. 
If the periodical has no volume number, the year, in bold face type, may be used 
instead. The number or month of the issue concerned should not be included if 
consecutive paging is used throughout the volume concerned. 

The following form of reference would be considered satisfactory: Smith, 
Ann. chim. phys., [9], $5 U , 481 (1912) ; or Chem. Zentralb. 1910, 341, 450-492. 

2. Institutional Publications — author's name; name of institution (or division 
of government) issuing the publication, together with proper designation, such 
as technical paper, scientific paper, or similar class; number, either in bold face 
type or preceded by the abbreviation No. ; page, unless the reference is to the whole 
publication as a unit; and year, in parentheses. 

An example of this would then be, Williams, Bur. Mines, Tech. Paper, 
No. 135, 40 (1920). 

3. Patents— patentee's name; name of country issuing patent, suitably 
abbreviated; number of patent; and date of issuing patent, including month, day 
and year, all in parentheses. 

A typical reference would then be, Jones, U. S. Patent, 1,729,300 (Feb. 4, 
1929). 

4. Books — author's name; title, in quotation marks; volume, if it is one of a 
set, using Arabic numerals and reserving Roman numerals to use as small sub- 
scripts to indicate parts which are separately paged; page (unless the citation is to 
the book as a whole, when inclusive pages might be given) preceded by the abbrevi- 
ation p. only if no volume is given, and followed by no abbreviation, using Roman 
numerals only when referring to a section of a book so paged; year, or number of 
the edition, in parentheses; and, should a committee think it desirable, the name 
of the publisher and the place of publication. The same procedure would apply 
to dissertations and to manufacturer's technical publications. 

An example would be, Friend, "Textbook of Inorganic Chemistry," 9 U 
381-389 (1920). Chas. Griffin and Co., London; or, Olsen, "Chemical Annual''' 
p 31 (5 Ed.). 



The Fifth International Botanical Congress 61 



THE FIFTH INTERNATIONAL BOTANICAL CONGRESS 



T. G. Yuncker, DePauw University 

In presenting this brief report of the Fifth International Botanical Congress 
it is believed that it may not be out of place to first give a short historical resume 
of the preceding four Congresses and a statement of some of the circumstances 
leading to them. 

Before the eighteenth century and previous to the establishment of a system 
of binomial nomenclature, confusion and uncertainity existed relative to the dif- 
ferent kinds of plants and to the proper manner of applying names to them. It 
was not until 1753, with the publication by Linnaeus of his "Species Plantarum," 
that the idea that plants could be adequately named with a binomial, rather than 
with a cumbersome polynomial of uncertain length, was introduced. The inven- 
tion of the binomial as a means of designating a plant was, to a certain extent, 
responsible for the increased activity in exploration and the collecting and naming 
of new plants which developed greatly during the latter part of the eighteenth and 
the early part of the nineteenth centuries. Thousands of plants hitherto unknown 
to science were discovered, described and given names. In some cases the plants 
were named without even the formality of a description. Frequently specimens 
representing the species were not preserved. In many cases the same species 
was discovered by several botanists each of whom gave it a different name. This 
multiplicity of names caused considerable trouble and often was not detected 
until someone specializing in the group to which the plant belonged discovered 
the facts. The question naturally arose as to winch of the several names was the 
valid one. National and personal jealousies, the scientific prestige of certain 
botanists and other influences were often factors in determining which name 
would be used. Botanical taxonomy was rapidly becoming an exceedingly difficult 
and complicated science. To botanists working in this field it eventually became 
apparent that if they were to accomplish any results of permanent scientific value 
rules and regulations were absolutely necessary. 

Individual botanists from time to time had been proposing solutions to the 
problem. The first general attempt, however, to formulate rules of nomenclature 
was at Paris in 1867 when the First International Botanical Congress met. This 
meeting was largely dominated by the Swiss botanist, Alphonse de Candolle. 
At that time he was probably the world's best known and leading taxonomist. 
At this meeting it was agreed, among other things, that any species of plant can 
have but one valid name and that name shall be the oldest one applied to it, 
using Linnaeus' "Species Plantarum" of 1753 as the starting point. 

Taxonomists attempted to bring some order out of the chaotic condition 
through the application of the Paris rules. It eventually was seen that revision 
and modification of the Paris rules were necessary and thirty-seven years later, 
in 1905, the second International Botanical Congress convened in Vienna. At this 
meeting a comprehensive code known as the "International Rules of Botanical 
Nomenclature" was formulated using the Paris code as a basis, but introducing 

Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 40: 61-66. (1930) 1931. 



62 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

many modifications. It restricted Linnaeus' "Species Plantarum" as a beginning 
point to vascular plants only. It required that any new name of a plant to be valid 
must be accompanied by a description in the Latin language. There was also 
proposed a list of names of plants or groups of plants which for some reason botan- 
ists wished conserved although the rules were violated by such conservation. This 
list, known to botanists as the nomina conservanda, has been a subject of con- 
trovers} r among many taxonomists since the Vienna meeting. 

Previous to the Vienna congress a committee of American botanists formu- 
lated a number of recommendations which they presented for consideration. 
These recommendations, however, were not adopted. After the meeting a number 
of the Americans, believing that the congress had not formulated a code in the 
best interests of everyone, drew up a set of rules of their own known as the 
"American Code." One of the things stressed in this code was the type-concept, 
or the idea that every species or group of plants should be represented by a nomen- 
clatural type. This, they believed, would do a great deal toward stabilizing names. 
The Americans were not pleased with the rule that the Latin language be required 
when describing new plants. Nor did some of them believe that the nomina con- 
servanda would accomplish any good and permanent results. Many botanists on 
this side of the Atlantic have been working under the American Code since it was 
published in 1907. There is, however, a number who have not used the American 
Code but who have believed that the International rules should be followed until 
they could be properly amended or changed . These differences in the rules and 
their application have created a difficult situation in the field of taxonomy, es- 
pecially in this country. 

In 1910 the Third International Botanical Congress met at Brussels with 
about three hundred members present of whom about a score were Americans. 
This congress carried toward completion the work of the Vienna congress respect- 
ing the rules on nomenclatural matters. Some minor changes were made in the 
Vienna code among which was the legalization of different starting points among 
the nonvascular plants in the matter of priority of names. 

The next congress was to have met at London in 1915, but the outbreak of 
the war in 1914 prevented such a meeting. It was not until 1926 that such a meet- 
ing was possible and the Fourth International Botanical Congress was held at 
Ithaca, New York. At this meeting practically the entire fileld of botany was 
represented in the different sectional groups, but no important legislation on 
nomenclature was adopted. While the first three congresses met primarily to 
settle questions of nomenclature, the last two have become broader in their scope 
and designed to appeal not alone to the taxonomists but also to those interested 
in other phases of the science. 

At the Brussel's meeting committees were elected to study the matter of 
starting points for the nomenclature of certain groups among the lower plants 
and also to compile lists of nomina conservanda. An editorial committee composed 
of Dr. John Briquet of Geneva, Dr. H. Harms of Berlin, Prof. L. Mangin of Paris 
and Dr. A. B. Rendle of London was elected. It was decided that the editorial 
committee should function as a "Permanent Bureau of Nomenclature" until the 
next congress. At the Ithaca congress the Brussel committees were continued. 
Additional committees on general nomenclature, cryptogamic nomenclature and 
paleobotanical nomenclature were added upon the recommendation of Dr. 
Briquet. To this permanent bureau were to be presented any suggestions or recom- 
mendations which were to be considered at the next congress. 



The Fifth International Botanical Congress 63 

The Fifth International Botanical Congress met at Cambridge, England this 
past summer with Professor A. C. Seward of the botany School, Cambridge 
University as President. The congress was divided into eight sections. The differ- 
ent sections and their presidents were as follows: 

Section B — -Bacteriology — Prof. R. E. Buchanan (Ames). 

Section E— Phytogeography and Ecology— Prof. H. C. Cowles (Chicago). 

Section G— Genetics and Cytology— Prof. O. Rosenberg (Stockholm). 

Section M— Morphology and Anatomy — -Prof. J. G. Schoute (Groningen). 

Section My — Mycology and Plant Pathology— Prof. L. R. Jones (Madison). 

Section P— Plant Physiology — -Dr. F. F. Blackman (Cambridge). 

Section Pb— Paleobotany— Dr. D. B. Scott (Basingstoke). 

Section T — Taxonomy and Nomenclature—Prof. L. Diels (Berlin-Dahlem). 

Nearly twelve hundred members registered at the Cambridge meeting. This, 
it is believed, represents the greatest gathering of botanists ever held. Of the 
twelve hundred about three hundred were Americans which number is in marked 
contrast to the number present at the Brussel's congress. This Academy was 
represented by Dr. and Mrs. J. C. Arthur, Professor and Mrs. D. M. Mottier, 
Professor and Mrs. M.S. Markle and myself. So far as I know we were the only 
"Hoosiers" present. The British Empire, as would be expected, was well repre- 
sented by members from practically all of its colonies and dominions. France, 
Germany and the other European countries were likewise well represented. The 
Latin American countries and the Soviet Republic seemed to be least represented. 

On Friday evening, August the 15th, the Rt. Hon. Christopher Addison, 
M. D., M. P., H. M., Minister of Agriculture and Fisheries on behalf of His 
Majesty's Government received the members of the congress formally at the 
Imperial Institute, South Kensington, London. 

All day Saturday the members of the congress were arriving in Cambridge 
where they were housed in the various colleges, hotels of the city and private 
residences. 

The meetings were held in the different college buildings of Cambridge Uni- 
versity. The beautiful architecture and historical background of the University 
was of great interest to many of the visitors. There were also many points of 
interest in the city itself as well as in the surrounding countryside and nearby 
towns. Probably few other cities in England would have been as interesting to the 
members of the congress as was Cambridge. 

The opening plenary meeting of the congress was held on Saturday evening. 
Following the opening session a formal reception was held at St. John's College 
by the Master and Fellows of the college. 

The following day, for which no meetings were scheduled, was spent in at- 
tending the different church services and going on excursions arranged for the 
various groups. The writer spent the forenoon with a group visiting the old and 
well stocked and excellently kept botanical garden of the University through 
which we were conducted by Dr. H. Gilbert-Carter, director of the garden. The 
garden has an excellent collection, especially that part under glass. In the after- 
noon many availed themselves of the opportunity of visiting the magnificent 
cathedral in the nearby village of Ely. In the evening the members were enter- 
tained with an organ recital in King's College Chapel. The immense chapel with 
its incomparable fan-vaulted ceiling and interior decorations dimly lighted with 
candles made a very unpressive setting for the recital. 



64 



Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 



For the rest of the week the members settled down to a routine of sectional 
meetings both morning and afternoon. Men of international standing were chair- 
men of the different sections, and the papers for the most part were presented by 
world authorities in their fields. The languages in which the papers were presented 
were English, French and German, although one could hear many other languages 
spoken by the different members as they met informally. 

A total of two hundred and seventy-five papers were scheduled for the various 
sectional meetings. The botanists of the British Empire presented eighty-six 
titles thus leading all other countries. Forty-five titles by American authors were 
represented on the programs of all eight sections. The members from no other 
country, excepting Great Britain, showed such a breadth of interest. German 
botanists came third with thirty-two titles and those of the Soviet Republic 
fourth with twenty-six. 



TABLE I. Distribution by Countries of Papers Presented at the 
Meetings of the Fifth International Botanical Congress 



COUNTRIES 


Sections 


B 

10 
3 

1 


E 


G 


M 


My 


P 


Pb 


T 


To- 
tals 


Great Britain 

U.S. A 

Germany 

Soviet Republic 


8 
5 
4 
1 
5 
6 
4 


9 
10 
6 
9 
2 
2 

3 


12 

4 
11 
4 
7 
3 
2 

3 


10 
9 
1 
1 

1 
4 
2 

4 
1 


9 

10 
6 

9 
4 
1 
3 
3 
1 


10 
2 

3 

1 
1 
3 
1 
2 

4 


4 

2 

1 

1 

1 
1 


72 
45 
32 
26 


Austria 




<>0 


Sweden 




16 


British (excl. Gt. Br.) 




14 


Holland 




13- 


France (Including Algeria) 




1 
3 

1 


11 


Switzerland 




1 
2 


1 




Denmark 


2 


1 




6 


Belgium 




1 


2 


1 

1 


3 


Japan .... 






1 




9 


Italy 






1 








2 


Hungary . 








1 

1 


1 




9 


Poland... 














1 






1 












1 


Finland . 




1 












1 


Rumania. 




1 












1 




















Totals 


16 


40 


46 


48 


36 


48 


29 


12 


275 



The Fifth International Botanical Congress 65 

All of the meetings drew large audiences which gave excellent attention regard 
less of the language in which the paper was presented. This was sometimes rather 
difficult because I cannot imagine any seats being made more uncomfortable than 
those which we found in the various lecture rooms of the University. I have pro- 
found respect for the endurance and patience of the Cambridge students who 
must use the seats for their entire University course. 

Evening lectures were given by Mr. G. P. Hickson of Cambridge, on "Cam- 
bridge University and Its Colleges;" by Dr. W. M. Docters Van Leeuwen of 
Buitenzorg on "The Vegetation of the Mountain Tops of Java;" by Professor 
M. L. Fernald of Harvard University on his work with the Laborador flora; and 
by Professor H. G. Lundegardh of Stockholm on "Carbon Assimilation in Rela- 
to Ecology." 

The sub-section on nomenclature attracted the most attention and had the 
largest attendance. Much work had been accomplished by the permanent bureau 
continued at the Ithaca congress and the section was ready to proceed immedi- 
ately to the questions of most importance with a minimum of debate. The bureau 
had prepared a printed synopsis of the Vienna and Brussel's rules together with the 
proposals which had been made to modify them. A British sub-committee, which 
had been appointed by an Imperial Botanical Conference in London in 1924, came 
to the meetings well organized and prepared to present their points of view. They 
also had their proposals printed so that each delagate had before him a very clear 
statement of the matter under debate at all times. This was often quite important 
as speaking was carried on in English, French or German, sometimes simultane- 
ously, and it required very close attention to always know just what was going on. 
The sub-section on nomenclature was very ably chairmanned by Dr. E. D. Mer- 
rill, Director of the New York Botanical Garden. The chairmanship of this section 
was undoubtedly the most difficult position in the entire congress, but Dr. Merrill 
seemingly made his decisions and carried the meetings through in a manner 
satisfactory to the majority of delegates. The points of view of the Americans 
were presented by a number of botanists chief of whom were Dr. A. S. Hitchcocl 
of Washington, Dr. J. H. Barnhart of the New York Botanical Garden and Dr. 
M. L. Fernald of Harvard University. 

A considerable amount of work was accomplished by this section. The details 
are of interest only to taxonomists. A complete report will be published and it will 
be available to those who care to obtain a copy. 

There was apparent throughout the entire congress a very fine spirit of co- 
operation. It was evident that the groups representing the different points of view 
regarding the rules had come prepared to "give and take" with the hope of 
evolving regulations that would be acceptable to everybody. The American idea 
of the nomenclatural type gained consideration. The rule requiring the use of the 
Latin language in describing plants was modified. After January 1932 an author 
may properly describe his plants in any language, preferably in English, French 
or German, if he will, at the same time, also give a brief analysis of the plants in 
Latin. The permanent bureau was continued to consider proposals which may be 
brought before the next congress scheduled to be held in Amsterdam in 1935. 
To Dr. Briquet, Rapporteur general of the Permanent Bureau of Nomenclature, is 
due much credit for the preparation of the printed Synopsis and a vast amount of 
detailed work before and during the congress. A great many details were referred 
to the bureau during the meetings which will undoubtedly take considerable time 
for completion. 



66 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

An interesting feature of the congress was the conferring of honorary degrees 
by the University upon several distinguished members among whom was Pro- 
fessor L. R. Jones of the University of Wisconsin. Immediately following this 
colorful ceremony Professor and Mrs. Seward received the members of the congress 
at a garden party at Downing College of which Professor Seward is Master. It was 
a beautiful day. The dresses of the ladies and the scarlet robes of the Cambridge 
doctors against the green of the lawn and the background of stately elms and 
college buildings made a very pretty picture. 

It is proposed to hold these international meetings every five years. Attract- 
ing as they do hundreds of botanists from all parts of the world they cannot but 
accomplish a great amount of good in the way of cooperation in the field of botany 
and, perhaps, to some extent aid in the fostering of international good will. 



Liverworts of Spring Mill Park 67 



LIVERWORTS OF SPRING MILL PARK 



F. M. Andrews, Indiana University 

The liverworts mentioned at the end of this paper have been observed, at 
what is now known as "Spring Mill Park," by the writer at different times over 
a period of many years. Not all of them have been found at any one time, but 
sometimes several of them have been seen in one season. Of these may be men- 
tioned Porella, Marchantia and Conocephalus (Fugatella). Porella and Cono- 
cephalus (the latter until recent years) were found whenever the "Spring Mill 
Park" was visited and in larger quantities than any of the other forms. In the 
earlier years of the writer's visits to the Park the Conocephalus was present in the 
largest amounts and on account of its color, compact, vigorous and extensive 
growth, it was for a long time by far the most conspicuous of any of the forms 
observed by the writer. In comparatively recent years, however, the old sluice 
which had fallen, in large measure into decay, has now entirely disappeared. For 
many years this old sluice, which was partly filled with sand and mud, carried 
some water part of the distance to the old mill and the water, as it passed through 
the sluice, leaked out in many places. This continual supply of moisture together 
with good light and aeration afforded an ideal location for the dense growth of 
Conocephalus, at places on the top, but especially on the sides of the shaded and 
moist old sluice. With the gradual destruction of the sluice, has come about the 
slow disappearance of the very dense growth of Conocephalus. At present there 
remains only a few specimens of Cenocephalus on the moist rocks below the dam 
and at a point which was formerly the upper end of the old sluice. Conocephalus 
is one of the most common forms of thallose liverworts of this "range." Having 
no gemmae, its other well developed vegetative reproduction and its spores form 
ways of rapid multiplication. The spores may even begin germination in the 
sporogonium, as some pollen grains may do in the anther cell, or some spores in 
the ascus of certain Lichens. 

Porella has generally been present at the "Spring Mill Park" in fair abun- 
dance, but now less than formerly. The same is true of other localities and in many 
of these Porella has almost disappeared. Such plants, as well a some represent- 
atives of the lichens, do not fare well with the increase of population. Marchantia, 
and other thallose forms, lend themselves rather easily to cultivation and grow 
well if protected, but are incapable of withstanding much competition. 

The other forms mentioned in this paper were only sparingly present in any 
of the years in which observations by the writer were made. During some years 
certain of the forms were seen that were not observed in other years. This directs 
attention to the occurrence of other plants, the possibility of whose presence should 
be observed over a series of years, rather than during any one season or year, in 
order to be certain whether or not they may grow in a given locality. 

The following forms have been observed: Frullania virginica, Radula Com- 
planata, Porella platyphylla, Trichocolea tomentella, Lepidozia setacea, Plagiochila 
porelloides, J ungermannia barbata, Anthoceros laevis, Marchantia polymorpha, 
Conocephalus conicus, Asterella hemisphaerica, Lunularia vulgaris, Riccia fluitans. 



Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 40: 67-71. (1930) 1931. 



68 



Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 



ATTACK OF FUNGI ON THE WOODEN LIDS OF 
WATER CULTURE JARS 



F. M. Andrews, Indiana University 

An unusual case of the rapid destruction of wood by fungi was observed on 
the wooden lids of water culture jars. The wooden lids in question were used to 
cover one and one-half liter water culture jars, and the plants which they sup- 
ported were those of Zea Mays. These lids which were made of basswood, were 
15 cm. square and 14 mm. thick. In the center of each was a hole 13 mm. in 
diameter to support the growing seedling. At one side of this was another hole 
7 mm. in diameter through which passed a glass tube which conducted air for the 
aeration of the culture solution. The distance between these two holes, on cen- 
ters, was 25 mm. A top view of one of these lids is shown fig. 1 as it appeared 







r §;;> %■■ *:M, 

Fig. 1 




Fig. 3 



Fig. 4 



when the culture experiment was started. The weight of the lids varied some- 
what. At the beginning of the experiment the weight of the lid shown in fig. 2 
was 175 grs. All of the lids used had, previously to the experiment, been boiled 
in 52°C. paraffin until they were thoroughly saturated. This was repeated several 



A Study of Pollen, VI 69 

times in order to exclude the air and to infiltrate the wood as thoroughly as pos- 
sible with the paraffin and to prevent the absorption of moisture and subsequent 
warping. The corn cultures of this experiment were allowed to grow for eight 
weeks. Shortly after they had commenced growth the wooden lid fig. 2, which 
was clear of all infection at first, began to show some dark colored areas on the 
top not only around the corn seedling but also around the opening through which 
the glass tube projected. This became rapidly larger around the seedling which 
would have dropped through the lid into the culture solution but for the presence 
of the "prop roots" and the rapid increase in diameter of the stem. Observing fig. 
2 it will be seen that the wood was removed for a considerable area and of irregular 
extent and that a crack had appeared reaching to one side. The top view of the 
lid fig. 1, which was not used for a culture before this time, shows the exact con- 
dition of fig. 2 at the beginning of the experiment. Fig. 4 gives a view of the under- 
side of the same lid shown in fig. 2. In this view the fungal destruction is much 
more apparent. Here is well illustrated the rapid removal of wood by the action 
of the fungus especially in long deep rifts. This is so deep in one place as to make 
clear the cause of the split shown in fig. 2. It is really hardly a split, in a way, but 
is an almost complete removal of the wood to the top. The other photograph, 
fig. 3 shows the under side of another such lid a few days after the fungus made its 
appearance. It will also be noticed from figs. 3 and 4 that the lid had been bor- 
dered by narrow strips. The lid shown in figs. 2 and 4 was only one of several used, 
and two of which were attacked in the way above mentioned by the fungus. The 
lids did not become wet from the lower surface by this culture solution. However, 
it is of course well known that wood of various kinds are often attacked and de- 
stroyed by such an agency. Nevertheless this brief account is unusual from the 
standpoint of the rapidity with which the destruction progressed under the condi- 
tions present. Having previously obtained the weight of the lids, the one shown 
in fig. 2 was at first 175 grs., as above stated. At the end of the experiment the lid 
shown in fig. 2 had lost 15 grs. in weight. Of course when available porcelain lids 
are preferable fitted with suitable corks and these boiled in paraffin 1 . The addition 
of a .05% solution of neutral potassium chromate will according to the method of 
Klebs 2 prevent the growth of bacteria and fungi and at the same time does not 
harm Algae or higher plants. The photographs of the lids shown in figs. 2, 3, and 
4 indicate the extreme care that must be observed in experiments of this kind to 
prevent the difficulty here mentioned. 

A STUDY OF POLLEN, VI 

F. M. Andrews, Indiana University 

The use of the petri-dish method as described in my previous papers on the 
study of pollen, have shown that this is the best method for investigation of this 
kind. In all cases it is advisable to use petri-dishes made from a good quality of 
glass with a perfectly smooth top and dishes having as little depth as possible. 
Only distilled water should be used in the lower half of the petri-dish to supply 
moisture and the previously advised precautions taken to avoid condensation. 
This latter can hardly be advised too strongly since when heavy condensation 
occurs the drop of the solution containing the pollen grains may be seriously 
altered. In fact, condensation may sometimes occur in various places on the 

iPfeffer, W. Pflanzenphysiologic 1894 Bd. 1 p. 413. 

2 Klebs, G. Untersuchungen aus dem Bot. Inst. Zu Tubingen 1886-1887 Bd. 2 p. 492. 



70 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

upper lid to such an extent that the different cultures may run together when they 
are close to one another, especially those of the inner one of the four concentric 
circles. In making the four concentric circles on the upper lid, as previously 
described, either paraffin or beeswax may be used. A sharp pointed compass 
should be used to remove the paraffin or beeswax so as to insure the perfect con- 
tact of the hydrofluoric acid with the glass and to make a complete set of circles 
on the glass lid. A compass may be used for making the concentric circles very 
conveniently, if a piece of thin card-board 3 mm. square is fastened on the outside 
of the lid and exactly in its center, by means of paraffin in order to serve as an 
anchor for the stationary leg of the compass. A complete guide may be made of 
a circular piece of white paper having the same size as the inner diameter of the 
lid of the petri-dish. On this disk of white paper should be drawn a complete 
figure of the circles and radii in heavy lines, which will be clearly visible through 
the glass lid of the petri-dish and its thin external layer of paraffin or beeswax. 
This paper disk can be held in place on the under side of the lid of the petri-dish 
while drawing the concentric circles and radii on the upper side of the lid in the 
paraffin or beeswax by placing the lid on the inverted lower half of the petri-dish. 
In this way the desired figure can be quickly made. It would also be possible to 
have a "form" made of the exact size and kind of the figure desired, to moisten 
its edges with hydrofluoric acid and then gently press this figure on the outer side 
of the lid of the petri-dish. This, however, I have not yet tried. To make the 
figures on the inner side of the lid is inadvisable, since the solution may at times 
be inclined to follow the lines of the figure, however shallow those lines may be. 
The paper disk method of making the necessary figure on the petri-dish is lid 
quick and accurate. The "form" method, however, would be even more rapid 
if properly constructed. When a larger number of cultures are to be investigated 
at one time, wide but very low crystallizing dishes, as previously stated in my 
former paper, may be used to good advantage. These dishes should be provided 
with very thin clear glass lids in the form of circles. These lids can be quickly 
and cheaply obtained by removing the gelatine film with hot water from old 
photographic plates and then cutting the lids with a circular glass cutter. Care 
should be taken at all times that the conditons of temperature are favorable as 
well as those of moisture. The culture dishes should not be allowed to stand in the 
direct sunlight when the solutions have been inoculated. 

The pollen of nearly 750 different species of plants, both wild and cultivated, 
have been investigated to date. A large number of these plants have been obtained 
from other localities than Monroe County, Indiana. In all more than 7,500 cul- 
tures have been studied. This does not include the extra cultures which have 
been made of most of the pollens of the plants investigated for the purpose of 
verification and in order to ascertain their behavior at different times. This 
would greatly increase the number of cultures made. In all of the cultures some of 
the pollen grains were submerged or floating in the culture solution and others 
were merely resting on the glass surface which was moistened with the desired 
solution. The solutions were kept at least 48 hours in order to allow ample time 
for germination. The Compositae of all the forms investigated to date had small 
pollen grains, and generally showed feeble germinating qualities in all the different 
percents of the sugar solutions. Centaurea Cyanus showed the largest number of 
germinating grains per hundred of any of the Compositae studied. This plant 
showed that 40 pollen grains in 100 grew in a 15 percent solution of cane sugar, 
but it required 24 hours for germination to begin. Achillea Millefolium showed 



A Study of Pollen, VI 71 

only one pollen grain that germinated and that was in a 50 percent solution of 
cane sugar. The same is true for Aster Shortii but the germination in this case 
was in a 30 percent solution of cane sugar. More than 60 species, both wild and 
cultivated, of the Compositae have been investigated in this study up to the 
present time. 

Some variation has been found in the number of tubes sometimes produced. 
Most pollen grains, as would be expected, produce but one tube. But deviations 
from this has been observed in the case of Malva crispa which produces many 
tubes. I have found to date in this study the pollen grains of ten different species, 
some of which responded differently in the different solutions of cane sugar. These 
are as follows : Symplocarpus fcetidus pollen grains germinated in water to the 
extent of 98 in 100. Of these six pollen grains had two tubes. In the other solu- 
tions of cane sugar only one tube was produced to a grain in this plant, and the 
number of germinations varied greatly. Medicago lupulina produced three tubes 
out of 19 germinations in 40 percent cane sugar and two tubes out of 12 germina- 
tions in 60 percent. In the other percents of cane sugar only one tube was formed 
to the grain and the number of germinations varied considerably. Amaryllis 
Belladonna germinated sixteen grains in water, six of which produced two tubes. 
Dipsacus sylvestris showed three germinations in water all of which had three 
tubes and 12 germinations in a one percent solution of cane sugar three of which 
had three tubes. Scabiosa atropurpurea produced, as previously noted in this 
study, 96 pollen grains in 100 that germinated at once in water each having four 
short tubes. Eschscholzia Californica germinated 35 grains with two tubes in a 
30 percent solution and 49 grains with two tubes in a 40 percent of cane sugar. 
Fraxinus americana showed 10 germinations in a 20 percent solution of cane sugar, 
five of which produced two tubes. Arum Dracunculus produced 17 germinations 
in a 40 percent solution of cane sugar, 15 of which had two tubes. Vaccineum 
stamineum often produced germinations in the anther and at times formed from 
one to four tubes to the pollen grain, while Vaccineum virgatum at times formed 
four tubes to the pollen grain. 

In some plants the growth of the pollen was perfect so far as the number 
of germinations per hundred was concerned, although the percents of the cane 
sugar which produced these were different in some cases. For example in Plantago 
lanceolata and Caragana arbor escens every one of 100 pollen grains germinated in 
30 percent cane sugar, and the same was true of Car ex prasina, except in this plant 
it was 40 percent cane sugar which produced the growth. In Staphylea trifolia 

99 germinated in 1 percent cane sugar and 98 pollen grains grew in water in both 
this plant and in Symplocarpus foetidus, while 97 pollen grains of Lilium longi- 
florum germinated in water in each 100 grains. In a 5 percent solution of cane 
sugar 98 pollen grains in 100 of Podophyllum peltatum germinated. In a group of 

100 grains of Pinus sylvestris all germinated in a 15 percent solution, while Primula 
obconlca produced 82 germinations in 100 grains in a 20 percent solution of cane 
sugar. Representatives of the Cruciferae generally showed poor germinating 
qualities with the exception of Dentaria laciniata. Amsonia Tabernaemontana 
was obtained at New Harmony, Indiana, from low ground. The pollen of this 
vigorous specimen produced 50 germinating pollen grains in 100 in a 15 percent 
solution of cane sugar. This specimen was transplanted to Bloomington, Indiana, 
on rather high ground. In this new location, which was unfavorable to good 
growth, it produced weak specimens, with smaller flowers and less vigorous pollen 
as only 17 grains germinated in a 15 percent solution of sugar. 



Notes on Uncinula Circinata Cooke and Peck 



73 



NOTES ON UNCINULA CIRCINATA COOKE AND PECK 



R. C. Busteed, Indiana University 

This mildew occurs on the leaves of Acer saccharinum Marsh., on the campus 
of Indiana University. On account of its abundance it was found to be par- 
ticularly favorable for study. 

Appendage variation in this species is of exceptional importance in separating 
it from Uncinula aceris, also found on Acer saccharinum outside of the United 
States. The latter species is generally known to show appendage variation. The 
identity of Incinula circinata, has formerly been determined in part by its always 
simple appendages. This difference is brought out in the original description by 
Cooke and Peck (Erysiphaceae of U. S. Journal of Botany, 1872). 



©@? 





Fig. 1 
Fig. 1 — Represents a typical coiled appendage. From the drawings it will be noted that the vari- 
ation in general seems to be toward dichotomous branching, one of which may branch or tend to 
branch again. 



The appendages of this species were found to vary from the simple ones, to 
those that are of a dichotomous nature. This observation led to the following- 
study to determine the manner and amount of variation of this species. 

Material for the study was collected Oct. 15, 1927: Oct. 17, 1929; and at 
various times during October, 1930. It was noted that the variations, measure- 
ments, etc., were very consistent in all collections. Dried material was mounted 
in a three eights percent solution of potassium hydroxide to restore them as nearly 
as possible to normal size. 

In order to determine perithecial as well as appendage variation some 200 
well-developed fruit bodies were examined. The number of appendages on each 
perithecium was counted and found to range from 98-165, of which an average 
of 2.7 per cent were divided in some manner. The appendage measurement 
ranged from 115-175 microns in diameter. The measurement of a given perithe- 
cium was always greater than the length of its appendages. The perithecia were 
then crushed and the number of asci measured and counted. The asci ranged 
from 12-21 in each perithecium, and contained 8 spores. The measurement of the 
spores ranged from 62-77 by 30-40 microns. 

The appendages varied from a single fork somewhere above the middle to 
a dichotomous branching near the end. Many were also found to be enlarged at 
various places from base to tip. The branching resembles the appendages of 

Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 40: 73-74. (1930) 1931. 



74 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

Uncinula aceris (D.C.) Sacc, and the two species can therefore be best separated 
by the fact that Uncinula circinata is hypophyllous, while Uncinula aceris is 
amphigenous. The number of asci in a perithecium will also separate them, 
Uncinula aceris has from 8-12 while U. circinata has from 12-21 in each peri- 
thecium. 

Those that were forked only once were normal as to tips, (fig. 4), or with coil 
on one side, (fig. 2). In the case of twice dichotomously divided appendages, the 
more developed branch was again divided as in the first division, while the other 
fork was represented on the opposite side by an enlargement of varying size, 
(fig. 5, 6). The second difference between the simple and forked appendages, is 
that the latter are often much longer than the former. In some instances this 
difference is as much as 57 microns. 



Additions to the Vascular Flora of Parke County, Indiana 75 



ADDITIONS TO THE VASCULAR FLORA OF 
PARKE COUNTY, INDIANA 



Rexford F. Daubenmire, Butler University 

This list of 205 plants is a continuation of a list of 63 plants from Parke County 
published in the preceding volume. A speciman of each species listed is deposited 
in the Herbarium of Butler University, Indianapolis, Indiana. While many of 
these species have previously been reported from this county, those reports were 
not, in the knowledge of the writer, substantiated by specimens. The nomencla- 
ture follows that of Gray's New Manual, 7th edition. 

In the previous list the report of Housionea lanceolata was an error and should 
be referred to as H. purpurea. 

Acer negundo, A. saccharinum, A. saccharum nigrum,, Achillea millefolium, 
Actaea alba, Acalypha gracilens, Actinomeris alternifolia, Agastache nepetoides, 
Agrimonia parviflorum, A. gryosepala, A. mollis, Alisma plantago-aquatica, 
Allium cernuum, A. canadense, Ambrosia trifida, A. artemissifolia, Amphicarpa 
pilcherii, Anthemis cotula, Apios tuberosa, Apocynum cannabinum, Aplectrum 
hyemale, Aralia nudicaulis, Arisaema draconitum, Asclepias phylolaccoides, 
A. incarnata, A. verlicillata, A. tuberosa, Asimina triloba, Aster ericoides villosa, 
Benzoin aestivale, Bidens biprmatifida, B. trichosperma, Brassica nigrum, Cacalia 
atriplicifolia, Carya ovata, Caulophyllum thallictroides, Celastrns scandens, Cepha- 
lanthus occidenlalis, Ceris canadensis, Chelone obliqua, Chenopodium album, 
Chrysanthemum leucanthemum, Cicuta maculata, Clematis virginiana, Chenopodium 
boscianum, Cerastium nutans, Centunculus minimus, Corallorrhiza maculata, 
Cynoglossum virgin ianum, Datura talula, Daucus carota, Desmodium dillennii, 
D. nudifiorum, D. grandiflorum, D. rotundifolium, Dianthera americana, Dioscorea 
villosa, Diospyros virginiana, Dirca palustris, Epilobium adenocaulon, Erigeron 
canadense, E. philadelphicus, E. ramosus, Euphorbia preslii, E. corallata, Evony- 
mous atropurpureus, E. obovatus, Eclipta alba, Fagus grandifolia, Fraxinus penn- 
sylvanica lanceolata, F. americana, F. rofunda, F. quadrarigulata, Galium aparine, 
Gaura biennis, Gerardia virginica, Geum canadense, G. strictum, Gnaphalium pur- 
pureum, Gymnocladus dioica, Heleopsis scabra, Helia?ithus microcephahu, H. 
decapetalus, H. tuberosus, Hemerocallis fulva, Hypericum punctatum,, H. prolificum, 
H. lanceolatum, H. virgatum, Impatiens biftora, I. pallida, Impomoea hederacea, 
I. pandurata, Juglans cinerea, Juniperus virginiana, Lactuca scariola, Lappula 
virginiana, Lepidium virginianum, Lespedeza violacea, Linum virginianum, 
Lippia lanceolata, Liriodendron tulipifera, Lobelia cardinalis, Lycopus uniflorus, 
L. americana, Lysimmachia nmnmularia, Medeola virginiana, Medicago lupulina, 
Melilotus alba, Menispermum canadensis, Mentha arvensis canadensis, M. piperita, 
Mimulus ringens, Mollugo verticellatus, Monarda fistulosa, Mortis rubra, Nepeta 
cataria, Oenothera muricata, Onoclea struthiopteris*, Ostrya virginiana, Oxybaphus 
nyctagineus, Panax quinquefolia, Pastenaca sativa, Phlox paniculata, Physocarpus 

Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 40: 75-76. (1930) 1931. 

*This rather rare species was found growing quite abundantly along Sugar Creek in and above 
Turkey Run State Park. It was evidently referred to as Aspidium noveborascense in both reports 
of the ferns of Turkev Run: 

Behrens, Otto, Jr. The Ferns of Turkey Run— Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 37:377-379, 1927 (1928). 

Test, Frederick H. Pteridophytes of Turkey Run State Park Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 39:1 15-1 IS, 
1929 (1930). 



76 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

opulifolius, Phytolacca decandra, Platanus occidentalism Poly gala verlicillatus , 
P. senega latifolia, Polygonatum biflorum, Polygonum, pehnsylvanicum, P. vir- 
ginianum, Polymnia canadense, Popuius deltoides, Pruvus serotina, Psedera quin- 
quefolia, Psoralea onobrychis, Quercus rubra, Q. macrocarpa, Radicula palustru, 
R. nasturtium-aquaticum, Ranunculus recurvatus, Rhus typhina, R. glabra, 
Robinia pseudo-acacia, Rudbeckia triloba, R. speciosa, R. laciniata, Ruellia strepens, 
Rumex acetosella, Sagittaria latifolia, Samolus florlbundus, Sanicula canadensis, 
Saponaria officinale, S. vaccaria, Scrophularia marylandica, Scutellaria lateriflora, 
Sedum ternatum, Senecio aureus, Seymeria macrophylla, Sicyos angularis, Silene 
nivea, S. stellata, S. antirrhina, S. latifolia, Silphium terebinthinaceum, S. perfoli- 
atum, Sisyrinchium gramineum, Sium cicutae folium, Smilacina stellata, S. racemosa, 
Solatium carolinense, S. nigrum, Solidago juncea, S. riddellii, S. patula, S. serotina 
gigantea, Stachys tenuifolia aspera, Staphylea trifollata, Steironema cillatum, S. 
lanceolata, S. quadriflorum, Symphoricarpos orbiculatus, Symplocarpus foetidus, 
Taenidia integerrima, Teucrium canadense, Thalictrumdasycarpum, Tilia americana, 
Tradescantia pilosa, Trifolium procumbens, Typha latifolia, Ulmus americana, U. 
fulva, U. racemosa, Urtica dioica, U. gracilis, Veratrum woodii, Verbena stricta, 
Vernonia altissima, Veronica anagallis-aquaUca, V . peregrina, Viburnum pruni- 
folium, Viola striata, Zizia aurea. 



Plants New or Rare to Indiana, XVI 77 



PLANTS NEW OR RARE TO INDIANA, XVI 



Chas. C. Deam, Bluffton, Indiana 

Specimens of all of the species reported in this paper are in the Deam Herba- 
rium and duplicates of some are in other herbaria. Most of the species reported 
have been checked by specialists. 

Triplasis purpurea (Walt.) Chap. Porter County, Sept. 16, 1930, No. 49,830. 
Low open dune near the highway entrance to Ogden Dunes. Only one clump was 
collected and this was divided with the National Grass Herbarium. 

Panicum dishotomiflorum var. puritanorum Svenson. Jasper County, Sept. 
18, 1930, No. 49,884. In the lowest place of a dried up marsh about 3 miles south- 
west of Tefft. Closely associated with Panicum verrucosum and Panicum spretum. 
Kosciusko County, Sept. 20, 1930, No. 49,942. In mucky soil among cattails on 
the northeast border of Center Lake, just north of Warsaw. 

Lemna minima Phillipi. Cass County, Sept. 11, 1928, No. 46,259. In a but- 
tonbush swamp in the Peabody woods about 3 miles northwest of Hoover. Sulli- 
van County, July 4, 1918, No. 25,718. Roadside ditch 1 mile west of Grayville. 
Determined by Lawrence E. Hicks. 

The genus Chenopodium is now being monographed by Paul Aellen of Basle, 
Switzerland and no doubt his work will be accepted by American botanists. I sent 
him my 1929 and 1930 collections and his reports show some new forms for Indiana 
and two changes in nomenclature. The forms not heretofore reported are as 
follows : 

Chenopodium Bushianum Aellen. I have this species from Carroll, Franklin, 
Greene, Jefferson, Kosciusko, Lake, Porter, Pulaski, and Whitley counties. 

Chenopodium Bushianum forma acutidentatum Aellen. Wells County (Fedde, 
Rept. 26:119. 1929). 

Chenopodium hybridum of Authors not Linnaeus becomes Chenopodium 
gigantospermum Aellen. 

Chenopodium gigantospermum forma Griffithii Aellen was reported by Aellen 
for St. Joseph County for Nieuwland (Fredde, Rept.26:147. 1929). 

Chenopodium leptophyllum Nutt. Reported by Aellen for Marshall County 
for Everman (Fedde, Rept. 26:147. 1929). I have it from Porter County. 

Chenopodium missouriensis var. Bushianum Aellen. Spencer County, 
Sept. 29, 1929, No. 47,983. Bank of the Ohio River just below the ferry at Rock- 
port. 

Chenopodium urbicum var. intermedium (Mert. and Koch) Koch. Pulaski 
County, Sept. 18, 1929, No. 47,835. In a barn lot near the Werner woods about 
3 miles northeast of Winamac. 

Chenopodium Boscianum Moq. ex parte becomes Chenopodium Standleuanum 
Aellen. 

Froelichia gracilis (Hook.) Moq. Knox County, June 6, 1930, No. 48,756. 
Common for about 150 feet in very sandy soil at a siding of the Chicago and 
Eastern 111. Ry. about 4 miles south of Vincennes. 

Proe. Ind. Acad. Sci. 40: 77-79. (1930) 1931. 



78 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

Plants reported as Cerastium vulgatum L. (Fernald & Wiegand: Cerastiums 
of Section Orthodon. Rhodora 22: 178. 1920) should be referred to the following 
two forms of which I have as follows : 

Cerastium vulgatum var. hirsutum Fries. I have this form from Daviess, 
Decatur, Hancock (Mrs. Chas. C. Deam), Huntington, Jackson, Jennings, 
Lagrange, Laporte, Owen, Putnam, Randolph, St. Joseph, Shelby (Mrs. Chas. 
C. Deam), Steuben, Tipton (Mrs. Chas. C. Deam), and Wells counties. 

Cerastium vulgatum var. hirsutum forma glandulosum (Boenn.) Druce. I have 
this form from Brown, Crawford, Hendricks (Mrs. Chas. C. Deam), Noble, Owen. 
Porter, Ripley, Scott, Starke, and Tippecanoe counties. 

Linum fioridanum var. intercursum (Bickn.) Weatherby. Jasper County, 
Aug. 19, 1925, No. 42,207. In sandy soil on the low border of a marsh about 3 
miles southeast of Tefft. Also noted in several other nearby marshes. Starke 
County, Aug. 2, 1916, No. 21,040. In moist sandy soil on the border of a marsh on 
the southeast side of Bass Lake. 

K. M. Wiegand who has recently revised the species of Oxalis that occur in 
Indiana has gone over my collection and I have the following forms and species 
to report as new to Indiana. 

Oxalis europea forma villicaulis Wiegand. I have it from Adams, Blackford, 
Boone, Cass, Dearborn, DeKalb, Franklin, Gibson, Greene, Harrison, Hendricks 
(Mrs. Chas. C. Deam), Huntington, Jennings, Kosciusko, Lake, Laporte, Marion, 
Monroe, Morgan, Noble, Owen, Parke, Porter, Posey, Randolph, Scott, Shelby 
(Mrs. Chas. C. Deam), Spencer, Steuben, Sullivan, Vermillion, and Wayne 
counties. 

Oxalis europea var. Bushii forma subglabrata Wiegand. Daviess County, 
June 12, 1929, No. 46,840. In a rather low woods on the Wilson farm about 5 
miles northwest of Montgomer}^. 

Oxalis europea var. Bushii forma vestita Wiegand. I have this form from Ben- 
ton, Blackford, Clark, Crawford, Delaware, Dubois, Jackson, Madison, Orange, 
Posey, Spencer, Warrick, and White counties. 

Oxalis florida Salisb. (Oxalis Filipes of Gray's Man. ed. 7.) Perry County, 
May 20, 1918. Wooded bluff of the Ohio River about 6 miles east of Cannelton. 

Oxalis stricta var. piletocarpa Wiegand. Bartholomew County, May 21, 1911, 
No. 8,226. In sandy field about 3 miles west of Columbus. Fountain County, 
June 4, 1905. Along the railroad a fourth mile south of Veedersburg. 

Malvia borealis Wallm. Fountain County, July 8, 1918, No. 25,837. In a barn 
yard at Fountain. 

Hypericum longifolium Small. This species is an inhabitant of low places, 
usually in low flat woods. I have it from Clark, Jackson, Knox, Spencer, and 
Warrick counties. 

Ligusticum canadense (L.) Britton. This species was reported for Hamilton 
County in Coulter's Catalogue for Wilson. Thaspium barbinode, which closely 
resembles this species, occurs in this county but Wilson did not report it. Since 
the habitat of Ligusticum canadense is not found in Hamilton County there is 
little doubt but that Wilson made a wrong determination. I have a fine specimen 
of this species from a rocky wooded slope in Harrison County, June 11, 1919, No. 
27,287. I found it in a moist place near the top of the hill along the road which 
leads up the high bluff of the Ohio River from Stewart's Landing, about 3 miles 
east of Elizabeth. 



Plants New or Rare to Indiana, XVI 79 

Tomanthera auriculata (Michx.) Raf. (Gerardia auriculata Michx. of Gray's 
Man. ed. 7 and Otophylla auriculata (Michx.) Small of Britton and Brown's Illus. 
Flora ed. 2.) This species has been reported for Indiana for Jefferson County by 
Young, for the lower Wabash Valley by Schneck, for Lake County by Ball and 
by Hill, and for Tippecanoe County by Cunningham. So far as I know these auth- 
ors have left no specimens. The species is no doubt very rare in Indiana so I make 
record of my finding it this summer. Elmore Barce of Fowler found it in a marsh 
about one mile south of Fowler, Benton County and last year he showed me the 
location. This year I found three specimens there. One has been deposited in the 
Gray Herbarium, one in the herbarium of the Philadelphia Academy of Sciences, 
and one I have. The marsh in which these were found has been recently drained 
and probably will be farmed next year, exterminating it in that place. 



An Apparatus for Use in Freezing Studies 81 



AN APPARATUS FOR USE IN FREEZING STUDIES ON 
FRUITS, BULBS AND TUBERS 



Raymond E. Girton, Purdue University 

The very simple form of freezing apparatus described by Detmer 1 has been 
extensively modified, thereby gaining certain desirable advantages. Such ad- 
vantages include: a rapid and uniform cooling of the fruit, a temperature measure- 
ment which is the mean of four different parts of the fruit, a shorter lag period 
in recording temperature changes, and finally less injury to the fruit. 

Principle of operation. The fruit or other experimental object is cooled 
by a current of cold air until freezing is effected. Changes in the temperature of 
the fruit are accurately followed by means of an electric thermocouple with junc- 
tions inserted in the fruit. The readings in millivolts thus secured are then con- 
verted to Centigrade degrees with the aid of a calibration curve or conversion 
factor. 

Construction of the apparatus. An ice bath consisting of a crock in- 
sulated with asbestos constitutes the basis of the apparatus. Further insulation 
is effected by a wooden support and a dead air space under the jar. A thick 
wooden cover which provides additional heat insulation is supplied for the ice 
bath. This cover contains openings for a wire-loop stirrer with which to stir the 
ice and salt mixture, a thermometer for ascertaining the temperature of the ice- 
salt mixture, and a large cork in which the freezing chamber is held. 

The freezing chamber is fitted with a cork lid which supports a small fan and 
fan guard. The fan is attached to a drive shaft consisting of glass and metal 
tubing which revolves in bearings of glass tubing. Power for driving the fan is sup- 
plied from an electric motor attached to the fan shaft by a flexible cable. Im- 
mediately beneath the fan is a guard consisting of a circle of enameled wire with 
a cross rod through the center from which the fruit is suspended. The fan guard 
also serves to keep the wires of the thermocouple clear of the fan. Four pairs 
of junctions of nickel and copper wire constitute the thermocouple employed in 
this apparatus. The four measuring junctions are embedded in the experimental 
fruit and the corresponding reference junctions inserted in a thermos bottle con- 
taining crushed ice. The lead wires from the thermocouple are attached to a 
millivolt meter which registers the potential difference. A thermometer is provided 
for measuring the air temperature within the freezing chamber. 

Further heat insulation is effected by an enameled disk of heavy cardboard 
which fits closely over the top of the freezing chamber and is held in place by small 
wooden buttons. This disk is provided with openings which permit the thermo- 
couple, fan-shaft housing, and freezing-chamber thermometer to pass through it. 

A study of fig. 1 will give a more adequate idea of the assembly of these 
parts. This diagram represents a median-sectional view of the apparatus with 
a fruit suspended in place in the freezing chamber. Four junctions of the thermo- 
couple are indicated as embedded in the tissues of the fruit. 



Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 40: 81-86. (1930) 1931. 
iDetmer-Moor. Practical Plant Physiology, 1909, p. 126. 



82 



Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 




Fig. 1 — Freezing Apparatus, (a) thermometers, (b) fan shaft, (c) thermocouple, (d) fan-shaft 
housing, (e) cardboard disk, (f ) cork lid of freezing chamber, (g) cork support of freezing chamber, 
(h) wooden top of ice bath, (i) fan guard, (j) fan, (k) experimental fruit, (1) freezing chamber, (m) 
ice-mixture stirrer, (n) ice-bath crock, (o) asbestos insulation, (p) dead-air space, and (q) wooden 



An Apparatus for Use in Freezing Studies 



83 



The arrangement of the entire apparatus including the companion equipment 
such as motor, thermos bottle, and millivolt meter may be seen from fig. 2. 

Method of operation. A mixture of ice and salt is first placed in the in- 
sulated crock. This step is followed by attaching the wooden top with the freezing 
chamber in place. Next a fruit is weighed and measured, and then attached to the 
fan guard by means of a thread. Finally the thermocouple junctions are inserted 
in the fruit, the lid of the freezing chamber put into place, and the fan shaft 
attached to the flexible drive cable. The apparatus is then ready for operation. 




Fig. 



2 — Freezing apparatus ready for 
Photo by E. J. Kohl. 



)peration. 



When the temperature of the fruit has fallen to zero on the Centigrade scale 
the leads to the millivolt meter are reversed and observations taken on the tem- 
peratures of the fruit, freezing chamber, and ice bath at three minute intervals 
until the fruit is frozen. Freezing is associated with a constant temperature of 
the fruit maintained for a considerable time. Verification of the frozen condition 
may be made by cutting the fruit open and examining it at the end of the experi- 
ment. 

Illustrative experiments. In order to illustrate the calibration and use of 
the freezing apparatus, the results of several experiments are presented in graphi- 
cal form. Different plant materials were used for indicating some of the various 
types of physiological problems which may be studied with the aid of this 
apparatus. 



84 



Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 



Fig. 3 shows the relationship between the potential in millivolts generated by 
the thermocouple and the corresponding temperatures when one set of junctions 
is immersed in crushed ice and the other set attached to a sensitive thermometer 
and submerged in a cooled liquid. Such liquids as olive oil and a 50 percent suc- 
rose solution have been used for this purpose with practically identical results. 
Since the form of the curve is a straight line, its use may be supplanted by a 
conversion factor for converting millivolt readings to Centigrade degrees. The 
conversion factor obtained with this thermocouple was 1°C. = .037 m.v. 




Fig. 3 — Thermocouple calibration curve plotted from data obtained with a copper-nickel 
thermocouple consisting of four pairs of junctions. 



Curve A (fig. 4) traces the fall in temperature of the cooled tuber to — 3.8°C, 
followed by an abrupt rise to a peak and a subsequent horizontal region repre- 
senting the freezing point at — 2.7°C. The abrupt rise in temperature is due to 
the heat of fusion liberated by the sudden freezing of the super-cooled sap. Suffi- 
cient heat was liberated in this case to raise the recorded temperature above the 
freezing point for several minutes. With the potato tuber, the amount of under 
cooling was 1.1°C» 



/77//7/S fs> C 




Fig. 4— Results of an experiment with a potato tuber. A = freezing curve for a White-Cobbler 
potato tuber (fresh weight = 96.5gm. freezing temperature = 2. 7°C). B = freezing-chamber tem- 
perature curve. C = ice-bath temperature curve. 



Curves B and C represent the temperatures of the freezing chamber and ice- 
salt mixture respectively. The freezing chamber curve reflects the temperature 



An Apparatus for Use in Freezing Studies 



85 



changes of the tuber, since the air in the chamber continuously absorbs heat from 
the tuber. 

Curves A and B of fig. 5 represent the freezing data secured for two mature 
Jonathan apples. Both curves indicate that considerable under-cooling took 
place, i.e., 3.85°C. for apple A and 4.35° for apple B. The freezing points of the 
two apples are seen to be in close agreement, — 2.9°C. for apple A and —3.0° for 
apple B. 



/77/'/7/s/<rs 




Fig. 5 — Freezing curves for Jonathan apples. A = apple with a fresh weight of 66. 
B = apple with a fresh weight of 84.1 gm. 



With citrus fruits undercooling was again evident (fig. 6) in this case, 2.9°C. 
for the orange and 2.15° for the lemon. The freezing point for the orange was 
noticeably lower than that of the lemon, — 4.05°C. contrasted with —3.75°. This 
is in accord with the fact that lemon fruits on the tree are sooner injured by falling 
temperatures than are oranges. 



/?7/r?vtes 




Fig. 6 — Freezing curves for citrus fruits. A = lemon with a fresh weight of S9.7 gm. B : 
orange with a fresh weight of 103.4 gm. 



The freezing points of bulbs of different degrees of hardiness were compared 
to ascertain the relationship, if any, between hardiness and freezing temperature. 
(Fig. 7) . A hyacinth bulb was chosen as representing a hardy species. The freez- 
ing temperature for this bulb was — 2.7°C. An onion bulb (Yellow Globe variety) 
was chosen to represent a less hardy species. The freezing temperature of this 
bulb was only — 1.55°C, or 1.15° higher than that of the hyacinth. This difference 
in freezing temperatures is interesting in that it is indicative of different physiolog- 



86 



Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 



ical conditions within the hyacinth and onion tissues, whereby the hardier species 
is enabled to hold its cell sap more tenaciously and thus better resist the physio- 
logical drought accompanying freezing. 



ft? 7/7 i/tfS » 




Fig. 7 — Freezing curves for tender and hardy bulbs. A = Yellow Globe onion (tender) with 
fresh weight of 83.7 gm. B = hyacinth (hardy) with a fresh weight of 62.4 gm. 



Concluding remarks. A perusal of the foregoing experiments may serve 
to suggest other types of studies involving the determination of freezing tempera- 
tures. The time required for setting up and performing an experiment of this kind 
ranges from two to three hours, and the technique is relatively simple. In conse- 
quence, the apparatus has found successful employment in laboratory classes for 
advanced students in plant physiology. 



Ecological Relationships of the Most Common Mosses 87 



ECOLOGICAL RELATIONSHIPS OF THE MOST COMMON 

MOSSES IN A CERTAIN VICINITY NEAR 

BLOOMINGTON, INDIANA 



Gail G. Glenn, Indiana University and Winona H. Welch, DePauw University 

Introduction. That there is some type of succession in mosses is obvious to 
the non-professional observer who notes the patches of a black moss on the surface 
of one rock whereas on a neighboring rock there are also patches of whitish or 
green mosses. 

The purpose of this study has been (a) to study moss succession in relation 
to sub-strata and to acidity and alkalinity, (b) to note the mosses which have a 
tendency to be xerophytic, mesophytic, and hydrophytic, (c) to find the species 
of mosses which are most common in the vicinity of Bloomington and those which 
seem to be indicators of soil conditions, and (d) to discover whether or not there 
is a true succession of mosses which passes from living wood to dead and thence 
to decaying wood and eventually to soil. 

In 1912-13 Pickett and Nothnagel collected, identified ,and published a list 
of mosses of this region. Their collection is in the herbarium of Indiana University. 
Indiana mosses have been reported by Deam, Naylor, Underwood, Wilson, Young, 
and the total list has been compiled by Yuncker (15) (16). 

No ecological work on mosses has been published for this part of Indiana. 
Miss Taylor (10) studied in the region of Chicago, reporting from counties in 
Indiana, with special reference to sand dune succession, which condition is in no 
way paralleled in this section. She did, however, discuss ravine succession. Miss 
Braun (1) includes mosses in her discussion of succession on conglomerate rocks 
in the region of Cincinnati, Ohio. Cooper (2) has written concerning succession 
of mosses on Isle Royale, Lake Superior, being particularly interested in lake shore 
and bog succession. In England, Watson (12) (13) listed mosses according to 
habitats; e.g., on calcareous rocks, in the water, and in xerophytic conditions. 
Other Bryologists have attempted classification according to habitat. 

The area chosen for study is indicated by the map, with the exception of a 
railway cut immediately south of the southern limits of the map. Concentrated 
collections were made in this cut and along the track, on the west-facing slopes 
along North Pike, throughout the length of Seventh Ravine (which is the first 
large forked ravine east of Sheet's Hill), along small portions of the edge of the 
lake, and on Mossy Bank. The area under observation consists of approximately 
four square miles, a short distance northeast of Bloomington. This is a desirable 
tract for the study of moss succession inasmuch as there are many types of habitats 
and successions which may be studied. The wet ravines in most cases have lime- 
stone at the heads with sandstone progressively further down. Dry exposures of 
limestone ledges are frequent along North Pike on west-facing slopes. At times 
the water from the Bloomington Water Works Lake recedes and moss succession 
commences on the sandstone rocks thus exposed. The beginning of moss succession 
on soil is shown in some habitats. The soil on the extreme tops of the ridges is 
found to be more or less acid. The water in some of the small streams tests alka- 
line, due to the constant leaching of the limestone at the heads of the ravines. 



Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 40: 87-101. (1930) 1931. 



88 



Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 




R.wM.ie Sanistcne □ Silem L.mestone E3 

Hlrroisburo Limestone □ /M.fcMI i.mesfone d 



Fig. 1 



Griffy Creek flows through this region from southeast to northwest. The 
area which it drains is much dissected by its tributaries. The ravines in their 
youth are V-shaped, and on reaching their base level become U-shaped (14). 

Inasmuch as this portion of the state is unglaciated the formations are more 
or less intact, but exposed by dissection. The map shows the outcrops of the rocks, 
thickness of the strata, and the arrangements of the formations. In order from 
the highest to the lowest these formations of rock are the Mitchell, Salem, and 
Harrodsburg limestones, and the Knobstone or Borden. Only the upper portion 
of this formation is exposed. Since the latter two are the ones exposed in this 
area under study only their characteristics will be given. 

The Harrodsburg limestone may be roughly divided into an upper and a 
lower portion, the latter being more important in this moss problem. "The two- 
fold nature of the Harrodsburg is at once apparent, a lower part, which is in the 
main very impure and variable, characterized by geodes, much chert, and irregu- 
larly spaced crinoidal layers, and an upper part of fairly pure limestone in the 
main, highly crystalline in places and often quite fossiliferous. 



Ecological Relationships of the Most Common Mosses 89 

"The lower Harrodsburg includes all the irregular and variable impure unit 
lying between the Borden and the overlying, fairly massive more regular lime- 
stone. Except for crinoidal lenses this division is a highly siliceous, fine grained 
stone known as 'bastard rock.' In places it may well be called a calcareous sand- 
stone. When fresh it is light gray to blue gray. A high iron content gives it a 
characteristic buff to yellow color when weathered. This siliceous phase is quite 
brittle, and upon weathering splits into irregular, flattened chips, broken off in 
a direction diagonal to the bedding. 

"Interbedded within the Lower Harrodsburg and forming a large part of it in 
places are hard resistant crinoidal lenses. ... In places the rock is shaly chert . . . 
some of the chert is silicified crinoidal limestone. Geodes characterize the Lower 
Harrodsburg and are also found in the underlying Borden strata, where they 
usually are much smaller and less numerous. 

"The most persistent feature of the lower Harrodsburg which impresses one 
who has made many observations throughout the entire outcrop belt, is the hard 
limestone layer which often displays itself as an overhanging bench in sharp 
ravines producing a waterfall. Extensive study has revealed a persistent shaly 
to siliceous zone, weathering buff to yellow above this layer, and between it and 
the overlying 'typical' Harrodsburg limestone of the upper division. Below this 
waterfall forming layer is the variable 'bastard' rock" (9). 

The average temperature for this region for January is 33 degrees F.; for 
July, 79 degrees F. (8). The mean annual temperature is 52 degrees F. The 
average rainfall is 42 inches, more or less evenly distributed throughout the year, 
(3) . The mean relative humidity for Indianapolis and environs is 78 per cent at 7 
a. m., 59 per cent at noon, and 64 per cent at 7 p. m. (11). 

During this study all mosses, whether fruiting or sterile, were collected and 
full data recorded. A soil sample was taken in each case, if at all possible. The 
colorometric method of soil testing (Morgan Soil Testing Set) was used in prefer- 
ence to the electric method, because in many cases it was impossible to obtain 
sufficient quantities of soil from rocks ubstrata to use in the Quinhy drone apparatus. 
For the most common species approximately 10 tests were made; in many in- 
stances even more samples were tested. All testing was done in the laboratory, and 
the soil was air-dried before using. Between each test all apparatus was washed 
carefully with distilled water. 

Because of the lack of sporophytes in perhaps 50 per cent of the cases identi- 
fication was difficult, but all species reported in this paper have been checked or 
identified by A. J. Grout, and are deposited in the Indiana University Her- 
barium. The nomenclature is that which is used by Grout in "Mosses with a 
Hand-lens and Microscope." 

The writers wish to express their appreciation of the aid in identifications 
which Dr. A. J. Grout has given. 



90 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

The following list Table 1, includes the mosses which were collected during 
this study. All have been checked by Dr. Grout. A and bold face tj r pe denotes 
those not reported previously as occuring in Indiana. — denotes those formerly 
reported as occuring in Monroe county. 

TABLE I. MOSSES INCLUDED IN THIS STUDY: 



— 1. 


Amblystegiella adnata 


A 2. 


Amblystegiella minutissima 


3. 


Amblystegium fluviatile 


— 4. 


Amblystegium irriguum 


— 5. 


Amblystegium Kochii 


— 6. 


Amblystegium orthocladon 


— 7. 


Amblystegium riparium 


A 8. 


Amblystegium riparium fluitans 


— 9. 


Amblystegium serpens 


— 10. 


Amblystegium varium 


— 11. 


Anomodon attenuatus 


— 12. 


Anomodon minor 


— 13. 


Anomodon rostratus 


14. 


Anomodon tristis 


— 15. 


Aphanorhegma serratum 


- 16. 


Aulacomnium heterostichum 


A 17. 


Barbula convoluta 


18. 


Barbula fallax 


— 19. 


Barbula unguiculata 


— 20. 


Bartramia pomiformis 


21. 


Brachytlecium acutum 


— 22. 


Brachythecium oxycladon 


A 23. 


Brachythecium oxycladon dentatum 


24. 


Brachythecium plumosum 


— 25. 


Brachythecium rivulare 


26. 


Brachythecium rutabulum 


— 27. 


Brachythecium salebrosum 


— 28. 


Bryhnia graminicolor 


— 29. 


Bryum argenteum 


— 30. 


Bryum caespiticium 


- 31. 


Campylium chrysophyllum 


A 32. 


Campylium chrysopbyllum brevifolium 


— 33. 


Campylium hispidulum 


— 34. 


Catharinea angustata 


— 35. 


Ceratodon purpureus 


- 36. 


Cirriphyllum Boscii 


A 37. 


Climacium Kindbergii (approaching Americanum) 


38. 


Desmatodon Porteri 


— 39. 


Dicranella heteromalla 


— 40. 


Dicranella varia 


- 41. 


Dicranum scoparium 


42. 


Ditrichum tortile 


— 43. 


Entodon seductrix 



Ecological Relationships of the Most Common Mosses 91 



— 44. 


Eurhynchium hians 


— 45. 


Eurhynchium serrulatum 


A 46. 


Fissidens incur vus exiguus 


- 47. 


Fissidens minutulus 


— 48. 


Fissidens taxifolius 


49. 


Forsstroemia (perhaps a new species) 


— 50. 


Funaria flavicans 


— 51. 


Funaria hygrometrica 


— 52. 


Grimmia apocarpa 


53. 


Homalotheciella subcapillata 


— 54. 


Hypnum curvifolium 


A 55. 


Hypnum fertile 


- 56. 


Hypnum molluscum 


— 57. 


Hypnum patientiae 


58. 


Hypnum recurvans 


A 59. 


Hypnum Schreberi 


- 60. 


Leptobryum pyriforme 


61. 


Leskea gracilescens 


62. 


Leskea nervosa nigrescens 


63. 


Leskea polycarpa 


64. 


Leskea polycarpa paludosa 


— 65. 


Leucobryum glaucum 


— 66. 


Leucodon julaceous 


— 67. 


Mnium affine ciliare 


— 68. 


Mnium cuspidatum 


A 69. 


Oncophorus Wahlenbergil 


A 70. 


Orthotrichum anomalum 


71. 


Orthotrichum strangulatum 


— 72. 


Philonotis fontana 


- 73. 


Physcomitrium turbinatum 


— 74. 


Plagiothecium deplanatum 


— 75. 


Plagiothecium Roseanum 


A 76. 


Plagiothecium Roseanum propogulifera 


— 77. 


Platygyrium repens 


A 78. 


Pogonatum brachyphyllum (collected by Dr. Flora Anderson 




Haas) 


— 79. 


Pogonatum brevicaule 


- 80. 


Pohlia nutans 


— 81. 


Polytrichum commune 


— 82. 


Pylaisia Schimperi 


83. 


Raphidostegium adnatum 


— 84. 


Thelia hirtella 


— 85. 


Thuidium delicatulum 


— 86. 


Thuidium phgmaeum 


— 87. 


Tortella caespitosa 


— 88. 


Webera sessilis (collected by Dr. Flora Anderson Haas) 


—89. 


Weisia viridula 


A 90. 


Zygodon sp. 



Note: Brachythecium plumosum was reported by Pickett, but later identified 
by G. R. Kaiser as B. campestre. 



92 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

Moss Succession on Sandstone Substrata 

Two very important factors which influence plant succession upon sandstone 
and limestone rocks are, according to modern ecology, acidity and alkalinity of the 
respective rocks or the soil produced from them. In this discussion we are par- 
ticularly interested in two rock formations, the Harrodsburg limestone and the 
Riverside sandstone. In the limestone the presence of calcium carbonate causes 
the rock to test alkaline. Its absence, according to geologists who seldom speak 
in terms of acidity, gives only neutrality. It is, however, this absence of a car- 
bonate plus the acid which growing plants form which gives the tendency toward 
acidity. Thus a sandstone soil from which calcium carbonate is absent will be 
more or less acid through the agency of plants. 

The lower layer of the Harrodsburg limestone in contact with the Riverside 
sandstone is a more or less impure limestone. (See Introduction.) This fact 
rendered identification of some of the rocks more or less difficult until the stones 
were tested with acid. A dilute solution of hydrochloric acid (25 percent) was 
used. If effervescence occured, the rock was considered to be a limestone. In this 
work it is one of the chief purposes to show that on a bare rock area the early 
mosses particularly are indicative of the type and composition of the substratum. 
The first under consideration is the succession of mosses on sandstone. 

For such study an excellent opportunity is found at the edge of the Blooming- 
ton Water Works Lake in the Seventh Ravine where intensive collecting was done. 
There are exposures of sandstone and large fragments of the same at the water 
line, which during part of the winter and the spring are completely covered with 
water, and which during the summer and the fall are exposed and dry. On these 
stones are found the first mosses of the sandstone succession, Fissidens minutulus 
and Fissidens incurvus exiguus, minute mosses which are collected rarely unless 
in fruit, since their three or four pairs of leaves are scarcely noticeable. One atten- 
tion is called to them because of the reddish tinge which the thousands of setae 
and capsules give to the rock surface. One is led to believe that the two enter 
a bare sandstone area very quickly after its exposure, and that they fruit immedi- 
ately, since the stones upon which they are growing are covered with water 
throughout the greater portion of the year. These two mosses are found on 
practically every sandstone rock in any situation. They grow either alone or as 
relics among the mosses which enter later. In the identification of other mosses 
growing on sandstone one usually finds tiny bits of the last of the pioneers. 

Search along the water line revealed one rock on which vast quantities of 
Fissidens were being covered by two mosses, Plagiothecium deplanaium and 
Brachythecium salebrosum, the two entering at about the same time. In another 
kind of situation, the middle of a ravine, Amblystegiella . adnata was following the 
pioneer. In like situations Amblystegiella minutissima was found growing with 
Fissidens, and Brachythecium salebrosum and Plagiothecium deplanaium in turn 
with Amblystegiella minutissima. In other cases it seems that Brachythecium 
oxyciadon and Amblystegium varium entered a short time after the Amblystegiella 
spp. Thus the early succession appears to be more or less in this order, Fissidens 
minutulus and Fissidens inciirvus exiguus as the invariable pioneers, Ambly- 
stegiella minutissima and A. adnata following as the secondary mosses, while the 
third stage is represented by an abundance of the members of the Hypnaceae, 
especially Brachythecium salebrosum, B. oxyciadon, B. plumosum Plagiothecium 
deplanaium, and Amblystegium varium. Of course it is to be understood that once 



Ecological Relationships of the Most Common Mosses 93 

established on an area these mosses tend to creep over adjacent bare area, but the 
above order of succession seems to be more or less typical. 

Those mosses which tend to grow on soil and humus enter upon the accumu- 
lation of debris and soil, which is brought about through various agencies such as 
the decay of mosses, the disintegration of the stone through acid action and 
physical causes, and the deposition of dust and soil by wind and water. The 
early mosses remain more or less persistent. The species of Brachythecium 
become more abundant and Eurhynchvum hians appears. Entodon seductrix and 
Mnium cuspidatum enter in especially moist places. In other situations Plagio- 
thecium Roseanum, Eurhynchimn serrulatum, and Aulacomnium heteroslichum are 
late transitional stages, growing partially on soil and partially on stones. In one 
location Hypnum curvifolium was growing in dense mats aiding in the formation 
of more soil and thus preparing for the entrance of Catharinea angustata. In still 
another instance Cirriphyllum Boscii and Raphidostegium adnatum, had prepared 
the substratum so that Catharinea angustata had entered. 

In the last stages of succession in situations in which the soil has a low pH 
value, conditions such as one finds on the Mossy Bank point, one collects the hairy 
cap, Polytrichum commune, together with Dicranum scoparium, Dicranella varia, 
D. heteromalla, Ditrichum tortile, and Plagiothecium Roseanum. 

Thus in the typical sandstone succession Fissidens incurvus exiguus and 
F. minutuius are the pioneers on a primary bare area. The intermediate mosses 
are numerous species of Hypnaceae and the climax is represented by such mosses 
as polytrichum commune and Dicranum scoparium which, with other species, form 
dense mats and survive for long periods of time invasion of the higher plants. 

TABLE 2. Mosses Found on Sandstone and Substrata Reactions 

Mosses pH Values and Ranges 

Ditrichum tortile .• 4.1 

Catharinea angustata 5.2 to 6.2 

Hypnum curvifolium 5.2 to 7.0 

Amblystegium serpens no soil 

Eurhynchium hians 6.2 to 6.5 

Brachythecium salebrosum 6.2 to 7.0 

Fissidens incurvus exiguus 6.0 to 6.2 

Amblystegiella minutissima 6.4 to 6.6 

Amblystegiella adnata 6.4 to 7.0 

Fissidens minutuius 6.4 to 7.0 

Campylium chrysophyllum 6.6 

Entodon seductrix 6.6 

Amblystegium orthociadon 6.6 

Brachythecium plumosum 6.6 

Plagiothecium deplanatum. . 6.8 to 7.0 

Mnium cuspidatum 6.8 

Brachythecium osycladon 6.8 

Amblystegium varium 6.8 to 7.0 

Note: Where no range is given (a) the pH values are identical in all cases, or (b) there was not 
sufficient soil for a test, or (c) or in rare instances only one specimen was found. 

Succession on Limestone Substrata 
It is an accepted fact that Grimmia apocarpa is indicative of alkalinity, of the 
presence of calcium carbonate, and of limestone rock. Apparently it does not grow 



94 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

in acid conditions. The observations upon Harrodsburg limestone as a substratum 
in relation to Grimmia are in accord with those of other investigators; i.e., that it 
invariably grows upon exposed limestone rocks, and follows immediately, in most 
instances, the crustose lichen stage as the moss pioneer (1) (10). 

On several exposures in the railway cut a rare moss, Desmatodon Porteri, is the 
first to enter. It is so small, however, that when other mosses enter it soon becomes 
obscure. 

There are mosses which are closely associated with Grimmia in early succes- 
sion; e.g., Leskea nervosa nigrescens, Bryum argenteum and Amblystegiella adnata, 
the latter being very abundant. Amblystegium varium, A. serpens, Thuidium 
pygmaeum, Barbida unguiculata, Ceratodon purpureus, and Brachythecium oxy- 
cladon dentatum are also found, in the more xerophytic situations. In a few in- 
stances Grimmia, atlhough in a more moist habitat, was found with Amblystegium 
orthocladon. 

If the limestone rock upon which Grimmia is growing is near exposed roots 
and bases of trees upon which Anomodon spp. is abundant the two will readily 
become associated, and the invader will become dominant. Many instances of 
this were found. 

Leskea polycar pa, L. gracilescens, E. sebuctrix, B. salebrosum, and B. oxycladon 
are to be found in abundance as the moss and soil cushion becomes deeper. 
Plagiothecium deplanatum, Eurhynchium serrulatum, E. hians, Campylium his- 
pidutum, C. chrysophllum, Mnium cuspidatum, and Brachythecium acutum follow, 
more or less in the order named. 

Barbula unguiculata and Pohlia nutans are found on soil which is alkaline. 
The latter species grows in moist situations in which Fissidens taxifolius is abun- 
dant. 

In relation to the problem of acidity and alkalinity it is interesting to com- 
pare results from the region of Bloomington with those obtained by Watson (12) 
in England. Among those that he classes as the most pronounced and the most 
common "calcifuge" species are Polythricum spp. and Dicranella heteromalla, 
with which Indiana data agree. Those classes as indifferent on both calcareous 
and siliceous substrata are Grimmia apocarpa, Dicranum scoparium, Catharinea 
undulata, A?nblystegium serpens, and Brachythecium rutabulum. In this particular 
region Grimmia is found exclusively on limestone rocks, and Dicranum scoparium 
and Catharinea angustata are found exclusively on acid substrata. 

To quote Watson further, "In regard to many bryophytes and lichens there 
seems little doubt that the chemical factor is more important (than the physical). 
Many calciole bryophytes and lichens are indifferent to the physical character 
of the substrata, they will grow on almost any rock or soil if calcium carbonate is 
present. Hypnum molluscum is a striking example of this indifference. In all 
cases which I have investigated the substratum has had lime contents." In rela- 
tion to the above statement the tests for the substrata on which Hypnum mollus- 
cum was growing in this area under observation showed a rather conspicuous 
absence of calcium carbonate, the pH range being from 5.4 to 6.4. 

Thus it will be noticed from the above discussion that there is, as in the case 
of the sandstone substrata, a definite succession of mosses on limestone, beginning 
with Grimmia apocarpa in most instances, and followed by typical secondary 
stages. The latter stages are not as definitely pronounced as those in the sand- 
stone succession, since the calcium carbonate becomes leached out through the 
action of water, and the resulting soil tends toward acidity. 



Ecological Relationships of the Most Common Mosses 95 

TABLE 3. Mosses Found on Limestone and Substrata Reactions* 

Mosses pH Value and Ranges 

Amblystegiella adnata 7.0 to 7.8 

Anomodon attenuatua 7.0 to 7.9 

Anomodon minor 7.0 to 7.4 

Barbula unguiculata 7.0 to 7.4 

Bryum argenteum 7.0 to 8.2 

Campylium hispidulum 7.0 to 7.4 

Leskea nervosa nigrescens 7.0 to 7.8 

Amblystegium orthocladon 7.2 to 8.0 

Amblystegium varium 7.2 to 8.0 

Brachythecium cyrtophyllum 7.2 

Brachythecium rutabulum 7.2 to 7.8 

Entodon seductrix 7.2 to 7.6 

Brachythecium oxycladon 7.2 to 8.0 

Eurphynchium serrulatum 7.2 to 8.0 

Grimmia apocarpa 7.2 to 8.0 

Plagiothecium deplanatum 7.2 to 8.0 

Amblystegium fluviatile 7.3 to 7.8 

Bryhnia graminicolor 7.3 

Campylium chrysophyllum 7.3 

Brachythecium plumosum 7.4 

Brachythecium salebrosum 7.4 to 7.8 

Desmatodon Porteri 7.4 to 8.2 

Leskea polycarpa 7.4 to 7.6 

Eurhynchium hians 7.5 to 8.0 

Weisia viridula 7.5 

Amblystegium irriguum 7.6 

Amblystegium serpens 7.6 to 7.8 

Brachythecium acutum 7.6 to 8.0 

Leskea gracilescens 7.6 

Amblystegium Kochii 7.7 to 8.4 

Anomodon rostratus 7.8 

Ceratodon purpureus 7.8 

Orthotrichum anomalum 7.8 

Mnium cuspidatum 7.9 

Pohlia nutans 8.0 

*See note following Table II. 

Wood Succession 

It is questionable whether or not one may term the progression of mosses 
from living to decayed wood and thence to soil a true ecological succession, yet 
there are indications of a series. One does not find many of the species which 
normally grow on the bark of living trees upon soil and humus and vice versa. 
On the other hand there are mosses which do not tend to discriminate. Certain 
mosses grow upon both the bases and the roots of living trees, but these are not 
a part of the above succession. 

In the identifications made only one species, pylaisia Schimperi, was found 
growing on living trees exclusively. Orthotrichum strangulation, Platygyrium 



96 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

repens, and AmblystegieUa adnata belong to that group which does not discrim- 
inate between the bark of living trees and that of decaying stumps and fallen 
trees. These are considered to be the pioneers on decaying wood. AmblystegieUa 
adnata tends more or less to be a cosmopolitan species, growing both upon wood 
and upon stones of any kind. 

Among those mosses which tend to grow upon bases of living trees and which 
spread to soil the most important are the species of Anomodon; i.e., A. rostratus, 
A. minor, A. attenuatus and less frequently A. tristis. In many cases these plants 
entirely cover the roots and bases of trees, spreading to surrounding soil and to 
rocks on which soil has accumulated. In many instances one finds associated 
with the species of Anomodon the following members of the Hypnaceae: Ambly- 
stegium varium, Entodon seductrix (very frequent), AmblystegieUa adnata, Leu- 
codon julaceus, Platygyrium repens, Orthotrichum spp., Campylium hispidulum, 
Brachythecium salebrosum, B. oxycladon and Eurhynchium Mans. In exposed 
situations the habit of growth of the species of Leskea, particularly L. polycarpa, 
is comparable to that of the species of Anomodon. 

It is more or less impossible to name any definite order which is followed 
by the intermediates on decaying wood. An enumeration of the species must 
suffice. In addition to many of the above species one finds Thelia hirtella, Campyl- 
ium hispidulum, C. chrysophyllum, Leskea gracilescens, Eurphynchium serrulatum, 
and Amblystegium Kochii. In many instances one finds in close association 
Orthotrichum strangulatum, Platygyrium repens, Anomodon tristis, Leucodou 
julaceus and Forrstroemia sp. 

It is after considerable decay that the order becomes fairly definite, expecially 
on wet logs. Mnium affine ciliare and M. cuspidatum find more or less optimum 
conditions of substrata and moisture for their growth on decaying logs. In close 
succession one finds Hypnum curvifolium and H. molluscum, which in turn become 
associated with Thuidium, delicatulum, Leucobryum glaucum, and Dicranum 
scoparium, the latter being a moss which tends to grow commonly on acid soil. 
In some instances one finds Aulocamnium heterostichum together with Bartramia 
pomiformis in these later stages of succession. To illustrate such succession one 
may cite specific logs on which these stages or steps are to be met. 

There were three logs in extreme stages of decay which were quite indicative. 
On one there was Platygyrium repens as a remnant of the early mosses together 
with Eurhynchium serrulatum, Hypnum curvifolium, and Dicranum scoparium, 
entering in the order given. Growing on another log of a similar kind were 
Platygyrium repens, Hypnum curvifolium, Leucobryum glaucum, and Dicranum 
scoparium. A third showed Aulacomnium heterostichum and Thuidium delicatulum 
following Hypnum molluscum. 

In certain conditions in which the acidity is not too low, from 5.3 to 6.8, and 
with a substratum of soil and humus one can find Climacium Kindbergii. 

All these facts tend to show that a succession exists from living wood to soil, 
the latter stages of which are found on quite acid soil and humus. The latter 
statement is in accord with the fact that decaying wood has a low pH value when 
tested with the colorometric method. A natural consequence would be that the 
late stages of succession would include acid-loving mosses. 

There are similarities between the last stages of the moss succession from 
wood to soil and that of sandstone to soil, due to similar conditions of acidity; 
in fact the two merge and blend on common ground on Mossy Bank point with 
such species as Dicranum scoparium and Polytrichia)), commune. 



Ecological Relationships of the Most Common Mosses 97 

TABLE 4. Mosses Growing on Living Trees and Roots 

Anomodon attenuatus Entodon seductrix 

Anomodon minor Eurhynchium serrulatum 

Anomodon rostratus Forrstroemia sp. 

Anomodon tristis Leskea nervosa 

Amblystegiella adnata Leskea polycarpa 

Aulacomnium heterostichum Leucodon julaceus 

Sampylium hispidulum Platygyrium repens 

Campylium chrysophyllum Pylaisia Schimperi 

TABLE 5. 1 Mosses Growing on Decaying Wood 

Amblystegiella adnata Dicranum scoparium 

Amblystegium Kochii Entodon seductrix 

Amblystegium serpens Eurhynchium hians 

Amblystegium varium Eurhynchium serrulatum 

Anomodon attenuatus Leskea gracilescens 

Anomodon minor Leucodon julaceus 

Aulacomnium heterostichum Hypnum curvifolium 

Bartramia pomiformis Hypnum recurvans 

Brachythecium acutum Leptobryum pyriforme 

Brachythecium oxycladon Mnium cuspidatum 

Brachythecium salebrosum Platygyrium repens 

Bryum caespiticium Thelia hirtella 

Campylium chrysophyllum Thuidium delicatuluni 
Campylium hispidulum 

iRange of pH values for decaying wood which was tested was from 5.8 to 6.8. 

Soil Mosses 

Many of the mosses which grow on soil have been discussed previously in 
relation to the various successions. 

In most instances the value of mosses which enter upon a bare soil is negligible 
as far as humus formation is concerned. The conditions which make it bare are 
such that the mosses are not permanent. The soil is perhaps that of a cultivated 
field, one that is lying fallow, an expanse of land that is covered for periods of the 
year by water, or a slope that is subjected to constant rapid erosion. 

The only mosses found in the first condition were Weisia viridula and Phys- 
comitrium turbinatum. They were growing with grass and thus the soil formation 
value is small. 

For the study of areas which are alternately dry and flooded, the edge of the 
lake furnished excellent collecting ground for one species. Aphanorhegma serratum, 
which Grout terms a very common species. It evidently matures rapidly, for it 
was found in fruit and the ground was still damp from the receding water. Here 
was another instance in which the moss was of little economic value; not only is 
it a minute moss, but it would again be covered with water or with the vegetation 
of the margin of the lake, as the season might be. 

It is impossible for mosses to gain a foothold on those slopes which are sub- 
jected to rapid and constant erosion. 

The following list includes all the mosses which were collected on soil, many 
of which are climax mosses in successions on substrata other than soil. 



98 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

fTABLE 6. Soil Moses and Soil Reactions 

Mosses pH Value and Ranges 

Hypnum curvifolium 3.8 

Dicranella varia 4.2 to 7.0 

Dicranum scoparium 4.3 to 4.8 

Polytrichum commune 4.3 to 4.7 

Ditrichum tortile 4.5 

Catharinea angustata 4.6 to 5.8 

Bartramia pomiformis 4.7 to 5.3 

Aulacomnium heterostichum 4.7 to 5.3 

Thuidium delicatulum 4.8 

Cirriphyllum Boscii 5.2 

Mnium affine ciliare 5.3 to 6.7 

Climacium Kindbergii 5.3 to 6.8 

Eurhynchium hians 5.8 to 7.8 

Eurhynchium serrulatum 6.0 to 7.6 

Campylium chrysophyllum 6.4 to 6.6 

Plagiothecium deplanatum 6.6 to 8.0 

Anomodon attenuatus 6.7 to 7.3 

Campylium hispidulum 6.8 to 7.3 

Entodon seductrix 6.8 to 7.6 

Mnium cuspidatum 6.8 to 7.4 

Amblystegiella adnata 6.8 

Fissidens taxifolius 7.0 to 8.2 

Barbula unguiculata 7.2 to 7.8 

Brachuthecium salebrosum 7.2 

Amblystegium Kochii 7.2 

Brachythecium oxycladon 7.2 to 7.4 

Amblystegium varium 7.4 to 7.6 

Pohlia nutans 7.4 to 8.2 

Brachythecium rivulare 7.4 to 8.4 

Raphidostegium sp 8.0 

Brachythecium acutum 8.0 

Philonotis font ana 8.0 

1"See note, page 93. 

Hydrophytic and Xerophytic Mosses 

There are mosses in this region which tend to be hydrophytic, and others 
which tend to be xerophytic, but the greater percentage is mesophytic. 

Those mosses which grow on trees and bases of trees, and upon exposures 
of limestone rocks are considered as xerophytic; e.g., Grimmia apocarpa, Ortho- 
trichum spp., Anomodon spp., Ditrichum, tortile, Desmatodon Porteri, Barbula 
unguiculata, Bryum spp., Leskea spp. Many other species can adapt themselves 
to such conditions. 

Those which are hydrophytic are found in and at the edge of small streams 
or in seepage. Brachythecium rivulare, B. acutum, B. rutabnlum, Pohlia. nutans, 
Amblystegium fluviatile, A. riparium fiuitans, Philonotis font ana and Amblystegium 
orthodadon are commonly found in such situations. 

The small streams in which these mosses are found are those in which the 
water is very alkaline, carrying calcium carbonate in solution, testing from 7.6 



Ecological Relationships of the Most Common Mosses 99 

to 8.2, since they drain from the limestone beds and exposures. Around two mosses 
as nuclei, Amblystegium riparium fluitans and A. orthocladon, calcareous incrusta- 
tions or tufa are being formed. Such conditions are found frequently along the 
east side of North Pike across from the Cascades Park. 

Daubenmire (4) found three mosses at Clifty Falls which were being similarly 
covered, Mniobryum albicans, Amblystegium irriguum, and Gymnostomum curvi- 
rostre. According to Miss Taylor (10) Cowles, at Turkey Run, reported Cratoneu- 
ron fdicinum as being tufa forming. Emig (5) in his discussion on mosses as rock 
builders reported Brachythecium rivulare as aiding in iron ore deposition, and 
Didymodon tophaceus and Philonotic calcare in deposition of calcium carbonate. 
Algae are present many times with these mosses, but it is not known whether or 
not they take an active part or one similar to that of the mosses. Emig (5) states, 
"Mosses act only indirectly in the precipitation of calcium carbonate, principally 
by supplying a larger absorptive and absorptive surface for the evaporation of the 
calcareous water." 

It is interesting to note that in the center of some ravines upon a substratum 
of sandstone calcareous species are found, such as Thuidium pygmaeum. Probably 
this is due to the fact that the calcareous water from the layers of limestone is 
giving the optimum condition of alkalinity for their growth. 

Slope Succession 

Concerning slope succession one may consider Mossy Bank as an example 
of a typical north-facing slope with a creek flowing at the base, with a xerophytic 
summit and more mesophytic conditions lower. 

At the summit of the point Dicranella varia, D. heteromalla, and Ditrichum 
tortile grow together with Dicranum scoparium and Polytrichum commune in an 
open, exposed situation. A few feet below the top one finds the first three dis- 
appearing, and dense mats of Leucobryum glaucum &nd Hypnum curvifoliim 
becoming frequent, which in many spots become the dominant mosses. These 
continue down the slope together with Bartramia pomiformis and Aulacomnium 
heterostichum in the absence of constant seepage. One finds an abundance of 
Eurhynchium serrulatum, E. hians, Fissidens taxifolius, Mnium spp. and Plagio- 
thecium deplanatum growing where there is much seepage and in the drip-zones 
under small ledges. Near the base of the slope one finds these same species, and 
also Climacium Kindbergii (approaching Americanum). In no instance was this 
moss found growing near the top of the bluff. 

These results are similar to those reported by Miss Taylor (10) for morainal 
clay bluff and pastured and unpastured woods. 

Summary 

From the above discussions it will be noted that there are mosses which are 
indicative of the various types of substrata and of soil conditions. 

The "Anomodons" are dominant mosses in many situations, such as dry 
limestone, bases of trees, etc., forming distinct portions of the cryptogamic so- 
ciety. In the succession on sandstone and on decaying wood Polytrichum com- 
mune, Dicranum scoparium and Catharinea angustata are the dominant mosses. 
In many situations members of the Hypnaceous group are dominant locally. 

Fissidens incurvus exiguus and F. minutulus are indicative of sandstone rocks 
as Grlmmia apocarpa, Barbula unguiculata, Bryum argentuem, Desmatodon 



100 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

Porleri, and Thuidium phymaeum are of limestone. Polytrichum commune, 
Dicranum . scoparium, Catharinea angustata, Dicranella spp., Hypnum Curvi- 
folium, II. Molluscum, Bartramia pomiformis Aulacomnium heterostichum, 
Thuidium dclicatulum, and Cirriphyllum Boscii all grow on more or less acid 
substrata, never occuring on alkaline in the area under study. Pohlia nutans and 
Fissidens taxifolius in this locality usually grow on alkaline soil. 



Conclusions 

1. In this region there is a definite succession of mosses on sandstone begin- 
ning on a bare area with Fissidens incurvus exiguus and F. minutulus, and reaching 
a climax with dominant mosses as Polytrichum commune, Dicranum scoparium, 
etc. 

2. There is a succession beginning on living wood, passing to decayed wood 
and thence to soil. The later stages parallel sandstone succession, due probably 
to the acidity of decaying wood and humus. 

3. The early stages of limestone succession include Grimmia apocarpa, 
Desmatodon Ported, Bryum spp. and others, and the later stages include such 
mosses as Barbula unguiculata. Fissidans taxifolius, Pohlia nutans, and species 
of the Hypnaceae. 

4. There is a more or less definite progression of mosses from the tops of the 
slopes to their bases. 

5. There is a definite constant relationship between acidity and alkalinity 
and the species of mosses to be found in the respective conditions. It is possible 
to classify certain mosses as indicators of conditions of acidity and alkalinity. 

6. Certain of the hydrophytic mosses are tufa builders in the small streams 
in the vicinity of Bloomington. 

Literature Cited 

1. Braun, E. Lucy. The vegetation of conglomerate rocks of the Cincinnati 
region. Plant World 20: 380-392. 1917. 

2. Cooper, W. S. Ecological succession of mosses on Isle Royale, Lake 
Superior. Plant World 15: 197-213. 1912. 

3. Cumings, E. R. On the weathering of the subcarboniferous limestones 
of Southern Indiana. Ind. Acad. Sci. 85-100. 1905 (1906). 

4. Daubenmire, Rexford F. Tufa deposits at Clifty Falls State Park. Pro. 
Ind. Acad. Sci. 38: 123-125. 1928 (29). 

5. Emig, W. H. Mosses as rock builders. Bryologist 21: 25-27. 1918. 

6. Grout, A. J. Mosses with a hand lens and microscope. 1903. 

\Jfr. Pickett, F. L. Some mosses from Monroe County, Indiana. The 
Bryologist 23. 33-34. 1915. 

8. Scott, Will. Naturalist's guide to the Americas. 1926:372-373. 

9. Stockdale, Paris B. Stratigraphic units of the Harrodsburg limestone. 
Pro. Ind. Acad. Sci. 38: 233-242. 1928 (1929). 

10. Taylor, Aravilla M. Ecological succession of mosses. Bot. Gaz. 69: 
449-491. 1920. 

11. Climatological Data, U. S. D. A., Weather Bureau. Indianapolis. 1925. 

12. Watson, W. The bryophytes and lichens of calcareous soil. Jour. 
Ecology 6: 189-198. 1918. 



Ecological Relationships of the Most Common Mosses 101 

13. Watson, W. The bryophytes and lichens of fresh water. Jour. Ecology 
7: 71-83. 1919. 

14. Welch, Winona H. A contribution to the phytoecology of Southern 
Indiana with special reference to certain Ericaceae in a limestone area of the 
Bloomington Quadrangle. Pro. Ind. Acad. Sci. 38: 65-83. 1928 (1929). 

15. Yuncker, T. G. A list of Indiana mosses. Pro. Ind. Acad. Sci. 231-248. 
1920 (1921). 

16. Yuncker, T. G. Additions and corrections to the List of Indiana Mosses 
Pro. Ind. Acad. Sci. 155-156. 1921 (1922). 



The Altered Rate of Growth of Freesia Corms 103 

THE ALTERED RATE OF GROWTH OF FREESIA CORMS 
W. P. Morgan and Lyle J. Michael, Indiana Central College 

The present paper represents a preliminary report on a more-or-less hetero- 
geneous series of experiments. Most of these have been planned for the purpose 
of determining their effect on the rate of growth of the Freesia plants from the 
time the corms were planted to the production of blossoms. Due to the fact that 
these tests cover a period of less than two years the results are quite fragmentary, 
however, we feel that sufficient data have been gathered to warrant mentioning 
them at this time. 

It is common knowledge that bulbous plants require a rest period of varying 
length interposed between seasons of growth. It has not been the purpose of the 
present authors to inquire into the mechanism which maintains this dormancy but 
to impose environmental conditions that, for one reason or another, gave promise 
of stimulating the plant into immediate growth with the production of blossoms 
before the usual blooming season. Since it is often equally desirable to prolong 
the usual season of a given variety it was thought important to note those con- 
ditions which tended to retard the blooming date. The fact that this report is 
being made a few weeks before the usual blooming season of greenhouse grown 
Freesias it has been necessary, in most instances, to record only relative growth 
instead of the blooming date. Since ample material in the form of select corms of 
a standard commercial Freesia was available and facilities at hand for following 
through the complete cycle of growth our attention has been limited to this one 
variety. 

The experiments may be listed under: first, temperature effects; second, 
chemical treatments and; third, X-ray dosage. 

Low temperatures for the storage of Freesia corms were obtained by the use 
of a commercial cold storage plant and a General Electric household refrigerator. 
In the first lot, which had been held during the month of August at a temperature 
of 38-40 degrees F., it was found that the germination of the corms and subsequent 
growth was slightly retarded so that the blossoms, although of splendid quality, 
appeared after those on the control plants. The second lot of corms was, acci- 
dentally, carried at a temperature of 33 degrees F. for more than two weeks during 
the first part of September. When planted these corms equalled the controls in 
rate of growth and give evidence of equalling their blooming date. In each case 
the control plants were from corms that had been stored in an open warehouse 
with temperature similar to that of the outside air. It was probable that the last 
lot was not retarded due to the fact that they were placed in cold sotrage near the 
end of their dormant stage while the first lot was placed in cold storage in the early 
part of the rest period. The foregoing seems to indicate that the Freesia corm can 
withstand low temperatures for several weeks provided other factors of their en- 
vironment (increased humidity, presence of noxious gases, etc.) are not materially 
altered. It also suggests that the subsequent rate of growth may be in part de- 
pendent upon the relative time, within the dormant period, when the corms are 
subjected to the low temperatures. 

Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 40: 103-105. (1930) 1931. 



104 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

The chemical treatments include items that have given favorable results with 
other plants, substances reported as having a stimulating effect on the growth 
of animal tissues, and materials normally used as fungicides in the control diseases 
on Freesia corms. This last group was added due to the fact that questions had 
been raised concerning their possible effect on growth. With few exceptions the 
preparation of the materials and treatments were made by Dr. Michael. Varia- 
tion in length of treatment and concentration of dosage was made in most instances 
that did not suggest high toxicity in the first test. The substances employed were : 
ether, ethyl chloride, ethylene chlorhydrin, ethyl bromide, ethylene gas, acety- 
lene, chloroform, thio urea, potassium thiocyanate, thio cresol, cystine, thio 
glycollic acid, formalin, mercuric chloride, powdered sulphur, hydroxymercuri- 
chlorophenol (Bayer's Semesan), carbon dioxide, and oxygen. From one to several 
pots containing five or seven corms were used for each test. In each case the dor- 
mant corms were treated and immediately planted while the control plants were 
from corms of the same size and planted at the same time. Each lot was checked 
with the controls as to their time of germination (appearance above the surface 
of the soil), subsequent growth at regular intervals, and number of "shoots" per 
corm. 

Of the above treatments chloroform, ethylene bromide and ethyl chloride 
were found to be toxic, causing the corm to die before germination. Ether gave 
conflicting results possibly due to its toxic effect when the concentration was high, 
in this connection it is interesting to note that most of the halogen derivatives 
used were toxic. No effort was made to determine the critical point at which 
their concentration was sufficiently toxic to cause the death of the corm. 

The following list of substances produced a retarding action on early growth: 
concentrated formalin, potassium thiocyanate, ethylene gas under some condi- 
tions, thio cresol and glycollic acid. The above treatments varied in the amount 
of retarding but in most cases the later growth equalled that of the controls. 
Later check showed these plants to be entirely normal with prospects of a blooming 
date nearly equal, or equal to the plants from untreated corms. 

Ethylene gas under optimum conditions, acetylene, cystine in very dilute 
solution, ethylene chlorhydrin and thio urea gave results slightly ahead of the 
controls in the early stages of growth. This early stimulus was either lost entirely 
or its effects only slightly discernible in the later stages indicating that the rate 
had not been permanently altered. The Freesia corms were more tolerant to 
prolonged exposure to acetylene than to ethylene. 

The other treatments, except powdered sulfur, did not materially alter the 
rate of growth in either the early or later stages. Sulfur treated corms germinated 
and matured with the controls but their appearance suggested a loss of vigor 
that was interpreted as being due to disturbed nutrition resulting from the excess 
sulfur about the roots of the plants. 

Of the above items ethylene gas offered the most interesting results although 
its effect was that of retarding the rate of growth under some conditions while 
under other methods of application (concentration and relative time in the dor- 
mant period when treatment was made) it quite definitely accelerated growth. 
Several concentrations and lengths of exposure were tried in an effort to determine 
the critical point at which the stimulating effect of the gas was the highest. In 
this as in other treatments not only the primary bud (located near the scar of the 
stem of the preceding season) but the lateral buds, which are usually abortive, 
are subject to stimulation. Should these abortive buds be induced to grow a re- 



The Altered Rate of Growth of Freesia Corms 105 

tarding action might result since the corm would be made to support from two 
to six "shoots" instead of the usual one or two. This stimulating effect was ob- 
tained with one series of ethylene treatments which resulted in an increased 
number of "shoots" to from two to six instead of the one shoot per corm as de- 
veloped on the controls. This series was retarded nearly three weeks in germina- 
tion and its later growth was not as rapid as the controls. Regardless of the 
planting date the primary bud of the Freesia corm begins its growth at the end 
of the dormant period. This growth may result in the formation of a new corm 
without the appearance of the characteristic plant structures. Observations 
bore out the expected unsatisfactory results when treatments were made near the 
end of the dormant period. It is doubtful if a method of increasing the number of 
stalks produced by a single corm is of any practical value to the commercial florist 
since the resulting blossoms would probably be of inferior quality. 

Very little information has been gathered as to the increase in corms and 
cormlets from treated Freesias, although it is quite possible that this item might 
be of considerable importance in the production of off-sets from a new variety. 
This and several other items need rechecking. One of these is to extend the series 
of chemical treatments to the first part of the dormant period while the corms 
are undergoing their so-called "curing." 

If any conclusion could be drawn from the observations on the above series 
of experiments it would probably be that chemical treatment of Freesia corms 
gives only a temporary stimulus to growth. Once growth is established the plant 
is controlled by other factors in its reaction with its environment. 

In addition to the above experiments dormant corms were subjected to 
X-ray dosage. This phase of work was undertaken as part of the breeding pro- 
gram which was reported last year, however it is giving an opportunity to follow 
its effect on the rate of growth. The exposures were at distances of fifteen and 
twenty inches from the target and at regular intervals from two to twenty-one 
minutes with a current of 105 K.V. and 30 M.A. A one mm. aluminum screen 
was placed between the target and the corms in half of the lots so treated. Due 
to the fact that it has been necessary to repeat these experiments the data con- 
cerning the effect of X-rays on the rate of growth is quite incomplete at this time. 
Indications are that the lower dosages are of a stimulating effect while higher 
dosages retard and, if sufficiently high, may be fatal. No information is at hand 
concerning the effect of X-rays on the later growth and blooming time. 

The above report is mainly of work in progress and much data will be added 
during the present winter and spring. 

The authors are indebted to Elder Brothers, Inc., who supplied the Freesia 
corms and greenhouse facilities, and Dr. W. E. Pennington for the use of his X-ray 
equipment. 



Algae of Indiana: Additions to the 1875-1928 Check List 107 



ALGAE OF INDIANA: ADDITIONS TO THE 
1875-1928 CHECK LIST 



C. Mervin Palmer, Butler University 

The classified check list of algae of Indiana, consisting of those published 
between 1875 and 1928 was included in volume 38 of the Proceedings of the Indi- 
ana Academy of Science. Thirty-two additional notations of genera and species 
listed in eleven additional papers published between 1875 and 1928 have since 
been found. Two counties (Hendricks and Putnam) not represented in the original 
check list, have algae recorded for them. There are four species new for the 
check list; these are Draparnaldia plumosa, Oscillatoria prolifica, Oedogonium 
braunii var. zehneri and Oedogonium wabashense. 

It is possible that three other papers 1 listing algae could be included in this 
check list but in none of the three papers is it definitely stated that the forms listed 
were found in Indiana, although one would be led to believe that they probably 
were. 

Three corrections should be made in the original check list: page 109, first 
line of second paragraph, change "96" to "92," page 116, next to last line, change 
"Chladophora" to "Cladophora;" and page 119, sixth line under Spirogyra, drop 
"Marion Co. 1928" and add, in the next line just before S. elongata, "S. ellipsospora 
Transeau, Marion Co. 1928." 

The total number of notations of algae for Indiana, between 1875 and 1928 
is shown by county in fig. 1. Figs. 2, 3, and 4 show respectively the number 
of notations of Cyanophyceae, desmids, and diatoms per county during the same 





Fig. l 



Fig. 2 



Fig. 1 — Distribution by county of all notations of algae reported for Indiana between 1875 
and 1928. 

Fig. 2 — -Distribution bv county of all notations of Blue Green Algae reported for Indiana 
between 1875 and 1928. 



Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 40: 107-109. (1930) 1931. 
iThese three are: 

Allen, W. R. The food and feeding habits of freshwater mussels. Biolog. Bui. 27:127-147. 1914. 
Nieuland, J. A. Hints on collecting and growing algae for class work. Amer. Midland Nat. 
1:85-97 1909 

Nieuland, J. A. The laboratory aquarium. Amer. Midland Nat. 1:208-218. 1910. 



108 



Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 





Fig. 3 



Fig. 4 



Fig. 3 — Distribution by county of all notations of desmids reported for Indiana between 1875 
and 1928. 

Fig. 4 — Distribution by county of all notations of diatoms reported for Indiana between 1875 
and 1928. 



period. The number of "all other algae" notations per county may be obtained 
by subtracting from the figures on Map 1 the sum of the figures on Maps 2, 3, 
and 4. 

Mention probably should be made of three articles listing algae of Indiana 
but published since 1928. These are by F.M.Andrews 2 and CM. Palmer 3 , 4 . 

The algae of Indiana recorded in the eleven additional papers are given in the 
following classified list: 

Algae of Indiana — Additions to the 1875-1928 Check List 

GROUP 1. RLUE GREEN ALGAE (CYANOPHYCEAE) : 

Anabaena. Kosciusko Co. 1913 and 1916; Hendricks Co. 1919. 
Lyngbya. Kosciusko Co. 1913 and 1916. 
Microcystis. Kosciusko Co. 1913 and 1916. 

Oscillatoria. Kosciusko Co. 1916. 0. prolifica (Grenville) Dumont. 
Kosciusko Co. 1917. 

GROUP 2. (NO ADDITIONS). 

GROUP 3. DIATOMS: 

Asterionella. Kosciusko Co. 1916. 
Fragilaria. Kosciusko Co. 1913 and 1916. 
Melosira. Kosciusko Co. 1916. 



GROUP 4. ALL OTHER ALGAE (CHLOROPHYCEAE, PIGMENTED 
FLAGELLATA, ETC.) 
Ceratium. Kosciusko Co. 1913 and 1916. 
Cladophora. Monroe Co. 1912; Kosciusko Co. 1921. 

2 Andrews, F. M. Algae of Monroe County, Indiana, III. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 39:57-58 

1929 (1930). 

3 Palmer, C. M. Algae of Marion County, Indiana, A description of thirty-two forms. Butler 
Univ. Bot. Studies 2:1-21. Feb. 1931. 

4 Palmer, C. M. The algae, Schizomeris and Lemanea, in Indiana. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 40. 

1930 (1931). 



Algae of Indiana: Additions to the 1875-1928 Check List 109 

Draparnaldia. D. plumosa (Vauch) Agardh, Putnam Co. 1902. 

Euglena. Kosciusko Co. 1916; Hendricks Co. 1919. 

Oedogonium. 0. braunii Kutz. Pringsh. var. zehneri Tiffany, Knox Co. 1927. 

0. wabashense Tiffany (not 0. wabashensis) , Knox Co. 1927. 
Pediastrum. Kosciusko Co. 1916. 
Peridinium. Hendricks Co. 1919. 
Phacus. Monroe Co. 1912. 
Scenedesmus. Kosciusko Co. 1916. 
Spirogyra. S. dubia. Monroe Co. 1914. S. elongata (Berk) Kg. Monroe 

Co. 1912. 
Tribonema. Kosciusko Co. 1913. 
Uroglena. Tippecanoe Co. 1909; Hendricks Co. 1919. 
Vaucheria. V. geminata, Wayne Co. 1918. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. (Titles Additional to the Original Check-List) 

1. 1902. Hazen, T. E. The Ulothricaceae and Chaetophoraceae of the 
United States. Mem. Tor. Bot. CI. 11:135-250. 

2. 1909 Burrage, S. Odors and tastes in water supplies. Pro c. I nd. Sanitary 
and Water Supply Asso. 44-47. 

3. 1912. Pickett, F. L. A case of changed polarity in Spirogyra elongata. 
Bui. Tor. Bot. CI. 39:509-510. 

4. 1913. Henry, G. On the vertical distribution of the plankton in Winona 
Lake. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 77-92. 

5. 1914. Weatherwax, P. Some peculiarities in Spirogyra dubia. Proc. 
Ind. Acad. Sci. 203-206. 

6. 1916. Scott, W. Report on the lakes of the Tippecanoe Basin (Indiana) . 
Ind. Univ. Stud. 3:1-39. 

7. 1917. Scott, W. An epidemic among the fishes of Huffman's Lake. 
Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 67-71. 

8. 1918. Markle, M. S. Some abnormalities in plant structure. Proc. Ind. 
Acad. Sci. 117-124. 

9. 1919. Bartow, E., Ely, H. M. and Greenfield, R. E. Tastes and odors 
in the Danville City water during the summer of 1919. Proc. Indiana Saintary 
and Water Supply Asso. 115-119. 

10. 1921. Allen, W. R. Studies of the biology of freshwater mussels. III. 
Distribution and movements of Winona Lake mussels. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 
227-238. 

|/11. 1927. Tiffany, L. H. New species and varieties of Chlorophyceae. 
Bot. Gaz. 83;202-206. 



The Algae Schizomeris and Lemanea in Indiana 



111 



THE ALGAE SCHIZOMERIS AND LEMANEA IN INDIANA 



C. Mervin Palmer, Butler University 

Schizomeris and Lemanea have been selected for special mention at this time 
for several reasons. Both algae are probably very common and abundant in 
Indiana. Both of these forms are comparatively large and conspicuous, due not 
only to size of individual plant but also to the large masses which they form. 
Schizomeris is an alga of unusual form, related to Ulothrix; Lemanea is a fresh 
water Red Alga (Rhodopyceae). Schizomeris has been reported in print for Indi- 
ana only once and Lemanea has never been listed for this state. 




Fig. 1— Schizomeris leibleinii Kiitzing. Drawings showing general form of the plant and 
structure of the basal portion. Diameter of basal cells, about 20 microns. 

Fig. 2—Schizomeris leibleinii Kiitzing. Drawing showing the nature of the upper part of the 
thallus which is parenchymatous. Longest diameter of segment shown, 76 microns. 

Fig. 3— Lemanea torulosa Sirodot. Drawings of a young and a more mature sexual branch. 
The antheridia are located at the nodes. Length of young plant shown is 1 cm. 

Fig. 4 — Lemanea torulosa Sirodot. Drawings showing the grouping of the entheridia at the 
nodes. Length of internodes shown, about 2 cm. 

Fig. 5 — Lemanea torulosa Sirodot. Drawing of a cross-section through the sexual branch. 
Two groups of carpospores are shown in the area occupied by the radial filaments. (Camera lucida 
drawing.) Diameter of nodes, up to 750 microns. 

Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 40: 111-113. (1930) 1931. 



112 



Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 



Schizomeris leihleinii Kutzing was found in a small aquarium in a laboratory 
at Butler University during the month of February 1930 by the writer. It was 
growing with Ulothrix and Oedogonium, and was attached to the side of the glass 
container. In early September 1930, Mr. C. K. Calvert collected several samples 
of algae from White River below the Sewage Disposal Plant of Indianapolis, and 
one of these samples was found, by the writer, to contain Schizomeris leihleinii. 
This green alga is regarded as one of the Ulothrichaceae, which family includes 
such genera as Ulothrix, Hormidiwn and Binuclearia. It develops as an attached 
filament gradually expanding from base to apex and, except for the basal portion, 
becoming parenchymatous, that is, several cells wide and thick. This character- 
istic is only rarely found in the Chlorophyceae. The cells in the young filaments 
are almost exactly like those of Ulothrix in shape and in form of chloroplast. This 
alga was reported previously in 1920 for Marshall County by Evermann and Clark. 





Fig. 6 



Fig. 7 



Fig. 6— Map showing present reported distribution by counties of Schizomeris leihleinii 
Kutzing. 

Fig. 7— Map showing present known distribution by counties of Lemanea, (L. toralosa 
Sirodot, in solid black). 



Lemanea torulosa Sirodot was found by the writer in May 1930 in Lawrence 
County and Jackson County, Indiana. The conspicuous part of the plant is the 
sexual branch, which is a green, somewhat rigid, fleshy tube about one centimeter 
in length. These stalks are attached, large numbers in a group, to rocks in the 
rapids of streams. Dr. M. S. Markle has sent the writer a preserved sample of this 
alga, collected in May 1925 at Clifty Falls, Jefferson County, Indiana, and 
Mr. Charles Deam has forwarded specimens of it collected in July 1930 in Jen- 
nings County, Indiana. Letters received by the writer from three others throw 
light on the distribution of the genus. Dr. D. M. Mottier of Indiana University, 
reports observing Lemanea (species undetermined) in Monroe County in 1890, 
and in Owen County at McCormick's State Park. Dr. Paul Weatherwax of 
Indiana University reports the presence of Lemanea in Owen and Jefferson 
Counties. Miss Edna M. Morris of Quincy, Indiana reports Lemanea to be in 
several of the streams in Owen County. 



The Algae Schizomeris and Lemanea in Indiana 113 

The sexual branch of Lemanea develops enlargements which resemble nodes 
on a stem. It is at these swellings that the antheridia develop. Unlike Schizo- 
meris, the stalk is large at the base and decreases in diameter to the blunt pointed 
tip. The rather complex structure of the sexual branch is shown in the drawing 
of a cross-section. Lemanea, a Red Alga, is regarded as one of the Nemanionales 
of the group Florideae. Thus with its carpospores, trichogynes and red pigment, 
it might well be considered in our courses in General Botany at the time when we 
are discussing the Rhodophyceae. 



The Stanley Coulter Herbarium at Purdue University 115 



THE STANLEY COULTER HERBARIUM AT 
PURDUE UNIVERSITY 



C. L. Porter and J. N. Porter 

Herbaria constitute one of the assets of the state. They are of value to the 
community as well as to the institutions that house them because they are avail- 
able to any interested persons who may seriously seek information concerning 
plants. Every herbarium is a center from which the knowledge and love of plants 
is disseminated. 

The herbarium was considered to be such a necessary adjunct to the teaching 
of science that the Purdue herbarium originated simultaneously with the estab- 
lishment of the University in 1874. The first "register" for the years 1874-75 
makes mention under "equipment" that an herbarium and cabinet of woods is 
available for students in botany. Also, this same "register" states that herbarium 
work is required of all students in Botany. 

The Rev. John Hussey was the first professor of Botany. He took an active 
interest in the work of the herbarium and the number of specimens were increased 
as a result of his efforts. 

The second "register" under date of 1876-77 states "The herbarium contains 
about 1,000 species of mounted plants and the collection is constantly increased 
by field work and exchanges. It is specially full in ferns, grasses and sedges; the 
sets of each being nearly complete." 

The register of 1878-79 states "the herbarium contains over 2,000 specimens 
of mounted plants. The botany collection has recently been increased by a valu- 
able donation of about 1,200 species of plants, many of them foreign, by G. W. 
Clinton, Esq., of Buffalo, N. Y., a collector and botanist of wide reputation." 
It is to be noted in these quotations from the earlier records that "species" and 
"specimens" are words used loosely and interchangeably. 

In 1880 illness forced the retirement of Professor Hussey. A young instructor 
from the Lafayette High School was drafted to fill the vacancy at Purdue. Thus, 
Charles R. Barnes, the great botanist became instructor in Botany, Zoology, and 
Geology. Under his direction, and by means of his industry, the herbarium 
prospered. • 

The Purdue Catalogue of 1891 shows the growth of the herbarium in this 
statement, "The herbarium consists of 5,000 species of plants and is particularly 
rich in the flora of the state. It is arranged in accordance with the most approved 
methods, and by means of a card catalogue and case indexes, is easily accessible 
and unusually valuable for instructional purposes." 

By 1902 the number of recorded species was 7,000. After 1907 there is no 
further mention of the herbarium in the annual catalogues. The authors are 
unable to determine if this omission was due to loss of interest or for purposes 
of economy. 

The herbarium after its brilliant inception did fall on lean and evil days. 
The old science building which had formerly housed it was torn down, the speci- 
mens were stored in boxes and moved in this condition to the basement of the new 



Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 40: 115-117. (1930) 1931. 



116 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

"Coulter Hall." Here they remained for years, a prey to dust, mice and vandalism. 
Dean Coulter strove manfully to remedy this condition making repeated appeals 
to the authorities for aid to restore the herbarium to its former usefulness. In 
the President's Report under the date of 1925, Dean Coulter made the following 
appeal. "The most obvious need is the reequipping of the museum and herbarium 
rooms. Proper cases for the care and display of excellent collections now owned 
by the University should be provided in the immediate future if these collections 
are to be preserved. The original plan interrupted by the World War, provided 
for the re-establishment of these adjuncts to the research and instructional facili- 
ties of the department." 

The inaccessibility of the herbarium at this period placed a decided handicap 
on the study of taxonomy, which subject must ever be fundamental to all branches 
of botanical knowledge, no matter under what name it may masquerade itself. 

Following Dean Coulter's retirement, Dr. Howard E. Enders, new head of the 
department, continued actively to press these demands. He has been very suc- 
cessful in having his requests honored. President Elliott and Comptroller Stewart 
should be commended for their vision and whole hearted support of this project. 

Steel cases, dust, vermin and fire-proof, have been provided to house the 
herbarium collection. A large room is dedicated to herbarium purposes. This 
room is equipped with tables, etc., for the convenience of students using the 
herbarium. Cases at present make space available for our collections of Angio- 
sperms and Fungi but will not permit expansion of these collections. Large 
collections of mosses and ferns are not yet provided for. Additional cases have 
been promised for the near future and we may hope that shortly the entire col- 
lection may be made available and that provision may be made for the rapid 
expansion that is planned. The need of a curator is obvious and requests have 
been made for such a man to devote his entire time to museum and herbarium 
work. 

Following the provisions thus made for the proper care of collections, the 
plant specimens were unpacked and arranged in the cases following Gray's system 
of classification. New collections were mounted and labeled and many old speci- 
mens had to be remounted. This work has now been completed for the Angio- 
sperms. It reveals that at the present time we have a small but very interesting 
collection of flowering plants. Of the Angiosperms 81 percent of the families are 
represented ; 79 percent of the genera and 62 percent of the species. This is a small 
collection as compared to that of neighboring institutions but with the facilities 
now being made available at Purdue we may hope to increase with rapidity the 
number of our collections. 

Our collection of Angiosperms while small is interesting from the standpoint 
of their age, locality and the personnel of the collectors. The oldest specimen 
bears the date of 1831. A number of specimens under date of 1838-39 are to be 
credited to Dr. Clapp. Dr. Clapp was a physician of New Albany, Indiana and 
is famous for his collection of plants from the "Knob" region of southern Indiana, 
Many of the collectors are names well known to this academy including Charles 
R. Barnes, W. S. Blatchley, H. J. Clements, Stanley Coulter, John M. Coulter, 
Alida M. Cunningham, C. C. Deam, H. B. Dorner, Walter H. Evans, W. B. 
VanGorder. A list of the more important collectors is appended to this paper. 

Geographically, the region best represented is Indiana but plants are included 
in considerable numbers from New England, New York, Pennsylvania, New Jer- 
sey, the Carolinas, Florida, Colorado, California, Mexico, South Africa and 
Central Europe. 



The Stanley Coulter Herbarium at Purdue University 117 

Several individuals should be named because of their very active part in the 
rehabilitation of the herbarium. Among these are Dr. E. J. Kohl of the Botany 
Department at Purdue and Dr. Delmar C. Cooper of the Botany Research Staff 
at the Universitjr of Wisconsin. 

Purdue is particularly indebted to Charles C. Deam for his many fine con- 
tributions and for his abiding interest and encouragement. 

The herbarium at Purdue has been named "The Stanley Coulter Herbarium." 
This honor is rightfully due a man who for long years strove ably to preserve the 
Purdue collections and because he and his students have made so many additions 
to the collection, but chiefly because through the inspiration of his teaching and 
his research he has increased so notably the interest of the citizens in the flora of 
their state. 

Important Collectors. 

Aiton Geo. B., Minneapolis, 1890. Arthur, J. C, Purdue, Bailey, W. W., 
Newport, R. I., 1878. Barnes, Charles R., Indiana, 1878. Bishop, J. N., Plains- 
ville, 1879. Blatchley, U. S., Vigo Co., 1888. Canby, Wm. M., Wilmington, Del., 
1862. Clapp, Dr., New Albany, Ind., 1838. Clarke, D., Flint, Mich. Clementa, 
H. J., Daviess Co., 1895. Clinton, G. W., Buffalo, N. Y. Congdon, J. W., East- 
Greenwich, R. I., 1878. Coulter, John M., Hanover, Ind., 1875. Coulter, Stanley, 
Tippecanoe Co., 1899. Cunningham, Alida M., Tippecanoe Co., 1897. Curtiss, 

A. H., Bedford Co., Va., 1872. Davis, J. J., Vinton, Iowa— Racine, Wis., 1878. 
Deam, C. C, Indiana, 1916. Derry, C. W., Oso City, Colo., 1876. Dodderidge, 

B. H., Kosciusko Co., 1914. Donaldson, Black Hills, 1874. Dorner, H. B., 
Tippecanoe Co., 1901. Drake and Dickson, Portland, Ore., 1887. Eggert, H., 
St. Louis, 1876. Evans, Walter H., Crawfordsville, 1889. Farlow, W. G., Mt. 
Washington, N. H., 1884. Foster and Hale, Banks of Wea, 1901. Gillman, Henry, 
Detroit, 1867. Golden, K. E., Tippecanoe Co., 1895. Hall, E., Athens, 111., 1864. 
Harris, W., Kingston, Jamaica, 1915. Hasse, H. E., Los Angeles, Cal., 1890. 
Hoysradt, Lyman H., Pine Plains, N. Y., 1877. Hussey, J., Tippecanoe Co., 1878. 
Hyanis, M. E. Ledman, O. S., St. Louis, Mo., 1908. Lloyd, C. G., Cincinnati, O., 
1879. McCarthy, Geraldus, N. and S. Carolina, 1885. Osborn, Henry L., 
Indiana, 1880. Paine, John A., Fish Creep. Parker, C. F., Philadelphia, 1864. 
Pierron, P. E., St. Vincents College, Westmorland Co., Pa., 1876. Pitts, John B., 
Tippecanoe Co., 1909. Plummer, Dr., Richmond, Ind., 1877. Pringle, C. G., 
Mexico, 1890. Riddle, C, Tippecanoe Co., 1899. Ruger, M., New Jersey. 
Rusby, H. H., New Jersey 1877. Smith, E. P., Hubbardstown, Mich. Smith 
and Gates, Tippecanoe Co., 1902. Spaulding, Randall, Montclair, N. J. Steinitz, 
Wenzel, Flora Hungarica, 1879-80. Templeton, H. G., Kosciusko Co., 1914. 
Thompson, V., Van Gorder, W. B., Tippecanoe Co. Ward, Lester F., Wash- 
ington, D. C, 1876. Wright, S. G., Tippecanoe Co., 1893. Young, A. H., New 
Haven, Conn., 1874, Hanover, Ind., 1876. Young, H. W., Northville, L. I., 1873. 



Additions to the Vascular Flora of Jasper County, Ind., I 119 



ADDITIONS 1 TO THE VASCULAR FLORA OF JASPER 
COUNTY, INDIANA, I 



Winona H. Welch, DePauw University 

The specimens upon which the following enumeration is based are deposited 
in the herbarium of DePauw University. Included with them are the data con- 
cerning the habitats and the dates and places of collection. The nomenclature, 
unless otherwise indicated, is that of Gray's New Manual of Botany, seventh 
edition. 

With the exception of Potamogeton heterophyllus, the species of this genus 
are named by H. St. John. Approximately all species of Gramineae, Cyperaceae, 
and Juncaceae are either identified or checked by C. C. Deam. 

This list consists of 36 families, 61 genera, and 86 species and varieties. 
Three of the families and 18 of the genera are not reported in the first enumeration. 
Due to a few changes in identification, the first report contains 659 speciess intead 
of 662. The present total is 745 species and varieties, 371 genera, and 105 families. 
The asterisk preceding a name indicates that the plant is neither collected nor 
identified by the author. 

Najadaceae: Potamogeton foliosus Raf., var niagarensis (Tuckerm.) Morong; 
*P. heterophyllus Schreb.; p. hybridus Michx.; P. pulcher Tuckerm. 

Gramineae: Alopecurus geniculatus L., var. aristulatus Torr,; *Digitaria 
filiformis (L.) Koeler; **D. humifusa Pers.; Elymus canadensis L.; Eragrostis 
hypnoides (Lam.) BSP.; E. pilosa (L.) Beauv.; Glyceria septentrionalis Hitchc; 
Muhlenbergia foliosa Trim; M. mexicana (L.) Trim; M. Schreberi J. F. Gmel.; 
*Panicnm Deamii Hitchc. & Chase, according to Deam, Grasses of Indiana; 
*P. dichotomiflorum Michx., var. puritanorum Svenson, according to Rhodora 
22:154-155. 1920. (Specimen is in Deam Herbarium); P. verrucosum Muhl.; 
Sporobolus heterolepis Gray; Zizania palustris L. 

Cyperaceae: Cares albolutescens Schweim; C. hystericina Muhl.; C. scoparia 
Schkuhr; Cyperus compressus L.; C. dentatus Torr.; C. dentatus Torr., var. 
ctenostachys Fernald; C. hystricinus Fernald; *Eleocharis melanocarpa Torr.; 
E. Torreyana Boeckl.; *Fimbristylis puberula (Michx.) Vahl, according to Britton 
and Brown, An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the 
British Possessions; Rynchospora glomerata (L.) Vahl; Scirpus Smithii Gray, var. 
setosus Fernald; *S. Torreyi Olney. 

Lemnaceae: Lemna minor L. 
Commelinaceae: Commelina communis L. 
Juncaceae: Juncus canadensis J. Gay; J. pelocarpus Mey. 
Lilaceae: Lilium superbum L. 



Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 40: 119-121. (1930) 1931. 

Enumeration of the vascular flora of Jasper County, Indiana, was published in Proc. Ind 
Acad. Sci., 36: 1926. (1927). 

*Presented to author by C. C. Deam, Bluff ton, Indiana. 
**Presented to author by Miss Madge McKee, Goodland, Indiana. 



120 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

Orchidaceae: Calopogon pxdchellus (Sw.) R. Br. 

Juglandaceae: Cory a cordiformis (Wang.) K. Koch. 

Fagaceae: Quercus palustris Muench. 

Urticaceae: Humulus Lupulus L. 

Polygonaceae: Rumex verticillatus L. 

Amaranthaceae: Acnida tuberculata Moq. 

Caryophyllaceae: Stellaria graminea L. 

Nymphaeaceae: Brasenia Schreberi Gmel. 

Ranunculaceae: Callha palustris L.; Ranunculus delphinifolius Torr. 

Cruciferae: Brassica arvensis (L.) Ktze.; Cardamine parviflora L.; Conringia 
orientalis (L.) Dumort; Radicula aquatica (Eat.) Robinson; R. Nasturtium- 
aquaticum (L.) Britten & Rendle; R. sessiliflora (Nutt.) Greene; Sisymbrium 
canescens Nutt., var. brachycarpon (Richards.) Wats.; Thlaspi arvense L. 

Droseraceae: Drosera longifolia L. 

Rosaceae: Pyrus melanocarpa (Michx.) Willd.; Rosa Carolina L. 

Linaceae: *Linum floridanum (Planch.) Trel., var. intercursum (Rickn.) 
Weatherby, according to Rhodora 18:224. 1916. 

Rutaceae: Zanthoxylum americanum Mill. 

Polygalaceae: Poly gala cruciala L. 

Balsaminaceae: Impatiens pallida Nutt. 

Hypericaceae: Hypericum canadense L.; H. majus (Gray) Britton; H. vir- 
ginicum L. 

Cistaceae: Lechea intermedia Leggett;L. minor L. 

Violaceae: *Viola incognita Brainerd, var. Forbesii Brainerd, according to 
Torrey Club Bull. 38:8. 1911. 

Onagraceae: ^Oenothera rhombipetala Nutt. 

Haloragidaceae: *Myriophyll um scabrat um Mi chx. ; Proserpinaca palustris L . 

Ericaceae: Monotropa uni flora L. 

Gentianaceae: Gentiana crinala Froel. 

Convolvulaceae: Convolvulus arvenis L. 

Polemoniaceae: Phlox glaberrima L. 

Labiatae: Mentha arvensis L., var. canadensis (L.) Briquet; M. spicata L 

Scrophulariaceae: Gratiola sphaerocarpa Ell.; Veronica anagallis-aguatica L. 

Plantaginaceae: **Planta{/o virginica L. 

Compositae: Aster linariifolius L.; A. sericeus Vent.; **Bidens imlgata. 
Greene; Helianthus giganteus L.; H. occidentalis Riddell; Hieracium canadense 
Michx. 



Additions to the Vascular Flora of Jasper County, Ind., I 121 

Corrections to 1925 List 

Eryngium yuccifolium Michx. was accidentally placed in Compositae instead 
of Umbelliferae. 

According to C. C. Deam, Bromus hordeaceus L., var. leptoslachys (Pers.) 
Beck, should be B. secalinus L.; Calamagrostis inexpansa Gray = C . canadensis 
(Michx.) Beauv.; Glyceric/, borealis (Nash) Batchelder = G. plicata Fries.; 
Panicum miliaceum L. = Sorghum vulgare L., var. sudanense (Piper) Hitchc; 
P. cillosissimum Nash = P. Scribnerainum Nash; Salsola KaliL. = S. Kali L., 
var. tenuifolia G. F. W. Mey. 



The Phytoplankton of a Solution Pond 123 



THE PHYTOPLANKTON OF A SOLUTION POND WITH 

SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE PERIODICITY 

OF CERTAIN ALGAE 



Helen L. White, Larwill 

Review of Literature. Numerous contributions have been made to the 
knowledge of algal periodicity in England and, from time to time, in this country. 
The pioneer work in this field was done by Fritsch. In a paper of his (15) pub- 
lished in 1906, he suggested problems for investigation and later, in collaboration 
with Rich, carried out observations on the "Occurrence and Reproduction of 
Algae in Nature" (16). They found that Spirogyra exhibits a purely vernal or 
both vernal and autumnal phase with an intervening space of scarcity or complete 
disappearance. Reproduction takes place in the vernal phase, and is most prob- 
ably the result of certain periodically recurring combinations of factors, which 
vary for different species. They concluded that dilution of the water to its ordinary 
degree of concentration is necessary to an autumnal phase of Spirogyra. 

West (45) worked on the Desmid plankton and their distribution and periodic- 
ity in some British Lakes. Later Pearsal contributed several valuable papers. 
He found that Diatoms were more abundant or dominant during the winter, that 
a deficiency of oxygen, nitrates, silica or calcium was usually a limiting factor 
and that diatom maximum follows a flood period. Later he made four hundred 
complete and several thousand partial analyses of surface water which tend to 
confirm his Diatom Theory (33). 

Griffiths (19) found that deep pools contained little or no Chlorophyceae 
while in shallow pools, they become more numerous. A great abundance of 
Myxophyceae is not usual in shallow pools. He also found the desmid constituent 
associated with a high K-Na/Ca-Mg salts ratio and low organic content of the 
water. According to him, the dominance of the Myxophyceae may be ascribed to 
the increasing organic enrichment of the anaerobic type. Many of the so-called 
"water blooms" occur in the fall when the seasonal vertical circulation is bringing 
up to the surface layers the fermentation products from the bottom of the lakes. 
Certain algae, namely the Protococcales, are associated with the occurence of 
sediments lying in shallow water where the oxygen content of the water is relatively 
high. Other algae, the Volvocales, are not only associated with the organic enrich- 
ment in general but also with the aeration of the water beyond that due to absorp- 
tion from the atmosphere. 

Delf (11) found a well marked periodicity in the occurence of the majority 
of the algae in the ponds of Hampstead Heath, where the period of greatest di- 
versity and abundance was from February to April or May, and corresponded to 
a period of variable rainfall, gradually ascending temperatures, increasing light 
intensity and of comparatively slight development of animal life. Delf's obser- 
vations of Hampstead Heath ponds tend to confirm Fritsch's views on the seasonal 
activity of Spirogyra. 

Whipple and Parker (49) made a study of the amount of dissolved oxygen 
and carbonic acid in natural waters and the effect of these upon the occurence of 
microscopic organisms. Special attention was given to the effect of decomposing 

Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 40: 123-138. (1930) 1931. 



124 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

organic matter, sewage pollution, stagnation of deep lakes, etc., upon the 
gaseous content of the waters. In water with a high organic content, bacterial 
decomposition may take place. The result is a reduction of the oxygen content 
of the water which is frequently true of shallow ponds in the summer. Bodies 
of surface water have what may be called a process of gaseous exchange like that 
which takes place in respiration, taking in oxygen and giving out carbon dioxide 
and again a taking in of carbon dioxide and giving off of oxygen and the effect of 
this process upon the presence of the microscopic organism was noted by these 
authors. They also point out the relation between the high carbonic acid in 
ground waters and the peculiar tendency of such waters to support growths of 
diatoms. Carbonic acid and oxygen both are necessary to the life of the plankton 
and the presence or absence of one or both of these gases helps to explain certain 
problems of vertical and seasonal distribution. 

American investigators of this problem have been Walker, Brown, Copeland, 
Chambers, Piatt, Transeau, and Anderson. 

Brown (5) made a study of the periodicity of algae in certain ponds and 
streams in and near Bloomington, one of which was the pond upon which this 
study is based. The temperature of the water and air was recorded for each visit 
to the pond but the hydrogen-ion concentration of the water was not taken. The 
solid matter in the water was estimated but the organic content was not deter- 
mined. 

Copeland (9) made a study of periodicity of Spirogyra in nature and at- 
tempted to parallel natural conditions in laboratory cultures. He concluded that 
conjugation in Spirogyra results not so much from external as from internal con- 
ditions. 

Anderson and Walker (1) studied the seasonal distribution of algae in some 
Sandhill Lakes. They found the desmids most abundant in July. Other green 
algae were found throughout the period of observation but were most conspicuous 
in the month of July. These authors describe a situation in the Sandhill Lakes 
which coincides with a condition of the pond in this study, that is, the effect of 
pasturing upon the occurence of the Cyanophyceae. They mention Anabaena 
and Nostoc as dominant algae occurring with Spirogyra, Scytonema, Oedogonium 
and Mougeotia. 

Transeau (41) classified algae into winter, spring, summer, and autumn 
annuals, perennials, ephemerals and irregulars. He discovered that continued 
high water was attended by increased fruiting of algae. In his study of the plank- 
ton of the Illinois River, he found no marked evidence in the presence of nitrates 
and diatom periodicity (40) . The diatom pulses do not show any constant relation 
to the movement in nitrates either in amount or direction. He suggests this may 
be due to the sewage contamination, which is far in excess of the demand which 
the diatoms make. The distribution of the diatom pulses throughout the year 
seems to preclude the factor of temperature as the immediate cause of pulse except 
as it may effect the growth of the individual species. He suggests a correlation 
between the plankton pulses and the lunar cycle. 

Chambers (7) found an intimate and mutual relation between the algae and 
the submerged aquatics in a body of water and the gases dissolved in that water. 
They fluctuate together. Stagnant water, on account of the large amount of 
carbon dioxide and the small amount of oxygen favors the formation of colonies 
and filamentous rather than free individual cells. Colonies and filamentous forms 
may be produced artificially with some plants, by increasing the amount of carbon 



The Phytoplankton of a Solution Pond 125 

dioxide or diminishing the amount of oxygen in the culture solutions. Narrow, 
much branched filaments are adapted to and produced by poorly aerated water . 
The periodicity of spore formation is not readily influenced by aeration or gas 
content of the water. It seems to be more a matter of heredity. 

The Pond. The body of water studied was a small fresh water pond about 
one and a quarter miles northeast of Bloomington. The pond is situated on the 
top of Roger's Hill overlooking Bloomington and surrounding country and is one 
of the highest points in Monroe County with an elevation of 940 feet. It is oval 
in shape. Scattered throughout a large part of the pond is Typha latifolia L. 
Associated with Typha in the shallower portion of the pond, is Echinochloa 
crusgalli (L.) Beauv. which forms a margin in some parts. Ricciocarpus natans 
(L.) Corca may be found more or less in abundance floating among the Typha 
stems. On the east side of the pond is a zone of Cephalanthus occidentalis L., 
Polygonum pennsylvanicum L., Acalypha virginica L., Ambrosia artemisiifolia L., 
and Bidens frondosa L. are common plants along the margin of the pond. 

In the spring of 1926, the pond measured about fifty feet across and was 
thirty inches deep in the middle. In October 1929, the pond measured forty-two 
feet from shore to shore at its narrowest part and sixty feet in length. Measure- 
ments were taken again January 25th when the pond was covered with a layer of 
ice two inches thick. The measurements at that time were fifty-seven feet wide, 
and seventy feet long with a depth of twenty-one inches in the middle. 

The geology of this pond was explained fully by Scott in 1910 (36) and more 
recently reviewed by Welch in 1928 (44). Let it suffice here to say that the pond 
is the result of the clogging of an old sink hole due to an accumulation of silt and 
plant debris over the bottom. It is underlain by Mitchell limestone. At the be- 
ginning of this study, there was no outlet to the pond and the greatest loss of 
water was due to evaporation and probably to some seepage through the rock 
beneath. The pond is fed by a small spring running into it from the north side. 
While the pond seemingly remains stagnant, at no time have I found it to become 
foul. This fact was also noted by Brown (5). The pond is rapidly filling up, both 
from natural causes by the accumulation of silt and plant debris and by artificial 
means. This fact is evident when considering the difference in measurements 
recorded by those who have studied the pond in 1906 and 1910. About a year ago 
the owner of the land made an unsuccessful attempt to drain the pond by making 
a ditch on the south side so the hill top might be available for cultivation. It is 
only a matter of a few seasons until this destruction will have reached completion. 
Therefore, it was with much surprise that I discovered in the pond forty-two 
species of algae representing thirty-two different genera. Of these, by far the 
greatest number of species were Desmids, although the individual species were 
not particularly conspicuous in numbers. 

Methods of Collection and Preservation. Observations began in Apri 
1926 and continued at an average of twice a week until in August when they were 
discontinued and the study was not resumed until September 1929. As may be 
expected, changes occurred in the pond during the three years which elapsed. At 
one time it was known to have become completely dry in October, 1928. Naturally 
this would affect the occurrence and abundance of the algae in the pond, reducing 
some, and giving others a chance of flourishing when the pond again filled with 
water. That striking changes have occurred in the algal flora of the pond in the 
twenty-three years since Brown's study may be seen by an examination of the 
following list. 



126 



Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 



Species 



Closterium strigosum Breb 

C. Dianae Ehrb 

C. Ehrenbergii 

Cosmarium zygospores 

C. Botrytis Menegh . 

C. tetraopthalmum Kuetz. 

Docidium crenulatum Raben 

Spirogyra majuscula Kuetz 

Zygnema cruciatum (Vauch.) Ag 

Z. stellum Ag. 

Oedogonium crassiusculum Wittr 

O. undulatum Breb 

O. Sp 

Chaetophora pisiformis (Roth) Ag 

Bulbochaete crenulata Prings 

Ulothrix aequalis Kutz 

Coleochaete scutata Breb 

Herposteiron on Oe. crassiusculum 

Gloecystis gigas (Kuetz.) Lagerh. 

Ophiocytium bicuspidatum (Borge) Lemm. 
Anabaena sp 



Brown 
1906 



Scott 
1910 



White 
1926 



X 



White 
1929 



Samples of water containing algae were taken from the pond and examined 
under the microscope in the laboratory. The relative abundance of the organisms 
was based upon the examination of a number of microscopic fields for each sample. 
The charts (Fig. 2-3) illustrate in a diagramatic way the relative abundance of the 
more dominant species. A stoppered bottle fastened securely to a long pole was 
lowered in the pond, the stopper removed to allow the bottle to fill with water, 
replaced and drawn to the surface. Water samples were taken in this manner for 
the determination of the hydrogen-ion concentration of the water at the different 
points in the pond. No very striking results were obtained and it is sufficient to 
say that the water was very nearly normal at each of the tests. Surface water of 
lakes is usually about normal. The depth of the pond may not have been great 
enough to give any marked difference in the tests. While tests of the water were 
made at different depths, namely, the surface, four and six inches below the sur- 
face and on the bottom, the results ranged from 6.8 before the heavy rains of 
November and 7.2 after the rains. For the determination of the acidity of the 
water the colorometric method was used. At first, results were verified with the 
electrometric method but, since the results compared very well, the former was 
used thereafter. 

After identifications were made, the specimens were fixed in formalin acetic 
alcohol, later washed and preserved in seventy percent alcohol, after which they 
were sealed and placed in the Indiana University herbarium. For each specimen 
preserved, the location, date of collection and other necessary data were recorded 
in an alphabetized card index. A list of the algae identified during the course of 



The Phytoplankton of a Solution Pond 



127 



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128 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

this study is entered in an accession book. Many species of algae from sources 
other than the hill pond were identified and placed in the herbarium. These, with 
the species identified from the solution pond are included in the list accompanying 
this paper. Only the specimens collected and identified in the fall and winter of 
1929 and 19.30 were preserved. The species were checked by Palmer's check list 
(27) and a list of algae identified during this study which had not been recorded 
for the state of Indiana was made. 

Climatological Data. In order to interpret the following pages, a discussion 
of some climatological factors will be helpful. The maximum and minimum daily 
temperatures and the mean for Bloomington are tabulated in Table 2. The 
number of days clear, partly cloudy and cloudy for each month in question is 
given in Table 3 and the daily precipitation is shown on Table 4. 

In February 1926 the average precipitation for the month was somewhat 
above normal. Following the comparatively warm weather of February with a 
mean temperature of 34.5 degrees for the State, March was colder throughout, 
having a mean temperature of 34.3 degrees. Only twice in the past forty years 
has March been so cold. Precipitation averaged below the normal and there was 
little sunshine during the month. Development of vegetation was slow and the 
season was a week or ten days behind the normal. April was a very cold month. 
The mean temperature was the lowest for April since 1907 and with that exception 
the lowest on official record. The temperature for May was somewhat above nor- 
mal. June was cooler. With the exception of June 1902, it was the coldest June 
on official record. The only warm spell extended from the 11th to the fourteenth 
and then the temperature was only of moderate degree. The month of July was 
nearly normal in temperature and cloudiness, however Bloomington had a de- 
ficiency of two inches in precipitation. The greatest precipitation for Bloomington 
occurring at any one time during the month was 0.94 inches on the third. That 
for the remainder of the month was very minute in quantity. 

September 1929 was the fifth month with a mean temperature below normal. 
The precipitation for Bloomington for this month was interpolated from surround- 
ing stations and estimated to be 4.17 inches. The warmest part of the month 
occurred from the first to the fourth, during which time a maxima of 90 degrees 
and above were quite general. The lowest temperatures in all parts of the state 
were on the eighteenth and nineteenth. 

October averaged below normal in temperature, however there were no 
record breaking extremes. The precipitation was 1.72 inches in excess for Bloom- 
ington. November was the coldest November since 1911. The beginning of the 
month was mild but zero weather prevailed at the close. The precipitation for 
Bloomington was slightly in excess of the average for the month. The below zero 
temperatures recorded for the second and third of December were followed by 
two weeks of mild weather. Colder weather extended from the nineteenth to the 
twenty-fourth inclusive. In spite of the extremely low temperatures, the average 
was slightly above the normal for the month. The precipitation for this month, 
like November, was slightly in excess. 

January was the ninth successive month with an average temperature for 
the state below normal and the temperature for Bloomington was 1.4 degrees 
lower than the average. The precipitation for Bloomington was 5.23 inches in 
excess, with a total precipitation of 8.87 inches for the month. Flood condition^ 
prevailed in many parts of the state. 



The Phytoplankton of a Solution Pond 



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The Phytoplankton of a Solution Pond 131 

February was the warmest February on official record for the state. The 
temperature for Bloomington was 13 degrees higher than the average for the 
month. The precipitation for Bloomington was 0.74 inches in excess but the aver- 
age precipitation of the entire state had a deficiency of 0.05 inches. 

The Flagellates. The only member of the flagellates observed in any quan- 
tity was Euglena viridis Ehrb. In the fall of 1929, a few specimens of Euglena 
spirogyra Ehrb. were collected. The former was first collected in June 1926 grow- 
ing abundantly in tiny pools along the water's edge made by the foot tracks of 
cattle as they came for water. The flagellate was found on the northeast side near 
the spring entrance and at that time formed a thin light green scum over the sur- 
face of the water. The water level was very low due to a deficiency in precipitation 
for the state for the month of May and June of 1.12 inches and 0.90 inch respec- 
tively. By June twentieth Euglena viridis had disappeared. 

July third, the pond was replenished by rains and the water had risen several 
inches. The water in the pond had been considerably stirred up, however Euglena 
viridis was abundant around the edge of the pond. It was present as a pale green 
scum in some points, in others, it was distributed throughout the water im- 
parting a greenish tint to the water. Three days later, Euglena viridis had disap- 
peared entirely. On my visit to the pond July sixteenth, I found the water level 
much lower and the depth at the center only eighteen inches. The ground, which 
was drying up, caking in some places, had a soft green, film-like covering. In 
some places, the green gave place to a brownish color. Upon examination it was 
learned that this was Euglena viridis which had encysted as the water began to dry 
up. This, then, accounted for the sudden disappearance of the flagellate by June 
twentieth and its reappearance after the rain July third. It disappeared per- 
manently after July eighth. 

Although Euglena viridis was found in great abundance in 1926, only an occa- 
sional specimen was found in the fall of 1929. In fact, the flagellate was so scarce 
as to be considered a negligible constituent of the plankton. Although it appears 
sparingly at all times of the year, it may increase more rapidly in the summer. 
Bracher (4) states that Euglena is less sensitive to low temperatures than diatoms. 
Since diatoms were found more or less abundantly in the pond during the fall, the 
absence of Euglena viridis at this time must have some other explanation. Tem- 
perature evidently is not the limiting factor in this case. Euglena viridis is es- 
pecially sensitive to light and its abundance in June 1926 may be partly accounted 
for in this way, for, during the month of June, sixteen days were clear, eleven only 
partly cloudy and three cloudy. 

Fritsch states that the amount of dissolved substances in the water acts as 
a limiting factor. Probably in this lies the explanation for the abundance of 
Euglena viridis in June, and early July 1926 and its almost total absence in Sep- 
tember and October 1929. Cattle came to the spring to drink and at the same time 
supplied the water with nitrogenous waste, thus increasing the amount of organic 
matter in the pond. During the time which elapsed between my periods of obser- 
vation, the field was under cultivation, thus cutting off this source of organic 
material. 

The Cyanophyceae. Representatives of five genera of Cyanophyceae were 
collected in the pond during the time the pond was under my observation. They 
were Nostoc verrucosum (Linn.) Vauch., Anabaena sp., Rivularia sp., Chroccoccus 
sp., and Cylindrospermum limnicola Kg. Of these, all except Cylindrospermum 



132 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

were found in the summer of 1926. Nostoc verrucosum, Anabaena and Rivularia 
were found in a similar place in the pond. Of these three, Anabaena was most 
abundant, occurring with Nostoc among decaying Oedogonium and plant tissue, 
all of which formed a dark brown scum floating near the center of the pond. A lux- 
uriant growth of Spirogyra preceded the development of the Cyanophyceae and, 
as the Spirogyra broke down, the blue greens reached their maximum which was 
about the last of June. Cylindrospermum was found on moist soil on the south 
side of the pond September 30, 1929. While it was collected frequently with 
Vaucheria in the weeks immediately following, at no time was it observed in any 
great quantity. Not a trace of the genera of blue greens observed in 1926 was 
found in any samples taken in the fall of 1929. 

Since most investigators have found that Cyanophyceae reach their maximum 
during the cooler months, usually in September and October, and since none were 
observed at this time of the year, it may be that they were absent in the summer 
of 1929 and an explanation for their absence may be sought in the composition of 
the water. Cyanophyceae grow readily in water with a high organic content, the 
presence of nitrates being highly favorable. (32). There is a great deal of decaying 
plant fibers, grasses, Typha, etc., in the pond but evidently these decaying plant 
tissues do not supply enough organic material for the flourishing of the Cyano- 
phyceae. The deficiency may lie in the nitrate content of the water and must have 
been supplied from some other source. As has been previously stated, in 1926 the 
hillside was pastured and cattle visited the pond for water and also supplied the 
water with nitrogenous waste. As has been mentioned, Euglena viridis was abun- 
dant at that time and only seldom collected recently, it seems reasonable to assume 
that a lack of nitrates in the water may be responsible for the absence of both the 
blue greens and Euglena viridis. 

Acting upon this hypothesis, two samples of water were taken from the pond 
on the north and east sides respectively and were tested for organic matter on the 
twenty-eighth of February, 1930. The method and determination is given as 
follows: Place in a porcelain casserole 200 cc. of the water under examination and 
add 10 cc. of dilute sulphuric acid. It was then heated rapidly to incipient boiling 
and a standard permanganate solution from a burette run in until the water had 
a marked pink color. The solution was boiled thirty minutes, more permanganate 
being added from time to time, if necessary, in order to maintain approximately 
the intensity of red color observed at the start. A little distilled water was added 
from time to time to replace the loss due to evaporation. After removing from the 
fire, 10 cc. or more oxalic acid was added to destroy the color and then perman- 
ganate added till a faint pink tinge again appeared. From the total permanganate 
used the amount corresponding to 10 cc. or more of oxalic acid was deducted and 
from the remainder the milligrams of required oxygen consumed by the organic 
matter present in the water was calculated. Correction must be made for nitrates, 
ferrous salts or hyrdogen sulphide, if any of them be present. 

Determination of iron : A standard iron solution was prepared by dissolving 
0.1 gram pure iron in a little HC1 to which a few drops of HN0 3 have been added, 
evaporating to dryness, moistening with HC1 and then diluting to one litre. One 
cc. of this solution will contain 0.1 milligramme of iron. 

For the determination 100 cc. water was evaporated to dryness, ignited at 
low redness sufficient to decompose the organic matter and 5 cc. concentrated 
HC1 added. It was warmed slightly, filtered, washed and diluted to 100 cc. in a 
Nessler tube and few drops of potassium permanganate solution added to make 



The Phytoplankton of a Solution Pond 133 

pink color persist five minutes. Five c.c. of potassium sulphocyanide solution wa 
added and the depth of color produced was compared with those of known amount 
of the standard iron solution which have been diluted and treated in the same way 
with similar quantities of HC1, KMnC>4 and KCnS. 

Determination of nitrates: One hundred cc. of water was placed in a Nessler 
tube, 2 cc. sulphanilic acid solution and 2 cc. of solution of hydrochloride of 
napthylamine added, mixed and allowed to stand for thirty minutes. At the same 
time other Nessler tubes were prepared containing known amounts of standard 
solution of sodium nitrate and diluted to the mark with distilled water and re- 
agents added as in the other sample. When the time had expired the depth of pink 
color of the unknown was compared with the known and accurate determination 
of the amount of nitrogen present was made. The steps in the process and the 
results are expressed as follows: 

Sample I. 

Permanganate solution . 26.95 cc. 

Oxalic acid 12.70 cc 

10.5 CC. Oxalic acid — 10 cc. permanganate. 
1 10 

1 cc. = of 10 or 

10.05 10.05 

10 

of 12.7 = 12.63 cc. of oxalic acid required to react with the per- 

10.05 
manganate solution. 

26.95 cc — 12.63 cc. =14.32 cc. of permanganate required to oxidize the 
organic matter. 

1 cc. permanganate =0.1 mg. available oxygen. Therefore 14.32 times 
0.1 =1.432 mg. oxygen used. 

1.432 times 5 = 7.16 mg. oxygen required per milion parts. 
Sample II. 

Permanganate solution 27.00 cc. 

Oxalic acid required. 13.25 cc. 

10.05 cc. of oxalic = 10 cc. permanganate. 
1 10 

1 cc. oxalic acid = times 10 or = 13.18 cc. oxalic acid required 

10.05 10.05 

by the permanganate. 

27.00 cc — 13.18 cc. =13.82 cc. permanganate required for oxidation. 

1 cc. permanganate =0.1 mg. oxidizing power. 

13.82 times 0.1 mg. =1.382 mg. of 0. 

1.382 mg. times 5=6.91 mg. per million parts. 

In each sample the ferrous iron and nitrites were present in such minute 
quantities that they were disregarded entirely. The organic material is expressed 
as milligrammes of oxygen required to oxidize the organic matter present in the 
water. The results of the tests show that the pond water has a very high organic 
content. 

Chlorophyceae. As is true in many shallow ponds, the green algae occur- 
ring in the pond are by far the most conspicuous and abundant at all times of the 



134 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

year. The Conjugatae were observed fruiting in April and were most abundant 
during April and May with the exception of Spirogyra crassa which may be found 
locally in the pond at all times of the year. It was observed in abundance from 
April to June in 1926 and was collected at each visit during 1929 and was the 
dominant species of the east side of the pond. The alga was observed fruiting the 
twenty-third of September and in October 1929. No mention of Spirogyra crassa 
in this pond was made by any previous investigator. In fact, no species of Spiro- 
gyra was recorded by Brown (5) from the pond. The species referred to here as 
Spirogyra crassa corresponds to the Spirogyra crassa (Hass) Wittrock except in its 
extremely large size. The cells of the vegetative filaments are (an average of four) 
111 microns by 148 microns. The fruiting filaments measured 148 by 213 microns. 
The zygotes measured 195 by 130 microns. The last was an average of seven meas- 
urements taken. Many specimens were found with slightly greater measurements. 
It is possible that the specimen here is not crassa but some other species, however, 
the author was not able to find a species in which the measurements corresponded 
with those found and throughout this paper the specimen is referred to as Spiro- 
gyra crassa. Spirogyra disappeared temporarily after the rains of early November. 
At no time was it observed floating. 

Other species of Spirogyra were collected from time to time in 1929 mixed 
with Spirogyra crassa, however, they exhibited no great abundance and were not 
found fruiting in the fall of 1929. No marked autumnal phase in Spirogyra was 
noted. This may have been due to the lack of rainfall. According to Fritsch and 
Rich, an autumnal phase depends upon the proper dilution of the water. 

The genus Zygnema was represented in the pond by Zygnema crucialum 
(Vauch.) Ag. and was found to be rather abundant in 1906 in March, occurring 
in the edge of the pond in shallow water. (Brown 5). It disappeared in June. 
Zygnema insigne (Hass) Kutz. was observed by the author in April 1926 associated 
with Vaucheria geminata racemosa (Vauch.) Walz. Both were found fruiting 
April thirteenth. By the middle of May they had entirely disappeared and no 
trace of either was found throughout the summer. They occurred in the northeast 
side of the pond near the entrance of the spring. 

October twenty-fourth, 1929 a few scattered unhealthy looking filaments of 
Zygnema were collected on the northeast side of the pond where in 1926 the species 
had occurred in such abundance. It was not expected to occur in any abundance 
at this time of the year but the author thought it might have died out during the 
time elapsing since the study began. November thirteenth, a few unhealthy 
filaments of Zygnema were found on the southeast side of the pond, the first 
specimens to be collected from this section of the pond. This would indicate that 
Zygnema probably will occur in the spring in its usual abundance and be found 
in a larger area of the pond than previously. 

Oedogonium which occurs with Spirogyra crassa and Tribonema on the east 
side of the pond attached to rails extending into the water and to dead stems, at no 
time during my observation reached any marked degree of dominance. It is pos- 
sible that the species suffers from competition with the two filamentous algae with 
which it occurs (11). Spirogyra crassa occurs at all times of the year and may be 
important in keeping Oedogonium from becoming dominant. Tribonema tends 
to become dominant during lower temperatures and Spirogyra crassa in the 
spring. Hence a constant struggle for Oedogonium. The alga was observed at all 
times of the year but was more abundant in the spring months. 



The Phytoplankton of a Solution Pond 135 

Brown (5) refers to Oedogonium crassiusculum Wittr. as abundant and the 
dominant alga of the pond in September 1906 found attached to dead Typha 
stems. He also found Bulbochaete in November 1906 persisting throughout the 
winter. While Bulbo< ha^te was collected in June 1926, no trace of the genus was 
found in the fall of 1929. According to Scott (36) in 1910, Oedogonium undu- 
latum Breb. was the most abundant alga in the pond and was present throughout 
the year. 

Tribonema tends to become dominant during the lower temperatures of the 
fall and winter. It was found abundant on the east side in November and Decem- 
ber. According to Fritsch, it would seem that bright sunshine is not essential to its 
growth because of its abundance at a time of the year when sunshine is lowest and 
also its location in the only shady portion of the pond near the only woody shrub. 
The shade loving habit of this plant was observed by Delf (11) and later by Hod- 
getts (21). Delf found Tribonema to have a well marked maximum in February 
and March with a less distinctive secondary maximum in October and November. 

Only one species of Vaucheria, namely V. geminata racemosa (Vauch.) Walz. 
was collected from the pond. It was first observed by Brown fruiting in October 
1906 but is not recorded as occurring in the pond by Scott (36) in 1910. The alga 
was associated with Zygnema insigne (Hass.) Kutz. and was quite abundant in 
April and May 1926 when it was observed fruiting. At that time it was collected 
at only one point in the pond, the northeast side. At the first visit to the pond in 
September 1929, the water was very low. Vaucheria grew on moist earth forming 
a felt-like covering near the water's edge all around the pond. It was in a vegeta- 
tive state. It seems to prefer the cooler months covering the moist ground around 
the edge of the pond in October and November. In April 1926, the alga was 
observed only at one side of the pond. This suggests a possible fall maximum in 
October and November. There was a large amount of precipitation between the 
visits to the pond of October 24th and November 7th. On the latter date, the pond 
was three feet wider on each side. The Vaucheria which previously formed a cover- 
ing on the moist earth was now submerged and was first observed fruiting at this 
visit. Thereafter, from time to time, filaments were found in fruit but soon 
loosened themselves from the substratum, took on an unhealthy appearance and 
died. Very few species of algae were collected near the edge of the pond at this 
time. During the latter part of November and the first of December, all algal 
growth seemed suspended and little or no material was collected. Only Tribonema 
was conspicuous. 

Throughout the ensuing month, algae were grown in the laboratory on agar- 
agar and in Knop's nutritive solution. The latter was made of four parts calcium 
nitrate and one part each of magnesium sulphate, potassium nitrate and potassium 
phosphate. The last three were dissolved in distilled water and added to the 
solution of Calcium Nitrate and the whole diluted to from 0.2 to 0.5 percent. 
A trace of iron sulphate was added to the solution. 

The mild weather of the month of February was favorable to the growth of 
Vaucheria and the alga flourished in unusual abundance near the edge of the pond. 
Large quantities of splendid fruiting material was collected and preserved. 

Desmids. Of the forty-two species of algae identified from the hill pond 
seventeen belonged to the Desmidiaceae. They were present in the pond at all 
times of the year. Hyalotheca dissiliens (Smith) Breb. and Closterium Venus Kg. 
were collected in May. Both continued throughout June and the latter extended 
into July. Micraslerias radiata Hass., by far the most abundant of any of the 



136 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

desmids in the pond throughout the summer, Staurastrum alternans Breb., St. 
Minnesotense Wolle, Xanthidium fasciculatum (Ehrb.) Ralfs., and Closterium 
subtile Breb. were also found in June. While Micrasterias radiata Hass. was the 
dominant desmid, Staurastrum, Hyalotheca, Cosmarium, and Closterium may 
be considered numerous, Docidium Trabecula (Ehrb.) Naeg., Desmidium apto- 
gonium Breb., scattered and Gumnozyga, Gonatozygon, and Cylindrocystis, rare. 

During the fall of 1929, Micrasterias radiata Hass. was most abundant. It 
was found in the south side near the edge of the pond during September, October, 
and early part of November among sediment and decaying plants. After the heavy 
rains of late October and the first of November, the desmid disappeared and has 
not been collected since. Arlhrodesmus convergent (Ehrb.) Ralfs., Desmidium 
aptogonium, Breb., Cosmarium ovale Ralfs., and Micrasterias Crux-melitensis Ehrb. 
were observed once during the fall. Cosmarium Botrytis Menegh., Docidium 
Trabecula (Ehrb.) Naeg. were of frequent occurrence and Closterium moniliferum 
Ehrb. was found occasionally. 

The accompanying lists will illustrate the occurrence of these algae. By far 
the greatest number of species were found in June. 

Closterium Dianae Ehrb., Cosmarium tetraophthalmum Kuet., Docidium 
crenulatum Raben., reported by Scott (36) and Closterium Ehrenbergii by Brown 
(5) in 1906 were not found during this study. No Hyalotheca or Straurastrum 
were observed by Brown in 1906. Closterium and Docidium seem to thrive best 
in shallow water among filaments of Vaucheria geminata racemosa (Vauch.) Walz. 
Hodgetts (21) found that monthly mean temperatures of 10 to 15.5 degrees 
Centigrade were most favorable to desmid growth. Only a moderate amount of 
bright sunshine is required for vegetative growth but abundant bright sunshine 
is necessary to conjugation. According to this study, Closterium exhibits a de- 
cided vernal phase which confirms the view of Hodgetts. However a few specimens 
of Closterium moniliferum Ehrb. were collected on two occasions in September 
and October but they seem to prefer the higher temperatures. No conjugating 
specimens were observed at any time during this study. 

Summary. Refore reaching any particular conclusions, it is understood that 
a more detailed study of several phases of this problem is necessary, one of which 
is the determination of nitrates of the water. However, the following are significant. 

1 . While Euglena is sensitive to light, and less so to temperature, the limiting 
factor in this case, is probably a deficiency in nitrates. 

2. While Cyanophyceae usually do not occur in great abundance in shallow 
ponds, their absence in 1929 and 1930 is likely due to a lack of nitrates. Cyano- 
phyceae and Euglena may be considered as indicators of the relative amount of 
nitrogenous matter in the water. 

3. Green algae predominate in the pond. Desmids make up a large part 
of the algal flora and reach their maximum in the summer. 

4. Vaucheria showed a very decided maximum in February. 

5. Tribonema was the most important alga of the pond in November and 
December. 

6. Micrasterias radiata was conspicuous in the early fall of 1929. 

Algae From the Pond. 

Flagellates 
Euglena viridis Ehrb., June-July 1926. 
Euglena spirogyra Ehrb., Sept.-Oct. 1929. 



The Phytoplankton of a Solution Pond 137 

Cyanophyceae 
Nostocaceae: 

Nostoc verrucosum (L.) Vauch., June 1926. 

Anabaena sp., June 1926. 

Cylindrospermum limnicola Kg., Sept.-Oct. 1929. 
Rivulariaceae : 

Rivularia sp., June 1926. 
Chroococceae: 

Chrococcus sp., July 1926. 

ChloropMjceae 
Zygnemaceae: 

Zygnema insigne (Hass.) Kutzing., April-May 1926. 

Spirogyra portcalis (Muller) Cleve, April-May 1926. 

Spirogyra crassa (Hass.) Wittrock, 1926-1929. 
Spirogyra neglecta (Hass.) Kutz., April 1926. 

Spirogyra mirablis (Hass.) Kutz., Nov. 1929. 

Spirogyra fluviatilis (Hilse) Raben., Oct. 1929. 
Desmidiaceae : 

Desmidium aptogonium Breb., May-June 1926, Sept. 1929. 

Docidium Trabecula (Ehrb.) Naeg., July 1926, Sept. 1929. 

Micrasterias radiata Hass., June-Aug. 1926, Sept.-Oct.-Nov. 1929. 

Strarastrum alternans Breb., June 1926. 

Staurastrum Minnesotense Wolle, June-July 1926. 

Xanthidium fasiculatum (Ehrb.) Ralfs., June 1926. 

Hyalotheca dissiliens (Smith) Breb., May-June 1926. 

Gymnozyga sp., July 1926. 

Cosmarium Botrytis Menegh., July 1926, Sept. 1929. 

Closterium Venus Kg., May-June 1926. 

Closterium moniliferum Ehrb., Sept. 1929. 

Closterium subtile Breb., June 1926. 

Gonatozygon sp., July 1926. 

Cylindrocystis sp. 

Micrasterias Crux-melitensis Ehrb., Oct. 1929. 

Cosmarium ovale Ralfs., Oct. 1929. 

Arthrodesmus convergens (Ehrb.) Ralfs., Sept. 1929. 
Oedogoniaceae: 

Oedogonium sp., April-July 1926, Sept. 

Bulbochaete sp., June 1926. 
Vaucheriaceae : 

Vaucheria geminata racemosa (Vauch.) Walz., April-May 1926, Sept. 1929. 
Volvocaceae : 

Chalamydomonas pulviusculus Ehrb., Sept.-Oct.-Nov. 1929. 
Palmellaceae: 

Tetraspora lubrica (Roth.) Ag., April-July 1926. 

Gloecystis sp., July 1926. 
Confervales: 

Tribonema sp., 1926-1929. 



Cylindrocapsa sp., 1926. 
Microspora sp., 1926. 



138 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

Characium Pringsheimii Braun., June 1826, fall 1929. 
Botryococcus Braunii Kutz., July 1926. 
Bacillaricae: 

Navicula viridis Kg., June-July 1926, fall 1929. 

Algae Not Previously Reported for Indiana. 

Staurastrum Minnesotense Wolle, Spirulina teniussima Kutz. Spirogyra 
portcalis (Muller) Cleve., Spirogyra fluviatilis (Hilse) Raben., Spirogyra insignis 
var. Rraunii Raben., Cylindrospermum limnicola Kg., Oscillatoria splendida 
Brev., Micrasterias radiata Hassal., Closterium subtile Breb., Herposterion con- 
fervicola Nageli., (The genus was reported for the state in 1908 in Monroe County) . 
Myxonema glomeratum Hasen., Cladophora callicoma Kutzing., Stigeoclonium 
radiana Kg., (Myxonema radians Kutzing reported for Marshall County). 
Cladophora uberrima Lambert., Cladophora insignis (Ag.) Kutzing., Oscillaria 
aerugineo-coerulea Kg., Conferva utriculosa Kutzing., Gloecapsa quarternata 
Kutzing., Navicula mesogongyla Kg., Lyngbya naveanum Grun., Gloecapsa 
gelatinosa Kuetzing., Cosmarium ovale Ralfs., Chlamydomonas pulvisculus Ehrb. 

Species of Algae not Previously Reported for Monroe County. 

Stigeoclonium radians Kg., Cladophora uberrima Lambert., Cladophora 
insignis (Ag.) Kutzing., Oscillaria aerugineo-coerulea Kg., Conferva utriculosa 
Kutzing., Diatoma vulgare Bory., Gloecapsa quarternata Kutzing., Navicula 
mesogongyla Kg., Lyngbya naveanum Grun., Gloecapsa gelatinosa Kuetzing., 
Cosmarium ovale Ralfs., Staurastrum Minnesotense Woelle., Spirogyra portcalis 
(Muller) Cleve., Spirogyra fluviatilis (Hilse) Raben., Spirogyra mirabilis (Hass.) 
Kutz., Spirogyra insigne var. Braunii Raben., Cylindrospermum limnicola Kg., 
Oscillatoria splendida Grev., Micrasterias radiata Hassal., Micrasterias Crux- 
melitensis Ehrb., Closterium subtile Breb., Herposterion confervicola Nageli., 
Myxonema glomeratum Hasen. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

1. Anderson, E. N. and Walker, E. R. An Ecological Study of the Alga© 
of Some Sandhill Lakes. Trans. Am. Micro. Soc. 39: 51-85. 1920. 

2. Andrews, F. M. Algae of Indiana. Ind. Acad. Soc. 375-380, 1909. Also 
36, 1926 and 38, 1928. 

3. Bracher, R. Observations on Euglena. Ann. of Bot. 33. 1919. 

4. Ecology of the Avon Banks at Bristol. Jour. Ecology. 1929:59. 

5. Brown, H. R. Algal Periodicity in Certain Ponds and Streams. Bull. 
Torr. Bot. Club. 35. 1908. 

6. Cavers, F. Recent Work on Flagellates and Primitive Algae. New 
Phytologist. 12: 109. 1913. 

7. Chambers, CO. The Relation of Algae to Dissolved Oxygen and Carbon 
Dioxide with Special Reference to Carbonates. Rept. Mo. Bot. Gardens. 23. 1912. 

8. Collins. Green Algae of North America. 2. No. 3. 

9. Copeland. Periodicity in Spirogyra. Bot. Gaz. 47: 9-25. 1909. 

10. Danforth, C. H. Periodicity in Spirogyra with Special Reference to the 
Work of Benecke. Rept. Mo. Bot. Gardens. 21: 49-59. 1910. 

11. Delf, E. M. Algal Vegetation of Some Ponds on Hampstead Heath. 
New Phytol. 14: 63-80. 1915. 



The Phytoplankton of a Solution Pond 139 

12. Farlow, W. G. New England Algae. 

13. Fritsch. Algological Notes. Ann. Bot. 17. 1903. 

14. Further Observations on the Phytoplankton of the Thames River. 
Ann. Bot. 17. 1903. 

15. Problems in Aquatic Biology with Special Reference to Algal Periodicity. 
New Phytol. 5: 149-169. 1906. 

16. Fritsch and Rich. Studies on the Occurrence and Reproduction of 
British Freshwater Algae in Nature. Ann. Bot. 21: 423-436. 1907. 

17. Algal Ancestry of Higher Plants. New Phytol. 20. 1921. 

18. Encrusting Algal Communities. New Phytol. 28. (3). 1929. 

19. Griffith, B. M. Phytoplankton of the Bodies of Fresh Water and Factors 
Determining its Occurrence and Composition. Journ. Ecology. 11. 1923. 

20. Hazen. Life History of Sphaerella Lacustris. Torr. Bot. Club. 6. (3). 

21. Hodge tts, W. J. Study of Some Factors Controlling Periodicity of 
Freshwater Algae in Nature. New Phytol. 20-21. 1921-1922. 

22. Hylander, C. J. Algae of Connecticut. State Geol. Nat. Hist. Surv. 
Bull. No. 40. 

23. Kofoid, C. A. The Plankton of the Illinois River. Part II. Constituent 
Organisms and their Seasonal Distribution. Bull. 111. State Lab. of Nat. Hist. 
Art. I. 8. 1908. 

24. Plankton of the Illinois River 1894-1899. Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. 
Hist. 6. 1903. 

25. Livingston. Chemical Stimuli of an Algae. Bull, or Torr. Bot. Club. 
1905. 

26. Oltmanns. Morphologie and Biologie der Algen. 1-2: 1904-1905. 

27. Palmer, M. C. Algae of Indiana: A Classified Check List of those 
Published Between 1875-1928. Ind. Ac. Sci. 38. 1928. 

28. Pearsall. Aquatic and Marsh Vegetation of Esthwaithe Water. Journ. 
Ecol. 5: 182. 1917. 

29. On the Classification of Aquatic Plant Communities. Journ. Ecol. 
6. 1918. 

30. Aquatic Vegetation of English Lakes. Journ. Ecol. 8. (2). 1920. 

31. Development of Vegetation in English Lakes. Proc. Royal Soc. B. 
92. 1921. 

32. A Suggestion as to the Factors Influencing the Distribution of Free 
Floating Vegetation. Journ. Ecol. 9. (2). 1922. 

33. Theory of Diatom Periodicity. Journ. Ecol. 11. 1923. 

34. Piatt. Population of Blanket Algae of Fresh Water Pools. Am. 
Naturalist. 49:752-762. 1915. 

35. Rice, Thurman B. Study of the Relations Between Plant Growth and 
Combined Nitrogen in Winona Lake. Proc. Ind. Ac. Sci. 

36. Scott, Will. Fauna of a Solution Pond. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 1910. 

37. Smith, G. M. Phytoplankton of the Inland Lakes of Wisconsin. 
Part I-II. Wisconsin Surv. Bull. 57. 

38. Stokes. Fresh water Algae. 

39. Tilden. Minnesota Algae. I. 

40. Transeau. Periodicity of Algae in Illinois. Trans. Am. Micro. Soc. 
32. 1913. 

41. Periodicity of Fresh water Algae. Am. Journ. Bot. 8: 121-133. 1916. 

42. Tuft's College Studies. (2) 1905-1909. 



140 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

43. Ward and Whipple. Fresh Water Biology. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. 
1918. 

44. Welch, Winona H. Phytoecology of Southern Indiana. Ind. Acad. Sci. 
38. 1928. 

45. West. British Freshwater Plankton and Distribution of British Des- 
mids. Proc. Royal Soc. B. 81: 165-206. 1909. 

46. British Fresh Water Algae. Cambridge at Univ. Press. 1904. 

47. Algae. Cambridge Edition. I. 

48. West and Fritsch. British Fresh Water Algae. Cambridge at Univ. 
Press. 1927. 

49. Whipple and Parker. On the Amount of Oxygen and Carbonic Acid 
in Natural Water and the Effects of these upon the Occurrence of Microscopic 
Organisms. Trans. Am. Micro. Soc. 23: 103-144. 1902. 

50. Wolle. Fresh Water Algae of the U. S. 1887. 

51. Desmids of the U. S. 1887. 

52. Diatomaceae. 1887. 



Organic Compounds of Selenium 141 



ORGANIC COMPOUNDS OF SELENIUM, III 



W. E. Bradt, State College of Washington 

Introduction. This paper is the third of a series having as its object the 
furthering of research work in the chemistry of organic selenium compounds. 
It presents a complete list of the known organic selenides, a resume of the methods 
of preparation for each compound, and a complete bibliography for each 
compound. 

Discussion. A consideration of the body of this paper will show that it 
consists of three parts: General methods for the preparation of selenides, a classi- 
fied list of selenides, and a bibliography. An examination of the methods of 
preparation will show that each method is assigned a number, and that with 
each method are listed reference numbers which correspond to the number 
assigned to the pertinent references in the bibliography. In this way, by a con- 
sideration of the table of methods, one can ascertain by the reference numbers 
something of the extent to which that method has been used. In the same man- 
ner, any compound in the lists of selenides will show by number the methods 
by which that compound has been prepared, and, also by number, the references 
in which that compound is mentioned. 

A more detailed consideration of the general methods for the preparation of 
selenides will show that in many cases the first equation is not balanced, and is in 
fact only a listing of reagents and products. When this is the case, the equation 
is ended by a plus sign to indicate that it is incomplete. Following this, frequently, 
will be found balanced equations which endeavor to show the probable mechanism 
of the reaction. Regarding these equations, it must be remembered that they are 
often based upon properties reported during the early work in this field, and con- 
sequently are in no sense authoritative. Additional information will possibly 
necessitate the revision of several equations. This is well illustrated by Prepara- 
tion Methods Nos. 24 and 25. In these two cases, the first equation is a list of the 
reported products, while the explanatory equations are merely an effort to explain 
the presence of these products. Additional information regarding the properties 
of the organic selenocyanates would no doubt necessitate some modification in 
these instances. 

A consideration of the chemistry of the preparation of selenides will show 
that the actual preparation of the selenide is based upon fewer reactions than the 
forty listed. This can be well illustrated as follows: Any one of several starting 
materials can be converted to organic selenols, which can in turn be oxidized 
to organic diselenides, which if heated will decompose to form selenides. From 
this it can be seen that the methods of preparation listed have been classified from 
the basis of starting material, rather than from the basis of the reaction immedi- 
ately concerned in the preparation of the selenide. This is necessary because of the 
lack of definite information regarding the mechanism of these reactions. 

Special notice should be called to Methods Nos. 40, 41, and 42. Method 
No. 40 includes all methods based on chemistry not affecting the selenium atom 
in the molecules concerned. Here, then, are listed cases of nitration, reduction, 



Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 40: 141-163. (1930) 1931. 



142 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

dehydration, and other reactions of like nature. Methods Nos. 41 and 42 are 
actually not methods of preparation, but are merely remarks designed to indicate 
that a compound may have been erroneously classified as a selenide, or that it may 
have been erroneously reported to have been prepared, respectively. 

Nomenclature. In many cases, the nomenclature used by the original 
authors has been modified in order to obtain a uniform system. In the case of the 
heterocyclic compounds, the common name "selenopyrine" has been replaced 
by a systematic name. In the aliphatic compounds, the name "selenogly collie 
acid" has been changed to carboxymethylselenide. This change was considered 
desirable since the term "seleno" indicates a divalent selenium atom attached 
to another atom by both valences. In the case of the "selenoglycollic acids" the 
valences of the selenium atom are attached to different carbon atoms, thus de- 
manding a name including the term selenide. Other changes which have been made 
for similar reasons will be noted in the tables. Abbreviations which have been 
used in the tables are those recommended by Chemical Abstracts, as follows: 
Ac = CH 3 CO~; Bz=C 6 H 5 CO-; Et = C 2 H 5 -; Me=CH 3 -; Ph = C 6 H 5 -; 
R=a hydrocarbon radical; X=an inorganic acid radical; M=an inorganic 
metallic radical. 

Properties. Selenides are oxidized to selenoxides when treated with acetic 
acid and either potassium dichromate or potassium permanganate. Treatment 
with fuming nitric acid forms a hydronitrate of the selenoxide (R 2 SeO\HN0 3 ). 
Hydrogen peroxide is frequently without action, probably due to the insolubility 
of the selenides used as starting material. Selenides react with solutions of po- 
tassium platinochloride, and with the corresponding palladium salt to form com- 
pounds of the type 2R 2 Se°PtCl 2 and 2R 2 Se*PdCl2. Treatment of solutions of 
selenides with halogens forms dihalides, R 2 SeX 2 . Moderate heating of selenides 
with metallic selenium causes the addition of another selenium atom to form 
diselenides, R 2 Se 2 . Higher temperatures cause a reversal of this reaction with 
re-formation of the original selenide. 

The only selenide used industrially is diethylselenide, which is part of the 
"anti-knock" mixture used in "Ethyl gas." 



Organic Compounds of Selenium 143 

THE PREPARATION OF SELENIDES 

GENERAL METHODS 

Method 
No. Equations Ref. Nos. 

1. Se+RMgX+Et 2 0; +H 2 0+HCl=R 2 Se+R 2 Se 2 +RSeH + . 72,79,80 

Se +RMgX = RSeMgBr ; +HC1 = RSeH + MgBrCl. 

2Se+2RMgX = RSeR+Se(MgBr) 2 . 
3Se+3RMgX = R 2 Se 2 +Se(MgBr) 2 . 

2. 2Se+R 2 Hg+heat = R 2 Se+HgSe. 39, 52, 94. 

3. Se+R 2 S0 2 +heat=R 2 Se+S0 2 . 28,37,38. 

4. 2Se+RH+H 2 S0 4 = R 2 Se+H 2 Se+H 2 S0 4 + . 19. 

(R = Heterocyclic). 

5. Se+RX 4 + heat = complex selenides + . 1,8. 

(not verified by recent work). 

6. Se 2 X 2 +RMgX = R 2 Se+R 2 Se 2 + . 67,68,77. 

SeX 2 +2RMgX = R 2 Se 2 +2MgX 2 . 
R 2 Se 2 +heat = R 2 Se+Se. 

7. Se 2 X 2 +RH+Al 2 X 6 +CS 2 = R 2 Se+R 2 Se 2 +RX+. 50. 

Se 2 X 2 +2RH + (Al 2 X 6 ) = R 2 Se 2 +2HX. 

R 2 Se 2 +heat =R 2 Se+Se. 

Se 2 X 2 +RH + (Al 2 X 6 ) = RX+HX+2Se. 

8. Se 2 X 2 +RH=R 2 Se+R 2 Se 2 + . 36. 

Se 2 X 2 +2RH = R 2 Se 2 +2HX. 
R 2 Se 2 +heat = R 2 Se+Se. 
(R = Heterocyclic). 

9. Se 2 X 2 +R=R'(X=R'-) 2 Se + (XR-R'-)2SeX 2 + . 7, 32. 

Se 2 X 2 +2R=R / = (XR-R'-) 2 Se+Se. 
(XR-R , -) 2 Se+Se 2 X 2 = (XR-R / -) 2 SeX 2 +2Se. 
(R=R'=Ethylenic). 

10. SeX 4 +RH + (Al 2 X 6 ) =R 2 Se+R 2 SeX 2 +R 2 Se 2 +HCl+RX + . 10, 11, 

(R = Aromatic). 12,40. 

11. SeX 4 +R 2 Cu+CHCl 3 = R 2 Se+R2Se 2 +RX+CuX 2 + . 61. 

2SeX 4 +3CuR 2 = 2R 2 Se+2RX+3CuX 2 . 
4SeX 4 +5CuR 2 =2R 2 Se 2 +6RX+5CuX 2 . 
(R = Diketone univalent radical, e.g., 
(Ph-CO-CH=C(Ph)-0-) 2 Cu). 

12. Se0 2 +H 2 R+Al 2 X 6 +heat = (HR) 2 Se + (HR) 2 Se 2 + 
(HR) 2 SeX 2 + (XR) 2 Se+HCl + . 53, 

2H 2 R+Se0 2 +Al 2 X 6 = (HR) 2 SeO+H 2 0. 
2(HR) 2 SeO+2HX+Al 2 X 6 = (HR) 2 SeX 2 +H 2 0. 
2H 2 0+A1 2 X 6 = 2A10HX 2 +2HX. 
2 (HR) 2 SeX 2 +heat, = (HR) 2 Se + (XR) 2 Se +2HX. 
(HR) 2 Se +Se + warm = (HR) 2 Se 2 . 
(R= Aromatic). 

13. Se0 2 +HR = R 2 Se+H 2 0+0. 19,20. 

(R = Phenolic or Heterocyclic) . 

14. M 2 Se+RNNX = R 2 Se+R 2 Se 2 +MX+N 2 + . 

M 2 Se+2RNNX=R 2 Se+N 2 +2MX. 

M 2 Se 2 +2RNNX = R 2 Se 2 +N 2 +2MX. 

(M =H, Na, K. M 2 Se 2 is a common impurity in M 2 Se). 



144 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

LIST OF AROMATIC SELENIDES 

Method 

No. Equations Ref. Nos. 

15. M 2 Se+RX+M'OH=R 2 Se+R 2 Se 2 +MX + . 6, 14, 33, 34, 

M 2 Se+2RX = R 2 Se+2MX. 35,51,59,69, 

M 2 Se 2 +2RX = R 2 Se 2 +2MX. 70, 73, 74, 75, 

(M=Na,K,NH 4 ,P. X =C1,KS0 4 , C 2 4 . M' = Na,K). 78,85,89,90, 

91. 

16. M 2 Se 3 +ROH+heat=RSeH+R 2 Se+R 2 Se2+. 65. 

M 2 Se 3 +3ROH =3RSeH+M 2 3 . 
6RSeH+M 2 3 = 3R 2 Se2+2M(OH) 3 . 
R 2 Se 2 +heat = R 2 Se+Se. 
(R= Aliphatic). 

17. M 2 Se 3 +R 2 0+heat = R 2 Se+R 2 Se 2 +. 65. 

M 2 Se 3 +2R 2 0=2R 2 Se+Se. 
R 2 Se+Se+warm =R 2 Se2. 
(R = Aliphatic). 

18. H 2 Se0 4 +RH + (H 2 S0 4 ) = R 2 Se+H 2 0+3(0). 20. 

(R = Heterocyclic) . 

19. MSeCN+RNNX + (neutral solution) = R 2 Se+RSeCN+. 13. 

MSeCN+RNNX = RSeCN+N 2 +MX. 

2RSeCN = R 2 Se + (CN) 2 . 

(M=K). 

20. SeOCl 2 +HR = R 2 Se+RCl+R 3 SeCl + . 30,43, 

SeOCl 2 +3HR = R 2 Se+RCl+H 2 0+HCl. 54,63. 

R 2 Se+RCl=R 3 SeCl. 

21. K 2 SeS0 3 +RX = R 2 Se+. 88. 

2K 2 SeS0 3 = K 2 Se+Se+K 2 S 2 6 . 
2RX+K 2 Se = R 2 Se+2KX. 

22. RSeH+R'NNX = RSeR'+N 2 +HX. 3,48. 

23. RSeM+R'X+heat = RSeR'+MX. 3, 15, 16, 26, 27, 

28, 41, 46, 47, 48, 
59, 62, 71, 72, 80, 
87. 

24. RSeCN+HOH=R 2 Se+R 2 Se 2 +NH 3 +C0 2 +HCN + 

H 2 C 2 4 + . 3,13,22. 

2RSeCN +heat = R 2 Se +Se + (CN) 2 . 
RSeCN +HOH = RSeH +HOCN. 
2RSeH+0=R 2 Se 2 +H 2 0. 
(CN) 2 +4H 2 = 2NH 3 +H 2 C 2 4 . 
(CN) 2 +H 2 = HOCN +HCN. 

25. RSeCN+R'X+NaOAc+heat=R'SeR+R' 2 Se + . 5. 

RSeCN = RSeH +HOCN. 
RSeH +R'X = RSeR' +HX. 
RSeCN +R'X = R'SeCN+RX. 
R'SeCN+HOH =R'SeH+HOCN. 
R'SeH +R'X = R' 2 Se = HX. 

26. RSeOOH +HR'NH 2 -f heat = RSeOR'NH , +RSeR'NH 2 + 
H 2 0+. 29. 

RSeOOH +HR'NH 2 +heat = RSeOR'NH 2 +H 2 0. 
RSeOR'NH 2 +R'NH 2 =RSeR'NH 2 +H 2 0+. 



Organic Compounds of Selenium 145 

27. R 2 SeO + (M+HX)=R 2 Se+H 2 0+MX. 28. 

28. R 2 Se(OH) 2 + (M+HX)+heat = R 2 Se+2H 2 0+MX. 2, 17,29. 

(M=Zn. X = CH 3 COOH). 

29. R 2 Se0 2 +heat = R 2 Se+0 2 +detonation. 41. 

30. (HR) 2 Se0 2 +PX 5 = (XR) 2 Se+2HX+. 76. 
(X = C1. R= Aromatic). 

31. R 2 Se0 2 +PX 3 = R 2 Se + . 76. 

32. 2HRSeX 2 +heat = (RX) 2 Se + (HR) 2 Se+2HX. 17, 29, 38, 53, 

(HR) 2 SeX 2 +heat =HRSeRX+HX. 57, 60, 94. 

33. R 2 SeX 2 + M+heat+CS 2 = R 2 Se+MX 2 . 44. 

(M=Zn). 

34. R 2 SeX 2 +2MOH+heat = R 2 Se+2MX+H 2 0+. 38. 

R 2 SeX 2 +2MOH =R 2 Se(OH) 2 +2MX. 
R 2 Se(OH) 2 = R 2 Se+H 2 0+0. 
(R = Naphthyl. M=K). 

35. R 2 SeX 2 +HOH+ether = R 2 Se+RX+Se+. 44. 

2R 2 SeX 2 +HOH=R 2 Se+2RX+X 2 +Se. 

36. R 2 =Se=Se+heat=R 2 Se+Se. 49. 

37. 2 (RCOCH 2 ) 2 Se 2 +3NaOH +heat = (RCOCH 2 ) 2 Se + 
RCSeCOR+2HOH+HSeCH 2 COONa+Na 2 Se + . 

38. XR(-R , )-Se-R ,/ +heat = R ,/ X+R-Se-R / . 

(R = Heterocyclic. R' and R" = Aliphatic). 

39. R = Se+R'X+heat = XR-Se-R / . 

(R = Heterocyclic. R' = Aliphatic). 

40. All methods not affecting the selenium atom. 



41. Erroneously classified in references as a selenide. 

42. Reported but now considered not to have been prepared. 





16. 








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Organic Compounds of Selenium 159 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



1. Bartal, A. von. Action of selenium on carbontetra bromide. J. Chem. 
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3. Behaghel, O. and Rollmann, M. Zur Kenntnis einiger Aryl-selen- 
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160 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

22. Frerichs, H. Action of potassium selenocyanate on compounds of 
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25. Fritzmann, E. Ueber Komplexverbindungen des Palladiums mit 
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28. Gaythwaite, W. R., Kenyon, J. and Phillips, H. The quadrivalency of 
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29. Gaythwaite, W. R., Kenyon, J. and Phillips, H. The quadrivalency of 
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30. Godchaux, E. Ueber die Einwirkung von Selenylchlorid auf tertiare 
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31. Hanzlik, P. J. and Tarr, J. The comparative skin irritant properties of 
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32. Heath, F. H. and Semen, W. L. The reaction between selenium mono- 
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35. Joy, C. A. Ueber das Selenathyl. Ann. 86, 35-9 (1853). 

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37. Krafft, F. and Vorster, W. Ueber Unwandlung des Diphenylsulfons 
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39. Krafft, F. and Lyons, R. E. Ueber Diphenyltellurid und ein Verfahren 
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40. Krafft, F. and Knschau, A. Ueber die Synthese der aromatischen 
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41. Krafft, F. and Lyons, R. E. Ueber Diphenylselenon. Ber. 29. 424-8 
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42. Krafft, F. and Steiner, O. Ueber Verdrangungen in der Schwefel-Selen- 
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43. Kunckell, F. Ueber einige Selenderivate des Anisols und Phenetols. 
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44. Kunckell, F. and Zimmermann, R. Ueber selenderivate aromatischen 
Ketone. Ann. 314, 281-95 (1901). 



Organic Compounds of Selenium 161 

45. Leicester, H. M. and Bergstrom, F. W. Salts of triphenylselenonium 
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46. Lesser, R. and Weiss, R. Ueber den "Selenindigo" (Bis-selenonaphthe- 
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47. Lesser, R. and Weiss, R. Ueber selenhaltige aromatische Verbindungen. 
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48. Lesser, R. and Weiss, R. Ueber Selenoxanthon und Selenoxanthon- 
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49. Loevenich, J. Fremdling, H. and Fohr, M. Ueber alpha-und beta- 
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50. Loevenich, J. and Sipmann, K. Ueber die Einwirkung von Selenbromur 
auf aromatische Kohlenwasserstoff. J. prakt. Chem. 124, 127-32 (1930). 

51. Lowig, C. Pogg. Ann. 37, 552 (1836). 

52. Lyons, R. E. and Bush, G. C. Concerning alph a-dinaphthyl selenide 
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54. Michaelis, A. and Kunckell, F. Ueber organische Selenverbindungen. 
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55. Michaelis, A. and Stein, M. Ueber das Selenopyrin und dessen Homo- 
loge. Ann. 320, 32-44 (1902). 

56. Michaelis, A. and Holken, A. Ueber Thio- und Selenoderivate von 
N-Alkyl-pyridonen und -lutidonen. Ann. 331, 245-64 (1904). 

57. Michaelis, A. and Hahn, W. Untersuchungen ueber 3-Pyrazolone. 
2. Ueber das 3-Thiopyrin und das 3-Selenopyrin. Ann. 338, 292-310 (1905). 

58. Michaelis, A. and Hagen, T. von. Untersuchungen ueber das 1-methyl- 
3-phenyl-5-pryazolon. 3. Das Isoselenopyrin. Ann. 352, 193-8 (1907). 

59. Michaelis, A. and Langenkamp, P. Ueber ein Selenopyrazolon und 
ueber das Selenopyramidon. Ann. 404, 21-36 (1914). 

60. Michaelis, A. and Duntze, E. Ueber das Pseudo- und Bis-selenopyrin. 
Ann. 404, 36-45 (1914). 

61. Morgan, G. T., Drew, H. D. K., and Barker, T. V. Researches on 
residual affinity and coordination. Part IX. Interaction of selenium tetrachloride 
with 6eto-diketones. J. Chem. Soc. 1922, T. II. 2432-73. 

62. Morgan, G. T. and Porritt, W. H. Arylselenoglycollic Acids. J. Chem. 
Soc. 1925, T. II. 1755-9. 

63. Morgan, G. T. and Burstall, F. H. Interactions of selenium oxychloride 
and phenols. J. Chem. Soc. 1928, 3260-70. 

64. Nagai, Y. Effect of antiknock materials on the condenser-discharge- 
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65. Natta, G. Einwirkung von Aluminiumselenid, tellurid und arsenid und 
von Magnesiumarsenid auf Alkohole und Ather. Chem. Zentr. 98, 1, 415-6 (1927) . 
Same as Giorn. di Chim. ind. ed appl. 8, 367-70 (1926). 

66. Petren, J. Ueber Platinathylselen verbindungen. Zeitsch. anorg. 
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67. Pieroni, A. and Coli, C. Azione del bromuro di selenio sui magnesioal- 
chili. Gazz. chim. ital. 44, II, 349-53 (1914). 



162* Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

68. Pieroni, A. and Balduzzi, G. The action of selenium bromide on the 
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chim. ital. 45, II, 106-111 (1915). 

69. Pieverling, L. von. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Selenverbindungen. 
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70. Pieverling, L. von. Ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Selenverbindungen. 
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71. Pope, W. J. and Neville, A. Assymetric optically active selenium com- 
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72. Porritt, W. H. Arylseleninic acids. J. Chem. Soc. 1927, 27-9. 

73. Rathke, B. Beitrage zur Kenntnis des Selens. Ann. 152, 181-220 (1869). 

74. Schneider, W. and Wrede, F. Synthese eines schwelfelhaltingen und 
eines selenhaltingen Dissaccharides. Ber. 50, 793-804 (1917). 

75. Schulze, E. and Ulrich, A. Correspondenzen. Ber. 8, 773, (1875). 

76. Stoecker, M. and Krafft, F. Ueber Oxydation von Diphenyldiselenid. 
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77. Strecker, W. and Willing, A. Einwirkung von Organomagnesium- 
verbindungen auf die Halogenide des Selens. Ber. 48, 196-206 (1915). 

78. Strecker, W. and Daniel, W. Spektrochemische Untersuchungen an 
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Physiol. Chem. 112, 1-12 (1920). 



Organic Compounds of Selenium 163 

91. Wrede, F. Synthese von schwefel- und selenhaltigen Dissacchariden 
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95. Zoppellari, Gazz. chim. ital. 24, II, 398 (1894). 



Chemistry in Farm Overalls 165 



CHEMISTRY IN FARM OVERALLS 



R. H. Carr, Purdue 

It is well known that chemistry has been of service to mankind in many ways 
for many years. Consequently at the present time there are various degrees of 
its service or of the further application of its usefulness to humanity. In some lines 
of chemistry long and intensive study has so thoroughly developed its scope that 
it offers little attraction for new achievements and hence has been called "dead 
chemistry." Farm chemistry, on the other hand, is only in its infancy and can 
well be called not only "live" but "living" chemistry, as the life processes them- 
selves constitute its main problems. Very difficult problems they are, but at- 
tempts at their solution are very fascinating. The applications of chemistry to 
agriculture are numerous but the writer has chosen about a half a dozen phases 
which seem worthy of special notice and he will discuss each briefly. 

The Farmer as a Manufacturer. It is important that every farmer should 
become acquainted with the products he manufactures as it adds greater interest 
and may increase the quality of his products and also his profits. If one were 
to try to enlighten a savage as to what a potato is by telling him it is the result of 
a summer's sunshine, warm rains, two square feet of ground mixed on the surface 
with some laboratory ingredients, all combined with some experience in growing 
potatoes — the savage would conclude that it was all magic — which, in truth, 
growing food products really is. However, when agriculture is considered as 
a plant for the manufacturing of crude organic chemical compounds, which corn, 
hay, fruits, straw, apples, potatoes, etc, may well be considered, a new era in 
agriculture will have arrived. Then all surplus raw material produced will be 
used as profitable by-products. Corn will not then be grown for the ear only, 
clover will not be plowed under for the nitrogen and humus. Wheat and straw 
will be equally valuable, wood will be changed to gaseous fuel for stove and tractor 
and farm surplus and waste will be a relic of the past. 

Proteins: The Farmer's Easy Money. The products of the farmer's 
chemical factory are carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals, and closely related 
substances, all of which are manufactured from the soil, sunshine, air and water, 
in about the proportion of 5 lbs. of soil, 600 hours of sunshine, 20 lbs. of air and 
75 lbs. of water per 100 lbs. of finished product. These compounds are present 
in an average man to the extent, approximately, of water 90 lbs. minerals 8.4 lbs., 
fat 23 lbs. and protein 27 lbs. Thus protein makes up the largest part of the solid 
matter of man or animal. Also it is the constituent which brings the greatest 
profit when marketed as proteins sell for about five times as much as carbohydrates 
and two to three times as much as fats. Proteins are made by plants which receive 
most of their nitrogen in gaseous form from the air and by the aid of bacteria con- 
tained in the nodules on the roots. The nodules from soy beans are shown in 
Fig. 1. These microscopic organisms are the farmer's best friends as they produce 
free of charge his most valuable products. From gaseous nitrogen, the bacteria, 



Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 40: 165-169. (1930) 1931. 



166 



Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 



at the farmer's bidding, are able to combine nitrogen into complex plant proteins 
and thus to manufacture a product so complicated as to baffle all other efforts 
for its production. The farmer's carbohydrate market is being attacked by syn- 
thetic products but there is still no competition for his proteins. 




Fig. 1— (After 111. Circ. 326) 



Sunshine, Corn and Enzymes. When a farmer plants corn a complicated 
chain of chemical reactions is started. The seed, containing at first about 10 to 
12 percent water soon holds 20 to 25 percent. This starts enzyme action in the 
grain and the starch is gradually changed to sugar as follows: 

(C6H 1 o06) x +H 2 0->(C 5 H 1 o0 6 ) x ->C 12 H 22 Oi 1 -^2CcHi 2 06 
starch amylases dextrin maltose glucose 

Proteins may decompose to amino acids and alcohol, produced by bacteria or 
yeasts as in reaction. 

RCHNH 2 COOH+H 2 0->RCHOHCOOH+NH 3 
leucine alcohol 

The fat which has been stored in the seed is oxidized to a sugar to help nourish 
the seedling, as follows: 



2C 3 H 5 (OOC Ci 5 H 31 ) 3 +85 2 ^H 2 0; -» 10 C 6 Hi 2 6 +42 C0 2 +38 H 2 
palmatin <— dextrose 



Chemistry in Farm Overalls 



167 



All these reactions and many more are set in motion when the seed is placed in 
moist soil. Soon the seed exhausts its supply of nourishment and calls upon the 
soil and air to keep the corn factory going. This is shown in Fig. 2. 




Fig. 2— (After Minn. Ext. Circ. 58) 

Aluminum Indigestion in Corn Plants. When the roots of plants make 
their way through acid soils, they frequently take into their digestive system more 
aluminum and iron than would have been absorbed if the soil were less acid. These 
combine with the protein in the nodes of the corn stalks and close the passage 





Fig. 3— (After Haffer and Carr) 



168 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

ways for food movement. Hence the plant developes a bad case of indigestion. 
The blackened and open channels are shown in Fig. 3. The corn is quite sensitive 
to such interference with its cell functions and shows signs of this disturbance by 
developing a light green color, by marginal firing of the leaves and by poor ear 
development. The farmer can overcome this trouble somewhat by causing the 
soluble aluminum compounds to be converted into less soluble ones by the addi- 
tion of limestone and acid phosphate. This produces an extensive chemical change 
over a large area and protects future plants from developing aluminum indigestion. 

Chemical Reactions Follow the Plow. The changes taking place in soil 
composition through the agencies of bacteria, yeast, molds, lichens, nematodes, 
oxidation, hydrolysis, etc., are numerous and not well understood. After the soil 
has been disturbed by the plow, the many new reactions which are started and 
the old ones which are speeded up may often be observed by the naked eye. The 
soil has a greenish color when plowed but upon oxidation by exposure to sun and 
air for a day or two, it turns to yellow and then to a reddish color. This is due 
largely to the oxidation of the iron from ferrous to ferric compounds. Ferrous oxide 
(FeO) is green colored and the hydrated iron compound limonite (2Fe 2 C>33H 0) 
is yellow, whereas the non-hydrated hematite (Fe20 3 ) is red. Oxides of manganese 
often color white clay soils black or brown, depending on the quantity present, 
giving them the appearance of soils made fertile by the addition of organic matter. 
Sulphates present in a soil may be changed by coming in contact with organic 
matter as follows: 

4C 3 H 6 03+CaS0 4 ^4C 2 H40 2 +CaS+4C02+4H 2 

The free hydrogen causes reduction of some of the oxides, while the C0 2 released 
tends to form acid carbonates and to make phosphates more soluble as follows: 

Ca3P0 4 +4H 2 C0 3 ->Ca(H 2 P04)2+Ca(HC03)2. 

Thus every furrow turned by the plow starts a chain of reactions that profoundly 
alter the soil composition and rid it of much of last year's vegetation. 

Hay Making Developes Perfumes. Those not familiar with the making 
of hay seldom realize that it is any more than a drying process which is to prevent 
spoiling when the hay is placed in the barn. Tins change in water content is only 
one of the many reactions set up during the drying period. When clover is cut 
for hay it may contain as much as 75 percent water. Part of it is loosely held 
and may be squeezed out by grinding and pressing, the rest is bound and is inti- 
mately combined with proteins, oils, glucosides, tannins, etc., in the plant. Hence 
when the plant is cut by the farmer, Fig. 4, a succession of reactions is started 
which are not understood, but the developement of heat, and odor, and the change 
in color are unmistakable evidences of drastic rearrangements going on within the 
plant. The loss of water on cutting starts an enzyme action which in turn releases 
an ester called coumarin which has the odor of new mown hay. The change in 
color from the familiar dark green to the pale green is thought to be produced by 
the action of another group of enzymes which act on the chloraphylls a and b in the 
presence of sunlight. Experience has shown that to produce well "cured" clover 
hay it is desirable to pile the hay in cocks after it has been partly dried and to let 
the curing go on "in the shade," being careful to avoid hasty drying. In this way 
the heat which developes favors the formation by enzymes of large quantities 
of pleasing odors which add greatly to its relish by animals and prevent oxidation 



Chemistry in Farm Overalls 169 

of the pigment through exposure to sunlight. Properly cured hay will sweat in 
the stack or mow unless it is loosely and unevenly packed but this will add to the 
desirable flavor. The development of flavor by the action of enzymes on tea 
leaves is usually more carefully carried out than in hay making, since the animals 




Fig. 4— (After Minn. Ext. Circ, 47) 

which consume the cured product are more capable of registering their objections 
to poor quality. Most of Nature's packages, as apples, oranges, etc., are put up 
in well planned fibrous bundles with enough flavor, color and odor to add spice and 
variety and make life more pleasant and interesting. 

Farming is Largely, Producing Chemical Reactions. As one goes about 
the farm from day to day with eyes trained to observe changes of a chemical 
nature, such as the souring of milk, the liming of soil, the rusting of iron, the burn- 
ing of wood, the fertilizing of corn, the rotting of manure, the fermenting of 
silage, the weathering of rock, the ripening of fruit and grain, the heating of hay 
and grain, the changing of oats and hay by the horse to energy to pull a plow, or 
the changing of green grass to white milk by the cow, he sees things which are 
truly magical, but yet real and being constantly repeated. 

Thus it is that the man in farm overalls is a production chemist of the 
world's greatest and most important industry. 



The Use of Metallic Electrodes as Indicators 171 



THE USE OF METALLIC ELECTRODES AS INDICATORS 



Sidney J. French and John M. Hamilton, Franklin College 

The potential difference between a metal and a solution depends not only 
upon the metal but also upon the solution in which it is immersed. Such potential 
differences can be readily measured by means of a potentiometer if the metal and 
its solution is made one element of a cell, the other being any one of a number of 
stable or non-fluctuating reference electrodes. The electrode commonly used for 
reference is the calomel cell. If such a combination is used and the concentration 
of the solution about the metal electrode is gradually changed, a change in the 
e.m.f . or the combination is noted. Since no change has taken place in the reference 
electrode, the change measured by means of a potentiometer galvanometer set 
must be due to a change in the potential difference between the metal and its 
solution. 

If the metal dips in an acid solution and alkali is gradually added, little 
change is generally noted till the solution is almost neutral. Near the point of 
neutrality a sharp change is often noted. Metals which do show sharp changes 
can be used as indicators in determining the end point of an acid-base titration. 
Conversely, if the metal shows a definite but not too sharp change near the end 
point it can be used to determine the pH of the solution for the potential difference 
developed between the metal and its solution is a function of the pH of the solution. 

A number of investigators have studied various metals and have shown their 
suitability for such uses. The so-called hydrogen electrode, the quinhydrone 
electrode, and others are often used for determining the pH of solutions and may 
be used as indicator electrodes in titrations. The antimony electrode has been 
studied by Kolthoff and Hartong 1 . It is a suitable indicator electrode. 

Recently, a number of studies have been made of other metals which might 
be used as indicator electrodes. Closs and Kahlenberg 2 have shown that a number 
of metals show sufficient change in potential developed at the end point of a titra- 
tion to warrant their use as indicator electrodes. Tungsten, molybdenum, arsenic, 
antimony, bismuth, aluminum and tin showed great differences of potential in 
0.1 N acids and 0.1 N NaOH. Studies have also been made using two different 
electrode metals dipping in the same solution in place of the metal-solution 
reference electrode combination. In such a case both metals may change their 
potential difference to the solution at the end point of a titration. Holt and 
Kahlenberg 3 have recently made a thorough study of such combinations. By 
selecting a combination, one member of which shows a considerable change and 
the other little or no change, a suitable indicator combination can be obtained. 
They have found that tungsten and graphite give an excellent indication of the 
end point. The latter shows practically no change of potential at the end point. 
It therefore behaves as a reference electrode. 



Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 40: 171-174. (1930) 1931. 

iKolthoff and Hartung, Rec. Trav. Chim., 44, 113, 1925. 

2 Closs and Kahlenberg, The Use of Simple Metallic Electrodes in the Potentiometric Titration 
of Acids and Bases., trans. Am. Electrochem. Soc, 56, 201, 1929. 

3 Holt and Kahlenberg, Couples in the Titration of Acids and Bases, presented at the 57th 
meeting of the Am. Electrochem. Soc, May, 1930. 



172 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

As a general rule, the potential developed by metals is more negative or zinc- 
like in alkaline solution than in acid. Therefore, the break at the end point is in 
the direction of a greater negative potential difference. A few of the very active 
metals such as magnesium and zinc which are acted on by the acid solution show 
breaks in the reverse direction. Aluminum, however, is not acted upon by dilute 
acids but is acted on by dilute strong alkalies, hydrogen being evolved. This 
metal shows a very decided break toward a more negative potential at the end 
point. Cobalt and nickel show small changes in a more positive direction while 
lead shows little or no change. Most of the less active metals show changes 
toward a more negative potential at the end point though the change is small in 
some cases. Graphite, silver and mercury show but small changes. 

Aluminum, because of its decided change at the end point of a titration is a 
good indicator electrode. This metal electrode was dipped in the acid solution 
of 0.1 N HC1, 10 cc. of which were diluted with 50 cc. of distilled water. 0.1 N 
NaOH was added from a burette. The accuracy of the end point was checked 
by separate titration using phenolphthalein as the indicator. The latter cannot 
be used as a check in the same solution in which the potentiometric titration is 
conducted for it was found that the color indicator changed color before the end 
point was reached while the break in potential was retarded beyond the end point. 
This effect is probably due to the alcohol present. Aluminum is, of course, acted 
on by strong alkalies and hydrogen is liberated. However, no visible evolution 
of hydrogen is seen at the end point. The fact that the metal is attacked by alkali 
need have no effect on the accuracy of the titration if the metal electrode dips 
in the acid solution and the latter is neutralized by adding the alkali from a 
burette. 

The chief objection to the use of aluminum as an indicator electrode is that 
the change of potential at the end point while decided and considerable, is slow. 
Several minutes are often required for the electrode to come to a constant poten- 
tial. Furthermore the change is not as sharp as might be desired. 0.2 cc. of alkali 
at the end point produce a change of from 0.4 to 0.5 volts in the potentiometer 
reading. Aluminum may, therefore, by considered as not entirely suitable as an 
indicator electrode. However, it compares favorably with the hydrogen electrode 
and the quinhy drone electrode for use in titrations and gives a greater change of 
potential than either of these at the end point. 

Among other metals used in an attempt to find a suitable indicator was an 
alloy of bismuth, lead and tin known as Rose alloy. Peculiarly enough, this alloy 
when used with a colomel electrode shows a change near the end point of 0.2 to 
0.3 volts in a more positive direction. This is unusual since each of the metals com- 
posing the alloy when measured separately against a calomel electrode show 
changes in a more negative direction. Lead, however shows little or no change. 
This alloy can be used as a suitable indicator electrode in conjunct ion with a calo- 
mel or other reference electrode. However, if it could be used with another metal 
electrode which shows a change in a more negative direction at the end point 
a very great change in potential should result. It is necessary however, to use 
a metal which in acid develops a greater negative potential than the alloy elec- 
trode, otherwise the changes of potential of each at the end point would tend to 
offset one another rather than accentuate the total change. Therefore, the non- 
active metals cannot be used. 

Aluminum was tried as the other electrode of the pair with very satisfactory 
results. This pair gives a total change in e.m.f. at the end point of from 0.7 to 0.8 



The Use of Metallic Electrodes as Indicators 173 

volts. The pair has several other distinct advantages. A very definite and de- 
cided warning of the approaching end point is given. At a point about V2, cc. 
before the end point is reached when one drop is sufficient to produce a change 
of 0.6 to 0.7 volts in the reading. The exact end point is unmistakable. The new 
potential becomes constant much more rapidly than when aluminum is used with 
a calomel cell. Furthermore, it is not necessary to wait for a constant potential 
to be established for the sharp and decided change taking place on the addition 
of the last drop is sufficient indication of the end point- 
Since aluminum is attacked by fairly concentrated strong acids some question 
might be raised as to the accuracy of titrations using this metal as an indicator 
electrode. The accuracy was therefore tested out. 

3 N. solutions of HC1, H 2 S0 4 and HN0 3 were used. 10 cc. of each solution 
was diluted with 50 cc. of distilled water and titrated at once using the alumi- 
num/alloy pair as an indicator of the end point. Three titrations were carried out 
with each acid and were checked with three titrations using phenolphthalein 
indicator. No differences could be discovered. However, using HNO3 a slight 
cloudiness was noted in the solution just before the end point was reached. Never- 
theless, the results obtained were identical with those obtained using the color 
indicator. 

Next, 10 cc. of each of the 3N. acid solutions were diluted with 50 cc. of dis- 
tilled water and the electrodes were allowed to stand in this solution for 45 minutes 
before the titration was started. In the case of HC1, bubbles of gas were noted 
on the aluminum electrode after about seven minutes of standing. The titration 
in this case showed an error of 0.05 cc. 



End point with phenolphthalein — 10.45. 
End point with A 1 /alloy indicator — 10.40. 



With H2SO4 no difference could be discovered. The potentiometric and colori- 
metric methods gave identical results even when the electrodes had been im- 
mersed in the acid solution for 45 minutes. With HNO3 a considerable error was 
obtained. In this case, the alloy was attacked by the acid. The average end point 
with phenolphthalein was 12.25 and that with the metal electrodes (after standing) 
was 12.10. However, as was stated before no error was obtained when the titration 
was carred out at once. When HNO3 is diluted with sufficient distilled water so 
that the resulting solution is not more than 0.2 N. no error can be discovered 
in the titration even after the electrodes have been immersed in the solution for 
45 minutes. The only precaution necessary, therefore, in using these electrodes 
with HNO3 is to provide for sufficient dilution of the acid with water. 

No detailed study has yet been made of the suitability of these electrodes for 
indicating the end point of ammonia titrations or titrations involving organic 
bases. The few observations made thus far seem to indicate that they are not 
good indicators in such cases. The change of potential is gradual and the break 
at the end point is small. Likewise, no detailed study has yet been made using 
these metals with weak acids. The few observations noted suggest that the elec- 
trodes show the correct end point and a considerable break in potential when weak 
acids are titrated with strong alkalies. This phase of the problem will be studied 
further. 

The electrodes used were easily prepared. The aluminum was cut from a 
sheet of commercial aluminum, and was shaped in the form of a paddle. The stem 



174 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

was tightly united to a copper wire. A glass tube sleeve was slipped down over 
the joint and was completely filled with a mixture of beeswax and rosin. The Rose 
alloy can be melted in hot water and shaped in a mold. A copper wire can be 
sealed into the upper portion of the cooling alloy. All electrodes were carefully 
sanded and washed in distilled water just before using. In all titrations the solu- 
tion was stirred using a motor driven glass stirring rod. 



The Relation of pH to the Absorption of Dyes by Bacteria 175 



THE RELATION OF pH TO THE ABSORPTION 
OF DYES BY BACTERIA 



Sidney J. French, Franklin College and 
Wm. H. Wright 1 , University of Wisconsin 

According to the theory of Stearn and Steam 2 , bacteria behave as conju- 
gated proteins, i.e., they are amphoteric in nature and are, therefore, able to 
react with either acidic or basic substances. If this is the case, the absorption of 
acidic and basic dyes by bacteria would depend not only on the nature of the dye 
but also on the hydrogen-ion concentration of the solution in which the absorption 
took place. At high pH values, or in basic solution, the bacterial cells would tend 
to ionize as acids and would readily combine with basic dyes but not with acid 
dyes. At low pH values the conditions would be reverse. 

Stearn and Stearn, and other investigators, have carried out a number of 
experiments which indicate the validity of this theory. They also explain the 
function of mordants in staining as being one of oxidation. Oxidation renders the 
protoplasm more acid in nature and, therefore, increased its capacity for com- 
bining with a basic dye. 

If it is assumed that the Stearn hypothesis holds true for living organisms 
as well as for dead, the pH value of the medium should be a determining factor 
in the absorption of a given dye by a living organism provided, of course, that the 
pH is either above or below the isoelectric range of the organism and, provided 
further, that the organism can life and grow in such a medium. The lower the pH 
value of the medium, the greater should be the tendency of the organism to absorb 
an acid dye and the higher the pH the greater should be the tendency to absorb 
a basic dye. 

During the course of an attempt to find some differentiating characteristics 
between Pseudomonas tumefaciens and Radiobacter some interesting reactions of 
these organisms with acid and basic dyes were noted. While no differenting 
characteristics were found yet all of these organisms reacted with one of the dyes 
used in a manner opposite to that which might be expected if the Stearn hypothe- 
sis were correct. A brief outline will be given of the work done and an attempt 
will be made to explain the apparent anomalous behavious of these organisms 
with the dye, congo red. 

Strains of Pseudomonas tumefaciens and Radiobacter were grown on agar plate 
cultures containing congo red. After nine days growth most of the plates contained 
colonies which were either all red, all pink, or all colorless. A few plates contained 
all three types. On re-innoculation from individual colonies using similar media 
the resulting growths were found in every case to have the same color as the orig- 
inal colony. Since congo red is an acid dye, it should, according to the Stearn hypothe- 
sis, be best absorbed when the colonies had produced an acid reaction in the medium. 
Accordingly, innoculations were made from colonies which showed the greatest 
degree of color absorption, in litmus milk. However, after fifteen days no fer- 
mentation of the milk could be discerned and the pH recorded was 7.6. Several 
other strains which gave pink or colorless colonies in the plate culture lowered the 
pH of litmus milk cultures considerably more than the colonies of decided red 
color. 



Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 40: 175-177. (1930) 1931. 

iDeceased. 

2 Stearn & Stearn. Jour. Bact. 9:5. 1924. 



176 



Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 



The absorption of the acid dye, from thymol blue, by these organisms was 
also studied. Strains were placed on mannitol agar slants. In several cases the 
reaction became quite acid and in such case considerable quantities of the dye 
were absorbed by the colonies, coloring the clumps a decided orange- yellow. 
Using several different sugars the same phenomenon was noted, this dye being 
best absorbed when the reaction had become somewhat acid. Therefore, this dye 
behaved as would be expected if the Stearn hypothesis is held. 

Strains of these organisms were next grown in peptone broth medium. To 
one set of tubes was added crystal violet, a basic dye, to another set, brom thymol 
blue and to the third, congo red. The pH values were also adjusted so as to give 
cultures with each of the dyes having pH values of 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8. It would 
be expected in accordance with the theory that the two acid dyes would be best 
absorbed at low pH values while the basic dye would be best absorbed at a high 
pH value. Both congo red and brom thymol blue precipitated out of the solution 
at pH values of 3 and 4 so that no results could be obtained for these values. 
At pH 5 brom thymol blue was obviously absorbed by the organisms leaving the 
solution lighter. At higher pH values the absorption was progressively less. On 
the other hand, congo red seemed to be equally well absorbed at pH 6, 7, and 8. 
Crystal violet was definitely better absorbed at pH values of 7 and 8 than at lower 
values. Thus, the two dyes brom thymol blue and crystal violet behave in accord- 
ance with the theory while congo red seems to have little correlation with pH. 

A study of the structural formulae of these three dyes throws some light 
on the apparently peculiar behavior of congo red. Brom thymol blue is unques- 
tionably acid in nature since it contains both a sulfonic group and an acid hydroxy 
group. It is not amphoteric in nature and is not an indicator in the ordinary sense 
of the word. It is difficult to see how it could play any other than an acid role 
in its reaction. 



HO 
Br 



CH 

> 


3 
\ 

CI 

A 


CH 3 

/ 




CH 


3 
\ 

CI 

A 


CH 3 

/ 




V 
CI 


Is 


C 

A 





V 
CI 

*o„ 


I» 



OH 
Br 



Brom Thymol Blue (an acid dye) 

Crystal violet is commonly classed as a basic dye. The dye radical combines 
with an acid radical to form a salt. It could, therefore combine with bacteria only 
when the organisms are playing an acid role, i.e., in solutions of high pH. 

/OH 3 

ci • < > n, 

CH3. 



\ 



\ 



CH; 



n-< >=c: 



CH; 



< >N 



CH; 



CH3 



Crystal Violet 



The Relation of pH to the Absorption of Dyes by Bacteria 177 

Congo red is commonly classed as an acid dye. The molecule contains two 
sulfonic acid groups and two amino groups. 

NH 2 NH 2 



^-n=n- < y^ ~y — n=n 



w 



w 



S0 3 Na S0 3 Na 

Congo Red 

It is obvious that this dye is unlike the others in that it is itself an amphoteric 
compound. Its acid properties are slightly more pronounced than its basic prop- 
erties for its isoelectric range if from pH 5 to pH 8. Since it is amphoteric it should 
have little tendency to combine with bacteria for both would dissociate basically 
at low pH values and as acids at high pH values. However, this would be the 
case only if the isoelectric ranges of both dye and bacteria were the same. If the 
isoelectric range or point of the bacteria were lower than that of the congo red then 
combination could take place above that point for the bacteria would be more 
acidic than the dye. Likewise combination should take place if the isoelectric 
point of the bacteria were higher than that of the dye. The roles of the reactants 
would then be reversed. It is quite probable that the isoelectric point of the 
bacteria is lower than that of the dye for many bacteria are known to have iso- 
electric points as low as pH 4 and 3. Furthermore, those colonies which showed 
the greatest absorption of congo red on agar plates developed a pH of 7.6 in litmus 
milk. This is close to the upper limit of the isoelectric range of congo red where 
absorption should be the greatest if the bacteria were playing an acid role, i.e., had 
a lower isoelectric range than the dye. If this is the case, then congo red is playing 
the role of a basic rather than an acid dye toward these bacteria. Nevertheless, its 
behavior is quite in harmony the theory. 

These results suggest the necessity for carefully studying the possible ampho- 
teric nature of a dye before predicting its reaction with bacteria. The superficial 
classification of a dye as acidic or basic is not sufficient to determine how it may 
behave with bacteria at various pH values. These results also suggest the ad- 
visability of a similar study with other dyes having both acid and basic groups in 
the molecule to determine whether they behave in a similar manner or not. 

It was noted in the course of this study that congo red even when present in 
considerable concentration in the medium had little if any inhibitory effect on the 
growth of the organisms while both of the other dyes when present in higher con- 
centrations seemed to retard growth considerably. If the conclusions reached 
above are correct the organism has united with the amino group of the congo 
red rather than with the sulfonic acid group. The chemical stimulus of the organ- 
ism has driven it in this case to that portion of the dye molecule which is least 
harmful or most beneficial. 



A New Gas Circulating Absorption Stirrer 



179 



A NEW GAS CIRCULATING ABSORPTION STIRRER 



J. A. Nieuwland and R. R. Vogt 

The apparatus to be described is a modification of the previously described 
Benning stirrer 1 , which is used to stir a gas into a liquid. In the original form the 
gas and liquid are contained in a stoppered flask, gas being supplied to the flask 
from a gasometer as needed, through an inlet tube through the stopper. The 



MODIFIED OAS 
APPAP 



Fresh Gas- 



jK^mr 



Motor Drivi,oq 
V- Jhsft. 

Pressure 

ABSORPTION 
-AT US . 




E*lt Gas Return 



rbpuri.fl c&tioo. 



Ceor-oe F Heryruoo . 



Fig. 1 



stirrer consists of an inverted cross of glass tubing. The two horizontal arms and 
the lower vertical arm are short and open at the ends and are immersed in the 
liquid. The long upper vertical arm or shaft is sealed at the end and projects out 
through a mercury seal in the stopper, and is connected directly to the shaft of a 

Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 40: 179-180. (1930) 1931. 

iA. F. Benning, Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 37:263. (1927). 



180 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

small motor by means of a short piece of rubber pressure tubing. A pin hole in 
the hollow shaft is so placed that it leads to the gas layer in the upper part of the 
flask. When the stirrer is rotated on its vertical axis, liquid and gas bubbles are 
thrown out through the short horizontal arms by centrifugal force, and at the 
same time, liquid is sucked in through the short vertical arm and gas through the 
pinhole in the shaft. 

In the modification we are about to describe, the shaft or upper vertical arm 
of the cross has no pinhole for the admission of gas and may be a solid rod. In- 
stead of drawing gas directly from the upper part of the flask, the gas is led out of 
the flask by a tube inserted in the stopper, through any outside apparatus that 
may be desired, and back into the flask by another tube which dips under the 
liquid and terminates in a nozzle projecting up into the lower vertical arm of the 
stirrer. The liquid also flows into the lower vertical arm around the outside of the 
nozzle. The stirrer now acts as a gas pump and gives a continuous circulation of 
gas. The liquid in the flask may be heated and the gas stream led through a con- 
denser, giving distillation in a current of gas. The liquid may remain cool and the 
gas stream may be led through solid absorbents or liquid solvents, giving continu- 
ous extraction by a gas corresponding to more common extractions by liquids. 
It is also possible to pass a stream of gas through two or more liquids for successive 
reactions and then to return the unchanged residue for a retreatment. The appa- 
ratus may be used with two immiscible liquids of different specific gravities instead 
of a liquid and a gas, distilling the liquid that flows out of the flask and returning 
the distillate to the stirrer, thus giving continuous extraction of one liquid by 
another. 



The Serum Neutralization of Hemotoxins 181 



THE SERUM NEUTRALIZATION OF HEMOTOXINS 



H. M. Powell, Lilly Research Laboratories, Indianapolis 

Early in the history of bacteriology attention was directed toward certain 
very labile bacterial toxic substances, produced to a variable extent by many 
organisms, which cause hemolysis of blood. Without attempting to review the 
work dealing directly or indirectly with such hemotoxins, it appears one may 
safely state that no very satisfactory conclusion has been arrived at as to what 
part if any these toxic materials play either in the natural disease and artificial 
immunization on the one hand, or in the production of the best antiserums on the 
other hand. In the production of commercial bacterial vaccines, a quite general 
attempt is made, as has been done in the past, to maintain stock cultures of some 
of the more highly invasive bacteria in a state of high virulence for animal tissues 
and to maintain hemolytic properties in some instances. Test tube neutralization 
of bacterial hemotoxin has been used, together with mouse protection, agglutin- 
ation, et cetera, to evaluate potency of antiserums such as those produced with 
hemolytic Streptococci. 

As long as the hemolysis of erythrocytes appeared to be the only outstanding 
characteristic of such toxic substances, their importance in infectious disease may 
have been underestimated. However, some hemotoxins such as certain highly 
potent ones produced by Staphylococcus aureus have been found to be capable of 
causing degeneration of leucocytes, and of bringing about massive necrosis of 
fixed tissues and death in experimental animals. These latter facts together with 
changes in opinion concerning the best antibody content of antiserums other than 
the classical antitoxins have to some extent possiblly reopened the question of the 
importance of bacterial hemotoxins and other very labile antigens in immunity. 
The Bundaberg disaster in which several human fatalities resulted from the in- 
jection of living Staphylococci which were later found to produce a great amount 
of hemotoxin also called attention to a possibly wider role which the hemotoxins 
may play in pathology than hitherto suspected. 

In this paper results of tests for the examination of hemotoxins from some 
human pathogens are given. The neutralization of these hemotoxins by anti- 
serums is described, and some comments are made upon this field of immunology. 

Experimental. Hemotoxins were produced from Streptococcus, Staphylo- 
coccus, and Tetanus cultures. The organisms were either grown for a few hours 
in high grade veal infusion broth or for a longer time, one to five or six days, in 
similar broth suitably buffered. Saline washings from agar growth also yield 
satisfactory hemotoxin. These cultures, on removal from the incubator, were 
cleared with the centrifuge and then passed through a Berkefeld N filter. 

The potency of these hemotoxins was estimated as rapidly as possible as 
follows. One-half cubic centimeter of each of a series of dilutions of hemotoxin 
was mixed in tubes with one-half cubic centimeter of five percent suspension of 
washed rabbit erythrocytes. These mixtures were placed at 37 °C. for an hour and 
readings made in terms of degrees of hemolysis. The hemolytic titers of all of our 
filtrates, including about twenty-four test lots, varied from fifty to two hundred 
hemolytic doses or units per cubic centimeter. In general, the Staphylococci! 

Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 40: 181-183. (1930) 1931. 



182 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

filtrates were strongest, with Tetanus filtrates intermediate and Streptococcus 
filtrates weakest. 

Our experience in immunization of both small laboratory animals and also 
horses for curative serum shows that fresh active hemotoxin is highly antigenic, 
and high titered serums are rather readily produced. There is evidence also that 
after the hemotoxin has lost its activity spontaneously it still immunizes well. This 
is in harmony with the fact that spontaneously inactivated hemotoxin can be made 
highly hemolytic again through the use of reducing substances, and indicates that 
in the inactive state perhaps it acts much like a sort of toxoid. For all of our test 
tube neutralization of hemotoxin with antiserum, however, we have regularly 
used freshly produced hemotoxin. During the time each separate lot of this was 
being tested, the bulk of the lot was kept in the icebox. As soon as the unitage 
was determined by the tests described above, sufficient hemotoxin for neutraliza- 
tion tests was then diluted so that one-fourth cubic centimeter contained two 
hemolytic units. For the neutralization tests one-fourth cubic centimeter of 
diluted hemotoxin containing two units was run into each of a series of small test 
tubes and then one-fourth cubic centimeter doses of each of a series of dilutions 
of antiserum were added. These tubes, including proper controls, were incubated 
at 37°C. for one hour. Then one-half cubic centimeter doses of five percent sus- 
pension of washed rabbit erythrocytes were added to the tubes. Incubation was 
then carried out for an additional hour at 37 °C. Readings were then made in 
terms of degrees of hemolysis, and therefore no hemolysis means complete neu- 
tralization of hemotoxin with antiserum. Various antiserums were found to con- 
tain from 4,000 to 16,000 units of antihemotoxin per cubic centimeter, the unit 
being that amount just neutralizing a hemotoxin unit. 

It was found from these homologous and heterologous neutralization tests 
that there is a large amount of overlapping of reaction; for example, Tetanus and 
Staphylococcus antiserums neutralize Streptococcus hemotoxin. In other words, 
any one of the three antiserums (Streptococcus, Staphylococcus or Tetanus) will 
neutralize any one of the hemotoxins, but not always to the same extent. It 
appeared that the Streptococcus hemotoxins were most readily neutralizable by 
heterologous antisera, while Staphylococcus and Tetanus hemotoxins were less 
readily neutralizable in this way. Diphtheria antiserum was used throughout this 
work as a control since it has little if any antihemotoxic property. Antihemotoxic 
properties of raw serums are readily concentrated four or five times by the regular 
salting out methods. 

The relation which these positive cross neutralization results may have to the 
use of antiserum curatively is obscure. There is no information as yet, for example, 
on the treatment of hemolytic Streptococcus infection in man with either Tetanus 
or Staphylococcus antiserum. Under ordinary conditions of production Tetanus 
antiserum appears to have a very constant high titer of antihemotoxin, and prob- 
ably where special precautions are not taken in the preparation of filtrates the 
Tetanus filtrate will be found superior in hemotoxin content. This may be due 
in part to the protection from oxidation afforded the hemotoxin in this instance 
by the anaerobic cultivation. 

We have observed that Streptococcus antiserum containing antihemotoxin 
can be specifically used with very good results in hemolytic Streptococcus broncho- 
pneumonia in man while Pneumococcus antiserum without antihemotoxin has 
no effect. Of course the Streptococcus antiserum also contains other Streptococcus 
antibodies such as protective antibody, opsonin, et cetera, not present in the 
pneumococcus serum. However, the striking drop in temperature and sense of 



The Serum Neutralization of Hemotoxins 183 

well-being in Streptococcus pneumonias following the use of Streptoccocus anti- 
serum may at least in part be due to the antihemotoxins. Recently we have re- 
ceived reports that our Streptococcus antiserum has been used with very good 
results in the condition in man known as blackwater fever. This is directly or 
indirectly caused or provoked by malaria, and a powerful hemotoxin is in some 
way produced in the body either by the parasites themselves or perhaps by 
Streptococci which may chance to be present. The hemotoxin, whatever its 
source, appears to be readily neutralized by the Streptococcus antiserum. 

Discussion. Whether the bacterial hemotoxins play a considerable part in 
human infectious disease is still an open question. These materials resemble the 
classical toxins in many ways including their degree of lability, and their property 
of inciting large amounts of antihemotoxin in suitably treated animals. In view 
of the criticism of the practice of using for active immunization stock bacterial 
vaccines produced from cultures removed from the original lesions by a long series 
of subcultures upon artificial media, and sterilizing these by heat, one may suggest 
the following modification of procedure. The vaccine may be more surely like the 
natural virus if it is propagated preferably in the presence of human blood for at 
least part of the time. Its hemolytic action on human blood or its ability to grow 
in the presence of human blood may be tested, and thereby many useless organ- 
isms may be separated out. In order to preserve the labile antigenic fractions such 
as hemotoxns, the cultures may be devitalized with suitable germicide instead 
of being killed by heating. It appears that hemotoxins so prepared, and even 
when inactivated spontaneously by oxidation, are still highly antigenic and act 
somewhat as a toxoid. 

In view of the general failure to obtain results fully up to expectation in the 
therapeutic use of antiserums containing only antibacterial body, such as agglu- 
tinin, it may be desirable to include in such serums more or less antihemotoxin 
in case the corresponding bacteria may be hemolytic. This may be brought about 
by injecting horses with cultures containing the maximum of hemotoxin and which 
have been devitalized with suitable germicide instead of being heat-killed. In 
this way a maximum of antibacterial body will be included in the serum, as well 
as immune substances incited by the more lable antigens which a given culture 
may produce. 

Our experience in animal immunization shows that antihemotoxins are readily 
incited after treatment with potent hemotoxin. The latter, even when it has lost 
its activity spontaneously through age, is still a good antigen. The fact that 
hemotoxin generally appears very early in the growth of a culture may indicate 
that antihemotoxin may conceivably come into action very early in an infectious 
disease. Since very little is known about any reactions taking place in the very 
earliest stages of infection, hemotoxin-antihemotoxin studies merit further study, 
as do those reactions involving all very lable antigenic fractions. 

Conclusions 

1. Potent hemotoxins can be quite regularly produced from Streptococci, 
Staphylococci, and Tetanus bacilli. Through suitable animal treatment high 
titered antihemotoxins are obtained. 

2. There is quite a wide range in cross or heterologous neutralization of 
hemotoxin with antihemotoxin. 

3. Hemotoxins and other labile antigens merit further study as a means 
of improvement of prophylactic vaccines and in turn of certain antiserums other 
than the classical antitoxins. 



The Production of Hydrogen Sulphide 185 



THE PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN SULPHIDE BY 
HEATING PARAFFINE AND OTHER HYDRO- 
CARBON MIXTURES WITH SULPHUR*. 



E. D. Scudder and R. E. Lyons 

The fact that H 2 S may be made by heating together paraffine and sulphur 
has been long known 2 . Lidoff 3 made H 2 S by adding a "petroleum naphtha" to 
sulphur at 350°-400°C. Brooks and Humphrey 4 reported a yield of 80-85 percent 
of the S as H 2 S from heating a 2 :1 mixture of oil and S, but made no statement as to 
purity of product, operating time, nor temperature employed. Hanley 5 has 
studied the reaction of fuel, cylinder and road oils, with 10 percent S, at tempera- 
tures of 150°-205°C. maintained for 3.5 to 24 hours. The yields of S as H 2 S were 
for the most part 45 to 55 percent. A mixture of road oil and 10 percent S heated 
to 150°-205°C. is reported to have yielded 72.2 percent H 2 S at the end of 3.5 hours. 

The work described in this paper deals with the optimum conditions and the 
effect of certain catalysts on the production of pure H 2 S by heating S and various 
hydrocarbons. 

Experimental. The reaction mixture of hydrocarbon and sulphur contained 
in a 12 inch Pyrex test tube, equipped with stopper and delivery tube, was sus- 
pended in an electrically heated air bath and the gaseous product collected over 
water, saturated with H 2 S, in graduated tabulated bottles. The purity of the 
H 2 S was determined by treatment of a test portion of known volume in a gas 
pipette with a concentrated NaOH solution. The absorbed gas volume was ac- 
cepted as that of H 2 S. The yields were low and erratic. Much sulphur volatilized 
unchanged from the mixtures and collected in the delivery tubes. 

To correct this 250 cc. Pyrex distilling flasks were substituted for the test 
tubes as containers, and lump pumice 6 was added to the reaction mixture. This 
gave a decided increase in yield of H 2 S and fairly consistent results, although 
volatilization of some sulphur from the reaction mixture was apparent. 

A catalyst was sought which would permit the reaction to proceed at a tem- 
perature sufficiently low to avoid volatilization of sulphur from the mixture. The 
effect of the presence of the following substances upon the temperature required 
for initial reaction, in mixtures of sulphur with paraffine, and asphalt, was studied: 
cadmium sulphide, finely divided iron, aluminum, zinc, copper, cobalt, nickel, 
lead, antimony, bismuth, silver, pumice, bone charcoal, silica, gilsonite, calcium 
oxide, arsenious oxide, lampblack, tar, the bleaching carbon "Norit" and anhy- 
drous aluminum chloride. The gas from the generator was allowed to pass through 
a solution of cadmium chloride and at the appearance of precipitation of CdS the 

Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 40: 185-188. (1930) 1931. 

iContribution from the Chemistry Department of Indiana University. 
2Galletly. Chem. News. 24, 162 (1871). 
3Lidoff. Chem. Zentralblatt. 53, 22 (1882). 

4 Brooks and Humphrey. J. Ind. and Eng. Chem. 9, 746 (1917). 
5 Hanley. Chem. and Met. Eng. 24, 693 (1921). 

6 The presence of pumice in the hard paraffine sulphur mixture was found advantageous, but in 
hydrocarbon oil sulphur mixtures it was without effect. 



186 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

temperature within the generator was recorded. The substances found to cause 
appreciable lowering of the initial reaction temperature, with data, concerning 
paraffin, soft asphalt, and Gulf U B" Asphalt are given in the following table: 











Temperature of 




Paraffine, 


Powdered 


Addition 


Mixture at Initial 


Experiment 


M.P. 65°C. 


Sulphur 


Agents 


H 2 S Evolution. 




Grams 


Grams 




Degrees C. 


1 


10 


3 


none 


265-270 


2 


10 


3 


1.0 g. Gilsonite 


242 


3 


10 


3 


3.0 g. Gilsonite 


240 


4 


10 


3 


1.0 g. Asphalt 


256 


5 


10 


3 


5.0 g. Asphalt 


240 


6 


10 


3 


0.5 g. bone charcoal 


254 


7 


10 


3 


1.0 g. tar 


254 


8 


10 


3 


3.0 g. lampblack 


239 


9 


10 


3 


3.0 g. Gilsonite 


240 


10 


10 


3 


2.0 g. Norite 


259 


11 


5 


3 


5.0 g. Asphalt 


240 


12 


10 soft asphalt3 


none 


240 


13 


10 Gulf ' 


'B" 








asph 


alt 3 


none 


234 



All of the above substances which caused a lowering of the temperature at 
which hydrogen sulphide was evolved, also anhydrous aluminum chloride, and 
cadmium sulphide were used as catalysts and their effect on the yield of gas 
determined. 

It was found that when paraffine or ozokerite was used that carbon was the 
most effective, anhydrous aluminum chloride gave almost as good results, iron 
(80 mesh or less) was about 75 percent as effective, and in all other cases the effect 
was negligible. When flux oil or road oil was used none of the above had any ap- 
preciable effect. With black oil the gas yield was not affected by carbon but the 
purity was greater and with asphalt the yield was lowered slightly. 

The following tables show some of the most characteristic runs with the 
various hydrocarbons. The yield is given in percent of sulphur as hydrogen sul- 
phide. Varying proportions of the different substances were studied but the 
ratios shown gave the best results. 

Ozokerite 

Yield 
H 2 S, 
Exp. Percent 

14. 20g. ozokerite, 6g. sulphur, 15g. pumice, 6g. gilsonite 44. 1 

15. 20g. ozokerite, 6g. sulphur, 15g. pumice, no catalyst 26.2 

16. 20g. ozokerite, 6g. sulphur, 15g. pumice, 6g. lampblack 51 .0 

Paraffin 

17. 20g. paraffin, 7.5g. sulphur, 15g. pumice, no catalyst 39.3 

18. 20g. paraffin, 7.5g. sulphur, 15g. pumice, no catalyst 37. 1 

19. 20g. paraffin, 7.5g. sulphur, 30g. pumice, no catalyst 38.8 



The Production of Hydrogen Sulphide 187 

20. 20g. paraffin, 7.5g. sulphur, 30g. pumice, no catalyst 39.2 

21. 20g. paraffin, 6.0g. sulphur, no pumice, 6g. gilsonite 29.5 

22. 20g. paraffin, 6.0g. sulphur, no pumice, 6g. gilsonite 21 .4 

23. 20g. paraffin, 6.0g. sulphur, 15g. pumice, 6g. gilsonite 45.8 

24. 20g. paraffin, 6.0g. sulphur, 20g. pumice, 6g. gilsonite 44.2 

25. 20g. paraffin, 6.0g. sulphur, 15g. pumice, 6g. lampblack 47.0 

26. 20g. paraffin, 7.5g. sulphur, 20g. pumice, 6g. lampblack 49.5 

27. 20g. paraffin, 6.0g. sulphur, 20g. pumice, 6g. lampblack 48.0 

28. 20g. paraffin, 6.0g. sulphur, 20g. pumice, 6g. lampblack 47.6 

29. 40g. paraffin, 12g. sulphur, 20g. pumice, 6g. lampblack 59.5 

30. 40g. paraffin, 20g. sulphur, 20g. pumice, 6g. lampblack 53.6 

31. 40g. paraffin, 20g. sulphur, no pumice, no lampblack 22.5 

32. 20g. paraffin, 7.5g. sulphur, no pumice, 30g. charcoal 49.1 

33. 20g. paraffin, 7.5g. sulphur, no pumice, 15g. charcoal 45. 1 

34. 20g. paraffin, 7.5g. sulphur, 20g. pumice, 6g. A1C1 3 anhyd. . ...... 46.6 

35. 20g. paraffin, 7.5g. sulphur, 20g. pumice, 6g. AICI3 anhyd. ....... 48.3 

In these runs with ozokerite and paraffin, as with the asphalt and oils, the 
temperature at which most of the gas came over was from 245° to 260°C. The 
temperature was then allowed to rise to 300°C. The yields are based on all the 
gas that came over up to that temperature. The purity of the gas up to 300°C. 
as shown by absorption in a dilute caustic soda solution was 100 percent. 

On allowing the temperature to increase in the above mixture a greater 
volume of gas was obtained but with a decrease of purity. Samples of gas pro- 
duced at 500°C. showed a purity of only 64 percent and the increase in yield up 
to that temperature was about 10 percent. 

Asphalt Yield 

H 2 S, 
Exp. Percent 

36. 20g. asphalt, 6g. sulphur, 15g. pumice, no catalyst 33.3 

37. 20g. asphalt, 6g. sulphur, 30g. pumice, no catalyst 29 . 2 

38. 20g. asphalt, 6g. sulphur, 30g. pumice, 6g. lampblack. 25.8 

39. 20g. asphalt, 6g. sulphur, no pumice, no lampblack. 31. 6 

The volume yield in the case of asphalt was so low that a study at higher 
temperatures was not made nor was the purity determined. 

Flux Oil Yield 

H 2 S, 
Exp. Percent 

40. lOg. flux oil, 12. 5g. sulphur, lOg. pumice, no catalyst 31 .4 

41. lOg. flux oil, 12. 5g. sulphur, lOg. pumice, no catalyst 31 . 1 

42. 20g. flux oil, 20.0g. sulphur, 20g. pumice, 6g. lampblack 44.6 

43. 23g. flux oil, 15.0g. sulphur, 20g. pumice, 6g. lampblack 43. 1 

44. 20g. flux oil, 25.0g. sulphur, 20g. pumice, 6g. lampblack 43 . 9 

45. 22g. flux oil, 20.0g. sulphur, 20g. pumice, 6g. lampblack 45 . 

46. 30g. flux oil, 20.0g. sulphur, 20g. pumice, 6g. lampblack 46 . 1 

The purity at 300°C. was 100 percent, at 350° the purity was 95.7 percent, and 

at 500° the purity was 25 percent. 



188 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

Black Oil 
This oil was a medium weight lubricating oil, black in color, and probably 
containing considerable free carbon. 

Yield 
H 2 S 
Exp. Percent 

47. 20g. black oil, 25g. sulphur, 20g. pumice, 6g. lampblack 49.0 

48. 20g. black oil, 20g. sulphur, 20g. pumice, 6g. lampblack 53 . 3 

49. 30g. black oil, 20g. sulphur, 20g. pumice, 6g. lampblack 61 .9 

50. 30g. black oil, 20g. sulphur, 20g. pumice, 6g. lampblack 61 .0 

51. 40g. black oil, 20g. sulphur, 20g. pumice, 6g. lampblack 65.9 

52. 40g. black oil, 20g. sulphur, 20g. pumice, 6g. lampblack 68.3 

53. 40g. black oil, 20g. sulphur, no pumice, no lampblack 68.0 

54. 40g. black oil, 20g. sulphur, no pumice, no lampblack 66.3 

55. 40g. black oil, lOg. sulphur, no pumice, no lampblack 67.0 

The purity at 300°C. when lamp black was used was 100 percent. When no 
lampblack was used it was 96 percent. This indicates that lampblack might 
retard the cracking of the oil. Above 300°C. the purity rapidly dropped in each 
case and reached approximately 25 percent at 500° C. 



Road Oil 

Yield 
H 2 S 
Exp. Percent 

56. 20g. road oil, lOg. sulphur, lOg. pumice, 6g. lampblack 65.6 

57. 45g. road oil, 15g. sulphur, 20g. pumice, 2g. Cadmium Sulphide.. . 67.4 

58. 20g. road oil, lOg. sulphur, no pumice, no catalyst 67 . 3 

59. 45g. road oil, 15g. sulphur, no pumice, no catalyst 70.0 

60. 40g. road oil, lOg. sulphur, no pumice, no catalyst 69 . 7 



Summary and Conclusions 

Finely divided carbon is a decidedly positive catalyst for the preparation 
of hydrogen sulphide by the action of sulphur on hydrocarbons. When lampblack 
is added to paraffin and ozokerite sulphur mixtures, the yields are practically 
doubled. In the case of road oil and flux oil the addition of finely divided carbon 
has no effect. With asphalt the carbon seems to slightly lower the yield, while with 
black oil the yield is unaffected but the purity of the gas is higher. 

Evidently the reason that the addition of carbon does not cause an increase 
in yields with the oils and asphalt is that they contain sufficient free carbon to 
catalyze the reaction. 

Anhydrous aluminum chloride is also a positive catalyst and about equal to 
carbon. The catalytic effect is not additive to that of carbon because it did not 
produce an increase of yields in the oils. Finely divided iron, 80 mesh and less, 
is about 75 percent as effective as lampblack but, like AlCU it is not additive to 
that of free carbon for it did not cause an increase of yields with the oils. 

A much lower percentage of H 2 S is found in the gas produced at temperatures 
above 300°C. 



Chemistry Projects and Exhibitions 189 



CHEMISTRY PROJECTS AND EXHIBITIONS 



J. Lyman Sheean, Culver Military Academy 

Every Science teacher is in search of methods for arousing interest in his 
subject and in a subject such as chemistry, the difficulty is even more obvious 
than in some of the other sciences. The field of chemistry is so broad that one 
must even at the best give a hasty overview of the subject in a one year High 
School course. 

The method of projects and exhibits has aided greatly in increasing and stimu- 
ing interest in the phases of industrial chemistry. Project work will not and never 
should replace the laboratory and recitation work but it is an important adjunct 
in getting a student very familiar with certain fields of an ever increasing volume 
of chemical facts. 

It is well known that industries and home processes are becoming more de- 
pendent than ever before on chemistry and science. In many instances men and 
women with no training in chemistry are being required to do certian chemical 
procedures, such as soften water, test its hardness, its alkalinity, use carbon 
dioxide recorders, run analysis of flue gases, test for the acidity in cream, and 
many others. A course in High School Chemistry will aid in many of these and 
since that is the only chemistry many will ever study, they should get some ex- 
perience in their class work. Projects give just this needed opportunity. 

They impress more forcibly upon the student the tremendous role which 
chemistry plays in modern, everyday life. A search of magazine articles and ad- 
vertisements at once shows that they are filled with reference to chemical processes. 

Although the method is not new, yet it has met a wonderful reception in the 
two years it has been in operation at Culver Military Academy. 

The chemistry course is taught on the unit basis. The entire year's work is 
divided up into sixteen units and by a logical grouping it is hoped that the student 
will not look upon chemistry as a mass of unrelated and disconnected facts. The 
course begins with a unit on Chemical history, which in turn is followed by a unit 
on Mass and Energy. Likewise, another unit on Water and its constituents fol- 
lows. Under this heading we study Oxygen, Hydrogen, Water and their relation 
to varying types of solution. This might be carried on through all units in the 
year's course, but we are interested largely in the application of projects to the 
course of units. Along with each unit is given a selected list of outside readings. 
The students interested are at liberty to take any of the topics and, after a 
thorough perusal of material, are allowed to write a paper on the subject. In this 
way a certain correlation with the English department is obtained for the student 
soon finds out that competent work involves the best use of principles used in 
English. 

Aside from the topical references to units we plan on completing two large 
projects a year, one in each semester. The first semester project is an essay which 
is submitted in the local contest in preparation for the State contest of the Ameri- 
can Chemical Society. The students have their choice of six topics. Before 
any choice is made all students are given a list of the topics and at the end of 

Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 40: 189-192. (1930) 1931. 



190 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

a week lists of textbooks which deal with subject material. After an examination 
of material they are expected to select a topic and hand in the topic to the in- 
structor in charge. This being a boy's military school, their interests center 
largely on National Defense and although a choice is allowed, nearly all pupils 
choose the general topic of "The Relation of Chemistry to National Defense." 
Various phases of chemistry in warfare are studied and written up. 

Conferences are arranged so that the weekly progress of the student is noted — 
for it is always necessary to keep the slower and indifferent people with their 
shoulder to the wheel. The best essays in the local contest are then sent in to the 
State contest. One is surprised at some of the excellent ideas contained and the 
interest that the boys themselves show in writing the essay. 

Just about Thanksgiving time the subject of second semester's projects is 
discussed with each individual. In many schools it is hard to obtain material for 
projects since many of the industrial concerns do not with any degree of pleasure 
relish the idea of sending out samples of their products for school use. Here our 
problem is much more simple for our class of students are usually from a group 
of people who are interested in industrial developments. Hence it is quite easy 
for the students to get a complete process and all the samples showing the various 
steps in the procedure. Where the student has no relative in an industry involving 
chemistry, he usually is able to obtain the necessary material from his friends here 
on the campus. 

It is made plain that the process should be investigated during the Christmas 
vacation, the necessary samples collected, and that they should be back here 
ready to work on as soon as the vacation is over. From then on until the projects 
are placed on exhibition, the laboratories become a work shop, humming and teem- 
ing with industry, as all boys are busy mounting and arranging material. 

Each student is required to become thoroughly familiar with the processes 
involved so that he can write a discussion and present his discussion before the 
students of his group. 

In this manner each student gets an insight into a number of industrial phases 
of chemistry. The one who developed the project, of course, becomes satiated 
with the facts and the others hear a discussion presented in a much more vivid 
method than had they read only a textbook and then vaguely tried to picture the 
industrial phases of the materials involved. 

These projects as they accumulate from year to year will make a ready indus- 
trial reference library and with that aim in view, all projects are mounted on a form 
so that they may become part of a permanent collection. All projects are mounted 
on beaver board which has been cut to a size that best shows off the material 
collected. Most of the projects are mounted on board either 3x3 feet or 3x6 feet, 
and a few were mounted on boards 3x1 foot. However, it is best to keep them 
on the larger boards for the sake of unity in the exhibit. 

The boards are all given two coats of enamel (black preferred) for then they 
are easy to keep clean when enameled and a similarity of background gives the 
whole exhibit a more harmonious tone. 

As before stated the students are held entirely responsible for their own 
projects and their development. However, care must be taken to see that they do 
not duplicate or overlap each other. Interest is stimulated in the projects by 
giving points on the semester grade for early completion, best mounting, neatest 
work, and originality in selection and collecting materials. 

Some pupils prefer to take a field which is entirely new to them and develop 
that. If such cases are found, it is well to encourage them for it gives the student 



Chemistry Projects and Exhibitions 191 

a broader outlook and I find that in most cases the pupil does more intensive 
study and research in a new field than in a field where the general principles of the 
project are already known to him. It is to such people that the Science teacher 
turns for inspiration to carry on a rather heavy and sometimes exceedingly heavy 
schedule. 

The values of the project method are manifold, but aside from the actual 
value to the student, two important results are known. In the first place it ad- 
vertises the classroom and laboratory work. The parents have a right to know 
what the pupil is doing in his work and the projects and exhibitions afford such 
a means of direct communication. Then in the second place it interests the pupils 
of the lower classes for they can see that varying projects explain some problems 
about which they have been thinking. What is greater for a teacher's ideal than 
to create character and stimulate and broaden students so that they shall become 
better men and women and broader intellectual citizens? 

As a guide for those who wish to carry out a somewhat similar plan of pro- 
jects, I am adding a list of projects which have been completed here in the past 
two years. None of these are duplicates and where the subjects are similar, it 
means that various phases of the subject have been taken up. For example, in 
petroleum, one boy went into the methods of distilling crude petroleum, another 
the hydrocarbons from the "cracking" methods, while still another showed the 
wax distillate and all its subordinate products. 

The projects showing the chemical composition of foods, soaps, cosmetics, 
and cereals always are of interest to the housewife for they gain an insight into 
a phase of chemistry that they would probably never think of unless brought 
directly in contact with it. 



CHEMICAL PROJECTS 

Paper Making — Sulphite Process, Soda Process, Rag Process. Condensed 
Hydrocarbons from city gas lines. Soap and Soap Powders (their composition). 
Zalmite (Imitation Wood). Rubber Flooring (Stedman Process). Bendix Drive. 
Gypsum Products. Sulphur Products. Glass — Its Constituents— Colored Glass- 
ware. Coal Tar Products. Iron and Steel — A grab bar. Coal Tar Dyes. Corn 
Waste Products. Petroleum— Viscosity factors. Salt Products. Cotton Seed 
Products. Corn Products. Missouri Meerschaums. Cement Manufacture. 
Lacquers. Soap Manufacture. Cereals (Their Chemical Composition). Electric 
Furnace Products — Carborundum. Asphalt Roofing Materials. Aluminum 
Products. Cosmetics (Their Composition). Electric Furnace Products— Alun- 
dum. Wool Products. Foods (Their Composition). Cocoa Products. Micarta. 
Chemical Compounds (Their Composition). Glass — Its Constituents — Lead 
Glass. Photographic Film. Chemistry of Flour. Petroleum Products — Wax 
Products. Duco — Its Evolution. Cane Sugar Manufacture. Dyes — Silk, Cotton, 
Wool. Linoleum. Wood Creosote. Alloys. Carbon and Nitrogen Cycles. Story 
of Steel. Distribution of Chemicals in Industrial Processes. Benzene Derivatives. 
Nuts and Bolts. Asbestos. Rubber. Chart of Rubber Processes. Gasoline Plant 
Flow Sheet Youghioheny Gas Coal. Derivatives of Coal. Coal Fields of the 
United States. Tar Derivatives. Coal Analysis. Searle Purification Process 
Petroleum. Batteries. Canfield Petroleum Exhibit. Chemistry in Aviation. 
Cement Manufacture. Aluminum Processes. Distribution of Heavy Chemicals. 
Flavors, True and Artificial. Fire Extinguishers. Lead Products. Making of a 



192 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

Fountain Pen. Derivatives of Coal. Corn Products. Corn — Its Varying Uses. 
Industrial Fuels. Atomic Structure. Cottonseed Oil Consumption. Products of 
Calcium Carbide. Application of Chemical Engineering (Principles to Related 
Industries. Silicate of Soda Tree. Activity in Consuming and Producing In- 
dustries. Rayon (Artificial Silk). What Plant Foods Do. Pyrex Glassware — 
2 Plates. Pottery — Chinaware. Wall and Floor Tile. Cottonseed Oil — Its Uses. 
Brass Display. Magnesium Alloys. Petroleum Refining. Minerals. Sulphuric 
Acid Processes. Derivatives of Ethyl Alcohol. Insecticides. 



Mental Performance and Acid Base Balance of the Blood 19< 



MENTAL PERFORMANCE AND THE ACID BASE BALANCE 
OF THE BLOOD IN NORMAL INDIVIDUALS 1 



N. W. Shock, University of Chicago 

Introduction. The problem consists in the determination of the relation- 
ship between variations in mental performance and variations in the acid-base 
balance of the blood in the same individual over a period of time. The influence 
of acid-base balance of the blood on feelings of well being as reported subjectively 
by the individual is also considered. 

Previous studies on physiological changes and physiological conditions of 
mental work may be grouped into two main categories: 

(a) Physiological changes concomitant with mental work, and, 

(b) Physiological conditions influencing mental work. 

Most of the studies of physiological conditions influencing mental performance 
deal specifically with the effects of certain drugs, such as alcohol, tobacco, strych- 
nine, etc. Darrow (1) has reviewed this literature recently 

One phase of this problem of comparatively recent development is the work 
of German investigators on the effects of recresal administration on mental effi- 
ciency. 

Emden (2) showed that the addition of recresal, (mono sodium hydrogen 
phosphate) to the diet would increase physical and mental efficiency noticeably. 
The work was carried out on horses and men. 

Poppelreuter (3) has recently reported lengthy experiments in which evidence 
of increased mental efficiency as measured by speed and accuracy of working 
arithmetic problems is found in all five of the subjects tested with the administra- 
tion of recresal. The improvement in speed was from 7 percent to 20 percent, while 
in accuracy the improvement was greater, from 20 percent to 40 percent. Al- 
though all details of the experiments were not given, they seem well controlled. 

Strauch (4) in a clinical discussion, claims improvement of backward children 
in school by daily administration of small dosages of recresal, although no experi- 
mental data are given. 

Greisbach, (5) in another clinical article, offers evidence from clinical prac- 
tice for the beneficial effects obtained from the administration of recresal orally 
as a stimulant. 

While Sullivan (6) was able to demonstrate a slight relationship between 
mood and weather conditions, no correlations could be found between mood and 
mental performance or weather and mental performance. 

Bethel (7), in a study of the relationship between weather conditions and 
mental performance, obtained inconclusive results, since three cases showed 
little or no relationship between efficiency of immediate recall and humidity, 
whereas one showed direct variation between the two, and two showed perfect 
inverse variation. Relative humidity, barometric pressure, and temperature 
appear to affect the efficiency of auditory memory. The investigator feels that 
barometric pressure is the most important factor, a low pressure being favorable 
to mental work. 



Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 40: 193-202. (1930) 1931. 

iPart of a thesis submitted at the University of Chicago in partial fulfillment of the require - 
men ts for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy. 



194 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

Lawson (8), in a study of the effect of oxygen deprivation on mental work, 
concluded that cumulative patterns failed while habitual associative connections 
remained intact, or nearly so, even under conditions of relatively low oxygen ten- 
sions. 

Bagby (9), in a similarly titled study, carried out by means of a re-breathing 
apparatus producing progressive asphyxia, found a reduction in ability to carry 
on a number of discrete tasks simultaneously through rapid shifting of attention, 
he also found a constant but irregular decrease in steadiness during the prelim- 
inary stages of the asphyxia. 

Abramovitch and Pichugina (10) report that physical fatigue caused by weight 
lifting and running diminishes the durability of the associative reflex. 

On the other hand, Kantorovitch (11) studied the effect of mental fatigue 
on a previously established associative reflex. Fatigue was produced by compli- 
cated arithmetic work. A comparison study was made on physical fatigue induced 
by dynamometer squeezing. The latter had no effect on the associative reflex. 
Thus it seems that while local physical fatigue has no effect on the associative 
reflex, more or less general physical fatigue exerts a disturbing influence. 

While attempts have been made to measure changes in the blood during and 
after periods of mental work, no studies on the problem of the effect of blood 
condition on the efficiency of mental work have been reported. 

The present study is an attack on the problem of the effect of blood condition 
on the efficiency or rate of mental performance. While various blood constituents 
might be studied, the acid base balance was chosen for the following reasons: 
(1) its close association with both the respiratory and excretory functions of the 
individual, (2) the relative tenacity with which the acid-base system resists dis- 
placement, (3) the fact that this system is worked out more completely in physico- 
chemical terms from the researches of Van Slyke, Henderson, and their co-workers, 
than any other blood system, and, (4) the feasability of the development of a micro 
method of determination. 

Experimental Methods. As tests of mental performance the following 
were used: 

(1) Mental multiplication. Each test was made up of ten problems of mental 
multiplication of two place by two place numbers. The problems were presented 
on 3x5 cards, the subjects carrying out the operations mentally and recording the 
complete answer on a typewriter electrically connected with a time recording 
device that gave the time required on each problem to the nearest second. 

(2) Anagram test. Each test was made up of ten anagrams constructed 
by disarranging the letters of five letter words, all chosen from the first 5,000 
words of most wide and frequent occurrence, according to Thorndike. (12) (Such 
as: llawo, cslsa, etrla, etc.) The subject again wrote the response on the typewriter, 
which gave the time required for each anagram. The score consisted of the mean 
time required per anagram. 

In addition a steadiness test was used in which the subject, while standing, 
held a stylus 1 mm. in diameter wit Inn a hole 3 mm. in diameter attempting to 
keep from touching the side of the hole for fifteen seconds. The score consisted 
in the average number of contacts per fifteen seconds in four trials. 

Ratings. A series of graphic rating scales was constructed to aid in obtaining 
introspections as to the feelings of the individual which might in some measure be 
treated quantitatively. The subject placed a check on a line to indicate his feelings 



Mental Performance and Acid Base Balance of the Blood 195 



■ — ■ 








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196 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

at the time in regard to (1) physical power, (2) capacity for mental work, (3) 
exhaltation or depression, and (4) degree of sleepiness. 

Since existing methods of analysis of the blood required about 10 cc. samples, 
a micro analytical technique was developed by which the percentage cells, the pH 
of the serum and the total CO 2 content can be determined on a sample of 0.1 cc. 
of blood drawn from a finger prick. (13) From these data the carbonic acid con- 
tent of the blood, the CO 2 tension, and the bicarbonate content of the serum were 
calculated by means of a nomogram devised for the purpose. 

Experimental. The study was carried out on seven female and eight male 
subjects, who came to the laboratory without breakfast at the same hour of the 
day six days a week for thirty days. The order of administration of tests was: 
(1) Fill out rating scales, (2) work arithmetic tests, (3) work anagram test, (4) 
steadiness test, and, (5) take blood sample. 

Results. The results of the tests and analyses were plotted as a function 
of time, — figures 1 to 3 being characteristic samples. From these graphs it can 
be seen that daily fluctuations in both blood condition and mental performance 
are large within given individuals. It is also evident that the amount of fluctua- 
tion is different in different individuals. In the case of the blood measures, the 
fluctuations do not show reversals in direction each day, but show general periods 
of rise and fall continuing over several days. Subject Number 5, fig. 1, a female, 
shows such periods quite noticeably, although no constancy of periodicity can 
be demonstrated from the present data. Such periods of continuous rise or fall 
do not occur on the same dates for different individuals, thus indicating that they 
are not the result of some factor common to all subjects, such as weather condi- 
tions, or the analytical technique. 

As a further check on the question of whether fluctuations observed in the 
acid-base balance of the blood are the results of the experimental technique, the 
blood data were averaged by days, and a group curve for each blood measure 
plotted. It was found that although this average curve did show variations from 
day to day, all the fluctuations except two of the thirty were within one standard 
error of the mean, which indicates that they were not of significance and could 
be attributed to chance. 

Table I is a summary of the data gathered arranged to show individual 
differences, giving the mean and standard deviation of the distribution for per- 
centage cells, (V c ), pH of the serum, total CO 2 content, steadiness, arithmetic 
and anagram scores for each of the subjects. Statistical tests of significance show 
that in all measures there are significant individual differences, although not all 
individuals vary significantly from one another. From these data the conclu- 
sion seems justified that by sufficient sampling it would be possible to obtain an 
average value which might characterize the blood of a given individual as to acid 
base balance, although single observations may be quite valueless for such 
a characterization. 

From the individual time curves the following points seem evident : 

(1) In some subjects periods of several days of successive rise or fall in anj^ 
of the blood measures may be observed. See Fig. 1. 

(2) The percentage of red cells is higher in the men than in the women, 
as would be expected from differential blood count data. 

(3) Variation in blood condition and in mental performance differs for 
different individuals, those showing great fluctuation in mental performance 



Mental Performance and Acid Base Balance of the Blood 11)7 



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198 



Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 



tending to show greater variation in blood condition, and those showing a relative 
constancy in mental performance tending to be more constant in blood condition. 

(4) Learning is a factor in the psychological tests which varies considerably 
from individual to individual in its effect. 

Acid base balance charts were prepared for each subject by plotting pH 
against the bicarbonate content of the serum. In these charts the course of the 
variation in acid base balance from day to day was followed, but no regularity 
seemed evident between different individuals. 

Acid base balance and mental performance. A search was made for 
possible correlation between blood condition and mental performance. Due to 
the wide individual differences in scores on the mental tests, such correlations were 
sought within the records for each individual. 



SCATTER DIAGRAM 



az/thaidtic dcviation scorc 
bicarbonate: content , strua\ 

O SUBJECT *l 



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thmctic Deviation 






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Fig. 4 



Fig. 4 — Correlation scatter diagram showing relation between the arithmetic deviation score 
and the bicarbonate content of the serum in subject Number 1. Each point represents one day of 
experiment 



Mental Performance and Acid Base Balance of the Blood 199 

Reference to the time curves (Figs. 1-3) shows practice effects extending over 
the course of the experiment in all the psychological tests, especially so in the 
mental arithmetic. Practice seems negligible in the case of the anagram records 
for most subjects — at least no intelligible learning curves could be drawn through 
the points. The same was true of the steadiness records, although some subjects 
did show decided practice effects. Free hand learning curves were fitted to the 
daily arithmetic scores and deviations from these curves were used as daily arith- 
metic scores in the correlational work. If the experimental value obtained on a 
given day was above the curve it was given a plus sign, if below, a minus. Hence 
plus scores indicate that the subject took longer on the test on that day than 
would be expected on the basis of his learning. 

In order to test for the presence of a correlation between the two variables 
under consideration, values for one were plotted against values for the other on the 
same day. Some 225 such scatter diagrams were plotted to test for the presence 
of correlation between any of the blood measures (both experimental and cal- 
culated), and any of the psychological measures. Figure 4 is a sample plot showing 
arithmetic deviation score plotted against the bicarbonate content of the serum 
for subject number 1. This is one of the better diagrams most showing much less 
correlation. On the basis of these plots, it seems that no significant correlations 
can be demonstrated from these data between mental performance and acid base 
balance of the blood. 

In such an attempt to measure differences in mental efficiency it is necessary 
to assume equal difficulty of the tests given from day to day. Tests were selected 
with as much care as possible to make them of equal difficulty. That differences 
in difficulty actually existed between the tests appears evident on examination 



GROUP PRACTICE CURVC 

roR 

MENTAL ARITHMETIC 

50 
46 



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zz 



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Practice Units of 
/O Problems at In- 








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Practice. Units 



Fig. 5 

Fig. 5 — Group practice curve for mental arithmetic. The mean time per problem in seconds 
is plotted against practice units of ten problems. Variation of the points around the curve may be 
due to differences in difficulty of the sets. 



200 



Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 



of the group learning curves for arithmetic and anagram tests, although the 
arithmetic tests seem to be more nearly equal in difficulty than the anagram tests. 
Figure 5 shows the group practice curve for arithmetic problems. These group 
curves show fluctuations in the averages from day to day which seem to be due to 
differences in difficulty of the tests. Just how much this difference in difficulty of 
the tests influences the results remains an open question. However, it is possible 
that, although some relationship actually exists between mental efficiency and 
acid base balance of the blood, the correlation between the measures taken in this 
experiment might be zero because of the adverse influence of the tests used. 

Blood condition and feeling tone. From the rating scale data, the days 
on which a given subject reported feelings of well being as represented by high 
ratings, as well as the days on which he reported average and bad feelings were 
separately tabulated. From this tabulation the means of the various blood meas- 
ures on days on which the same rating was given were calculated. In subjects who 
usually reported average feelings with little deviation, no differentiation could 
be made. However, in the case of those subjects making careful ratings, and who 
showed considerable variation in feelings throughout the course of the experiment, 
slightly positive results could be demonstrated in the case of the bicarbonate 
content of the serum. The differences between the means of the different groups 
were not statistically significant, since the number of cases in each category was 
relatively small. 

SCATTER DIAGRAM 
RAT/HGS or EEEL/NC5 TOME vs. [BHCO/j 5 



RAT /ti<5 VALUCS 

C 










SUBJECT 


*<S 








































c 




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to! 


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Fig. 6 



Fig. 6 — -Correlation scatter diagram allowing relation between subjective ratings of feeling 
tone and the bicarbonate content of the serum of subject number 6. 



A sample chart is shown in figure 6 for subject number 6. Rating scale value 
is plotted against bicarbonate content of the serum, which shows a slightly posi- 
tive relationship; that is, the subject tended to report feelings of well being on days 



Mental Performance and Acid Base Balance of the Blood 201 

when the bicarbonate content of the serum was higher. This same relationship 
was observed in all the other five subjects making sufficiently fine differentiations 
in their ratings. The fact that all four rating scales show the same relationship 
seems to indicate that the subjects actually rated the same tiling on all four scales. 
The results of such experiments an; of course limited by the usual short- 
comings of rating scales, but it seems that at present there is no other way of 
attacking the problem of subjective states in any manner that approaches quanti- 
tativeness. 

Conclusions. 

1. There are wide fluctuations from day to day in the acid base balance 
of the blood of a given individual. 

2. These fluctuations are much greater in the case of some individuals than 
in that of others. 

3. There are diurnal fluctuations in the acid base balance of the blood of a 
given individual, although no definite rhythm seems apparent. 

4. There are significant individual differences between the acid base condi- 
tion of the blood of different persons. 

5. No correlation can be demonstrated between acid base balance of the 
blood and mental performance as measured by the tests used in this study. 

6. No correlation can be demonstrated between acid base balance of the 
blood and steadiness as measured by the test used here. 

7. There is a slight tendency for some persons to report feelings of well 
being on days when the acid base balance of the blood tends toward the alkaline 
side. 

Discussion. The lack of decisive positive findings in this experiment does 
not seem to be proof that there is no relationship between blood chemistry and 
either mental performance or feeling tone. 

In the first place, it may well be that the acid base balance of the blood is an 
ill advised mechanism to study in this connection. This may be true, since it is 
known that the acid base mechanism of the blood is a function of physico-chemcial 
laws that have been fairly well worked out and is so well suited to maintain its 
own balance and function that the relationships sought are too fine to be discerned 
by the crude techniques available on the psychological side. 

There is also the factor of temporal relations. It was tacitly assumed in this 
investigation that blood condition and mental performance would show con- 
comitant variation. However, it is possible that there is a time factor separating 
the two series; that is, the condition of the blood today may have little or no effect 
on the performance today, while it may have a great effect on performance twelve 
hours hence. 

The most probable explanation for the negative findings here reported seems 
to me to be the fact that as yet no standard tests of mental efficiency are available 
which will give anything "ike the accuracy of estimate given by the refined chemi- 
cal techniques available. Mental multiplication is scarcely to be compared with 
or treated as a test for capacity to do mental work. 



202 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

1. Darrow, C. W., Some Physiological Conditions of Efficiency. Psychologi- 
cal Bulletin, 24:488-505. 1927. 

2. Emden, G., Ueber die Bedeutung der Phosphorsaure fur die Muskel- 
tatigkeit und Leistungsfahigkeit. M. Klin. [15, 30, 1929] 

3. Poppelreuter, W., Steigerung der geistigen Arbeitsfahigkeit durch Re- 
cresalzufuhr. Munch. Med. Woch., 76, 912, 1929. 

4. Strauch, F. W., Die Beurteilung geister Erschopfung im Schulalter. Med. 
Klin., 19:209. 1923. 

5. Greisbach, H., Recresal und Leistungsfahigkeit. Med. Welt, 2:1818. 1928. 

6. Sullivan, E., Mood in Relation to Performance. Arch. Psychol. 22:(53). 
1922. 

7. Bethel, J. P., An Experimental Investigation of the Influence of Certain 
Weather Conditions on Short Periods of Mental Work. Amer. J. Psychol. 36:102- 
112. 1925. 

8. Lawson, J. P., The Effect of Deprivation of Oxygen Upon Mental 
Processes. Brit. J. Psychol., 13:417-434. 1923. 

9. Bagby, E., Psychopathology Under Low Oxygen Tension. U. S. A. 
Air Med. Service, 1:39-43. 1920. 

10. Ambrovitch, C. A., and Pichugina, E. N., On the Influence of General 
Physiological Fatigue on the Associative Reflex. No we u. refleksologii i fiziol- 
ogii nervoni systemi, 2:180-195. 1926. 

11. Kantorovitch, N. W., On the Influence of Fatigue (Mental and Locally 
Physical) upon the Associative Reflex. Novve u. Refleksologii i Fiziologii Nervoni 
Systemi, 2:172-179. 1926. 

12. Thorndike, E. L., The Teacher's Word Book. Teacher's College, 
Columbia University, 1927. 

13. Shock, N. W. and Hastings, A. B., A Micro Technique for the Determ- 
ination of the Acid Base Balance of the Blood. Proceedings Soc. Exp. Biol, and 
Med., 26:780-81. 1929. 



The Reaction of Boron Fluoride 



20U 



THE REACTION OF BORON FLUORIDE WITH 
ALCOHOLS AND GLYCOLS 



Thomas H. Vaughn, H. Bowlus and J. A. Nieuwland 

When boron fluoride is passed into methyl alcohol the gas is absorbed in 
almost uni-molecular proportions and a heavy, fuming, strongly acid liquid 
results. Vogt, Foohey and Nieuwland 1 have determined the specific conductance 
of this solution and find that the values obtained are of the same order of magni- 
tude as those observed for the system H2SO4-SO3. This acid solution of boron 
fluoride in methyl alcohol has been used by Vogt, Foohey, and Nieuwland 1 and 
by Hinton and Nieuwland 2 in the preparation of acetals of monohydric and poly- 
hydric alcohols from acetylene, using mercuric oxide as a catalyst. 

The purpose of the present paper is to assign a possible formula to the acid 
BF 3 -ROH and to explain the production of acetals from acetylene by this method. 

According to the electronic concept of valence boron fluoride is written as: 

00 

T? ° 
o r 

B 



QO 
O * * 

.- 00 



fS 



and methyl alcohol as— H 2 S R. Since these two compounds react mole for 



mole we may, using the idea of coordinate co-valence, write the resulting com- 
pound as — 



o o 
o F o 
o r x 

00 

h : 



QO 

T? ° 

o r o 

B 

• • 

OS 



o r o 

00 

R 



In this sharing of electrons the oxygen atom in the alcohol contributes both 
electrons to its linkage with the boron atom. The oxygen atom by this donation 
of electrons becomes more positive in nature and thus the bond between it and 
the hydrogen atom is weakened, causing the compound to ionize. 



+H 



00 






00 




-p, 

-T 






„ 

r 




OO X Q 







00 KO 


00 


;f; bj 


T? ° 


s 


T? ° R * 
o r x n 


FS 


* 


s 


00 •• 


00 




00 •• 


OO 


H SOS 


R 




S S 


R 


• • 






•• 











Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 40: 203-206. (1930) 1931. 
^J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 52: 1018. (1930) 
2 J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 52: 2892.«(1930) 



204 



Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 



This ionization accounts for the observed high conductivity for solutions of this 
compound and gives rise to an explanation of the role played by the acid in 
catalysis. 

In practice the following method is used to prepare acetals from acetylene 
by the use of this acid. Five grams of the methyl alcohol compound is weighed 
into a tared flask and one gram of mercuric oxide is partly dissolved in it by gentle 
heating. The flask is then cooled and two to five hundred grams of alcohol added. 
Dry acetylene from a gasometer is then passed into the closed flask with occasional 
shaking until the calculated weight has been absorbed. 

When the acetylene is passed into the mixture two hydrogen ions add on to 
one of the carbon atoms and the two negative ions add on to the other. 



+ 
H 2 C g CS H+2H +2 



oo 
o 17 o 

oo 



oo 




O 1' o 




Xo 


oo 


x 13 o 


A o 


• • 


oo 


SOS 


R 


• • 






this compound, due to the acquired positive group then splits off boron fluoride 
and gives acetal. 



CH 




+ 2BF 



The boron fluoride then reacts with more alcohol and the cycle is complete. These 
reactions may be summed up as follows — 



BF 3 +HOR- 



,BF 3 

IIOR 



.BF 3 II .OR 

2HOR+HC = CH ►CH 3 -CCT + 2BF 3 

OR 



The Reaction of Boron Fluoride 



205 




In the case of glycols the boron fluoride merely adds on to both hydroxy 1 
groups giving in the case of ethylene glycol 



+ 2H 



which reacts in a manner similar to that of the monohydric alcohols. 

The methyl alcohol contained in the initial five grams of catalyst is soon used 
up and the boron fluoride then adds on to the other alcohol present. It has been 
found that boron fluoride will react with those alcohols which give acetals by this 
method and that in the few cases where no acetal formation takes place boron 
fluoride will not form a compound with the alcohol in question. Thus Hinton 
and Nieuwland were unable to prepare the acetal of tertiary butyl alcohol and 
Bowlus (unpublished work) has found that this alcohol will not react with boron 
fluoride. 

The proposed formula for the alcohol compound also accounts for the follow- 
ing behavior of the compound of boron fluoride with ether. Ether reacts mole for 
mole with boron fluoride. The resulting compound has a low specific conductance 
and is not acidic. If the ether compound be placed in alcohol the odor of ether 
becomes at once apparent. If a rapid stream of air or other inert gas is now 
bubbled through the solution the odor of ether disappears and catalysis takes 
place readily. These facts can be explained by assigning to the ether compound 
a formula analogous to that of the alcohol compound thus — 

oo 

o -f o 
Xo 

B 

•• 
• O o 



% F x B 5 

oo 



oo 
F g 
oo 

R 



In this configuration, since there is no hydrogen atom, the compound obvi- 
ously can not ionize and exhibit a high conductivity. When the compound is 
placed in alcohol some of the ether is liberated and alcohol takes its place, an equi- 
librium is finally reached which may be represented in the following manner — 



xo 



O -r X 



O 



OO 

R 



ROH 



ROR 



oo 

2 T? ° 

o r x 

oo 



TI 



CO 

O -c, , 

o r , 

xo 

B 

• • 

2 O ! 



oo 

F 

oo 

R 



It is very probable that the equilibrium point is reached when only a very 
small amount of the alcohol compound has been formed. The passage of a rapid 
stream of air through the solution serves to sweep the^ ether out of the system 
and thus pushes the equilibrium toward the right giving the acid compound. 



206 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

To check up on this equilibrium a small amount of ether was added to an 
alcohol solution of the boron fluoride which was showing catalysis. Acetal forma- 
tion immediately stopped and could be restored only by flushing the ether out of 
the flask. Further evidence of the existance of this equilibrium is found in the 
fact that specially purified ether will not react with boron fluoride, a trace of 
alcohol being necessary to start the reaction. We have interpreted this as meaning 
that the alcohol compound is formed first and then reacts with the ether, producing 
the ether compound and regenerating the alcohol. The extremely small amount of 
alcohol sufficient to cause ether to react lends credence to the assumption that the 
equilibrium point is reached when only a small amount of the alcohol compound 
is present. 

Up to the present, all attempts to prepare salts of the alcohol compound 
have failed. Zinc, iron, magnesium, and aluminum react with the acid in the order 
named but the nascent hydrogen liberated reduces the compound and boroethane 
is produced. 

SUMMARY 

1. A formula has been assigned to the acid produced by the action of boron 
fluoride on alcohol. 

2. The high conductivity of solutions of this compound in alcohol has been 
explained. 

3. A possible mechanism for the catalytic action of this acid in the formation 
of acetals from acetylene in the presence of mercuric oxide has been outlined. 

4. An explanation of the behavior of ether as a negative catalyst in acetal 
formation by this method has been offered. 



MlCKO-ORGANISMS FROM THE WALDRON SHALE OF CLIFFY CREEK 207 



MICRO-ORGANISMS FROM THE WALDRON SHALE OF 
CLIFFY CREEK, INDIANA 



Willard Berry, Ohio State University 

Last spring while on the way to Nashville, Indiana to attend the spring 
meeting of the Academy I went over the route through Hartsville and the Cliffy 
Creek region of Bartholomew County, Indiana. Several hundred feet south of the 
bridge over Cliffy Creek below Hartsville a culvert had recently been put in. 
Here they had dug a trench well down into the Waldron Shale of Silurian age. 
This opened up an excellent new and unweathered exposure of the shale. I spent 
several hours collecting from the excavated material amassing a fair collection 
of small brachiopoda and some bryozoa. The brachiopoda all seem to be referable 
to the genus Rhynchonella Fischer and are often replaced by pyrite, sometimes 
with cubes of pyrite attached to the cast. I have not as yet examined the bryozoa 
but they are all of the non-encrusting type. 

I also collected several pounds of the unweathered shale from the east end 
of the culvert. Here the unweathered shale was a light slightly bluish gray and the 
weathered upper layers a lighter more yellowish color. This material was soaked 
in water for about two weeks, then washed through 150 mesh screens and dryed. 
Upon examining it microscopically I found evidence of an amazing fauna of 
Ostracoda, consisting of one definite specie and the fragments of possible six more 
species. The same examination showed up some objects which looked very much 
like arenaceous foraminifera but on being sectioned proved to be of inorganic 
origin. There were also a few varieties of crinoid stems and more non-encrusting 
bryozoa. I found no evidence of radiolaria or diatoms although the material was 
examined for them. 

The literature on the Ostracoda and Protozoa of the Waldron is surprisingly 
meager considering how famous it is for fossils of larger size. In 1875 James Hall 1 
described and figured two species of Ostracoda from the Niagara Group of Indiana. 
He also described five species of Protozoa which are now refered to the phylum 
Poriferia. Again in 1881 Hall in the 11th Annual Report of the Department of 
Geology and Natural History of Indiana on page 331 describes and figures the 
same Ostracods described in 1875. Since that time I find little work of Micro- 
scopic nature done on the Waldron Shale although much of the Silurian of Indiana 
has been examined by Cummings, Foerste and others for microscopic organisms. 

In the material collected there are fragments which appear to be referable 
to the species Leperditia Java Hall 2 which Hall described from the Waldron Shale 
from Conn's Creek, Decatur County, Indiana in 1875. 

The other fragments are too poor to be referred to even by genera but I hope 
to collect more material from the Waldron Shale at a future date. 

The species which I have named Paraechimina waldronesis W. Berry seems 
to be new to science. P. ivaldronensis is closely related to forms found in the Clin- 
ton and McKenzie formations of Maryland and the Rochester Shale of Western 
New York State. This species is fairly rare. It may be described as follows. 

Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 40: 207-208. (1930) 1931. 

JHall, James. The Fauna of the Niagara Group in Central Indiana. Ann. Rept. N. Y. State. 
Mus. Nat. Hist. 28:99-201, (1875) 1879. 
2 Idem. 



208 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

Paraechimina waldronensis is distinguished from other species by its almost 
equally ended valves, distinctly depressed over their median parts, the depressed 
area enclosed by a strong wall-like ridge of equal thickness starting near the ends 
on the dorsal side and continuing around the end, the ventral side the other end 
and ending on the dorsal side near the end. Spine large, bluntly pointed and of 
moderate height. 

PARAECHIMINA WALDRONENSIS W. Berry n.sp. Fig 1. 




Fig. 1. 



Length average 0.90 mm. Height without spine average 0.35 mm. 

P. waldronensis is apparently closely related to P. spinosa Hall and P. de- 
pressa Ulrich and Bassler, being about half way between the two. 

Occurence — Waldron Shale, Cliffy Creek, Indiana. 

Type in the collections of The Ohio State University Geological Museum, 
Columbus, Ohio. 

Note: Illustration, camera lucida by D. W. Curtiss. 



Areal Geology of Putnam County 201) 



AREAL GEOLOGY OF PUTNAM COUNTY INDIANA AS 
INDICATED BY THE SOIL SURVEY 



T. M. Bushnell, Purdue University 

Many facts of geological significance are recorded in the soil survey map and 
report of Putnam 1 County, Indiana. The present paper suggests interpretations 
which may be made of these and other related facts. 

The soil map is in some degree a topographic map because soil types charac- 
teristically occur on certain slopes. For example, Vigo and Delmar soils occupy 
flattish and undissected places, Gibson and Fincastle are on gentle slopes while 
Cincinnati and Russell soils occur on rolling land from which areas of "slope 
phases" are mapped out where it is too steep for ordinary farming. Each type is so 
described in the report that land forms may be visualized by noting size and rela- 
tive position of soil type areas on the map. 

The topographic correlations, as well as direct statements and inferences which 
may be drawn from the report give some physiographic information. For example, 
Genesee and Holly soils indicate the first bottom lands. Fox, Elk and Homer soils 
reveal "second bottoms," terraces and glacial lakes while many other types belong 
to the uplands. An area of Bellefontaine soil locates an esker found northeast of 
Fillmore. 

Loessial deposits practically identical to those in Gibson 2 and Knox 3 counties 
are indicated by areas of Princeton soils. 

The pattern of soil types shows in great detail a line of change which may be 
considered to be the boundary between the Illinoian till and the younger drift 
of the area. This line was very carefully worked out on the basis of depth and 
thoroughness of weathering and leaching. Cincinnati, Gibson and Vigo soils 
show the distribution of Illinoian till while Russell, Fincastle, Delmar and Brooks- 
ton are characteristic of the "Wisconsin." Since the Illinoian is weathered to 
nearly twice the depth of the younger drift there must have been a great time 
interval between them. 

The Parke soils may merely reflect the presence of light textured Illinoian 
drift but they are so deeply and thoroughly weathered that the possibility of pre- 
Illinoian age is suggested. 

In the course of the soil survey of Wayne 4 County (1923) differences were 
observed as to depth to carbonates and degree of weathering in certain groups 
of soils. It was stated 5 that the soil evidence indicated no important change of 
age in northern Wayne County along the morainic belt commonly accepted as the 
outer border 6 , 7 of the second 8 Wisconsin substage, but that the weathering differ- 
ences do suggest a great difference in age of the drift on either side of a line cutting 
off the southwestern portion of Wayne County from the rest of that area. Soil 
surveys of Putnam, Rush, 3 Decatur, Jennings 3 and Vermilion 3 counties have 
traced out this boundary which has also been roughly located by miscellaneous 
observations in Bartholomew, Montgomery and Warren counties. These studies 
find expression in the Indiana State Soil Map 9 . In soil region G on this soil map 
the key soils are more silty in the upper layers and about twice as deep to car- 
bonates as are the soils in comparable locations in soil region E. In soil survey 
circles we have regarded soil region G as the true region of the "Early Wisconsin." 

Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 40: 209-211. (1930) 1931. 



210 



Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 



The silty surface layers of the soils usually have been considered to be thoroughly 
weathered till although the possibility of loessial deposits has also been kept in 
mind. In Vermilion County three or four feet of smooth loess-like silt seems to 
mantle most but not all of the uplands. Glacial pebbles are quite commonly 
found on the surface. 




Fig. 1. 



At the annual meeting of the American Soil Survey Association in November, 
1929, Dr. George F. Kay 10 State Geologist of Iowa described the weathered zone 
of the Iowan drift in Iowa in such terms that the writer was moved to ask if any- 
one had reported Iowan drift in Indiana. Apparently this has not been done. The 
close similarity between depths and degree of weathering in the Iowan drift of Iowa 
and the conditions found in soil region G of Indiana make a correlation seem pos- 
sible if not probable. 

The existence of an Iowan glacial period and its proper correlation have been 
a subject of debate in geological circles 10 . Leverett's recent map 8 shows the Iowan 
drift only in Iowa and Minnesota and also indicates five substages of the Wiscon- 
sin. Judging by depths to carbonates soil region G, which roughly corresponds 
to Leverett/s substage one of the Wisconsin, might be correlated with the Iowan 
of Iowa. Soil region E, corresponding somewhat to Leverett's second substage 
in Indiana, correlates with the Wisconsin of Iowa which is indicated as belonging 
to the fourth substage. Soil region F of Indiana corresponds somewhat to Lev- 
erett's substage three in this State. 

As it is hardly the privilege or duty of a soil surveyor to study such geological 
questions exhaustively these interpretations may never be carried beyond their 
present tentative stage although observations made in the course of future soil 
surveys will doubtless throw more light on some of these questions. 



Areal Geology of Putnam County 211 



REFERENCES 

1. Fowler, Earl D., Soil Survey of Putnam County, Indiana. 

2. Bushnell, T. M., Soil Survey of Gibson County, Indiana. 

3. In process of survey or publication. 

4. Bushnell, T. M., Soil Survey of Wayne County, Indiana. 

5. Bushnell, T. M., Some Geological Features of Wayne County, Indiana. 
Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci., 35:87-90, 1925. 

6. Leverett, Frank, Monograph LIII, Plate VI, U.S.G.S. 

7. Malott, C. A., Handbook of Indiana Geology, Plate III, p. 100. 

8. Leverett, Frank, Moraines and Shore Lines of Lake Superior Basin. 
Professional Paper 154, U. S. G. S., Fig. 5, p. 19. 

9. Bushnell, T. M., Indiana Soils. Purdue Univ. Agr. Exp. Sta., 1930. A 
mimeographed circular. 

10. Statements on Iowa conditions are based on talk, correspondence and 
publication of Dr. George F. Kay. 



Notes on Outcrops of Silurian Near Sun 



MAN 



21! 



notes on oorag^^jnjta SOT „„, 

J. W. Huddle, Indiana University 

Introduction. According to Dr. Cumings (1922, 445) the Brassfield of 
Indoana was first recognized as a distinct formation by Dr. Foerste Xn he re 
cerved a eollecfon of fossils from Hanover, Indiana, sent to him by Pro A H 
Young who suggested that they were of Clinton age. In the older reportethe 
Brassfield ,s called Clinton. Lithologically the Brassfield is a lL e g a Led 
salmon to brown colored limestone with druses of calcite. StratigXbSvtt 
forms the base of the Silurian of Indiana and is of upper Mcdinan age tt 'di 
con ormable wrth the Richmond below, and the Osgood above. The tWtiont 
eas,ly rccogm.ed because of its unusual color, texture, and the two disco! n fitls 
The eastern boundary of the Silurian as mapped by Foerstc (1903 and 
checked by Cummgs (1908) is about ten miles west of Sunman. s7e Kg 1) So 




Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 40: 213-215. (1930) 1931. 



214 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

far as the writer has been able to ascertain there has been no mention of undis- 
puted Silurian in the region of Sunman. Borden (1875, 191) reported Niagrian 
in the region of Sunman. Foerste (1899, 46) says that Borden was misled by the 
white color of the limestone. In 1895, however, Foerste mapped the Silurian as 
including the area around Sunman, but does not mention any outcrops in the area. 
Later on the Geological map (1904) Foerste seems to have revised his boundary 
of the Silurian, for here it is ten miles west of Sunman as mentioned above. Dr. 
Cumings suggests that it is probable that the 1895 boundary was drawn on the 
basis of topography. An outlier of Silurian is mapped in the northwest part of 
Switzerland County, 

Ripley County is one of the southeastern counties of Indiana. Sunman lies 
in the northeastern part of the county at the southwest corner of Sec, 9 N., R. 13 E. 

The presence of Brassfield in the region of Sunman was first called to the 
attention of Dr. Cumings and the writer by the quarry superintendent at New- 
point early this fall. We visited the quarry that he mentioned at that time and 
identified Brassfield. Mr. G„ I, Witlatch and the writer revisited the area Nov. 
24th and 25th, 1930; and located one other outcrop. Adverse weather contitions 
made the use of an Aneroid barometer difficult, and field work unpleasant so 
that not as much work has been done in the field as the writer expects to do. 

Localities. A quarter of a mile west of Sunman on the south side of the road 
is an abandoned quarry full of water. No Brassfield can be seen in the quarry itself 
but it is exposed about twenty feet south of the quarry in the stream bed. Here 
it forms a falls about a foot high. The formation is from one to two feet thick and 
has the typical characteristics of the Brassfield. Ordovician rocks underlie the 
Brassfield disconformably. Overlying, also disconformably, is about 6 feet of a 
thin bedded light colored limestone, probably Osgood. The upper 3 feet of this 
white limestone is exposed in the quarry above water level. 

Penntown is about two miles north of Sunman. One mile south of Penntown 
and a half mile west are two old quarries in the woods south of the road. The 
Brassfield outcrops in both quarries and in the hillside south of them. It has the 
typical texture and brown color; a thickness of about two feet; and the two dis- 
conformities. Fossils are present in it. Below the Brassfield is a thin shaly lime- 
stone of Ordovician age. Above it, a foot or two or a thin bedded Silurian lime- 
stone is exposed. The base of the Brassfield has an elevation of about 1,005 feet. 
The hill south of the quarry rises some 50 feet higher. This indicates that there 
may be as much as 30 or 40 feet of Silurian present. The top of the hill is drift 
covered and no outcrop was located. 

North of Penntown there is a quarry in section 28, T. 10 N., R. 13 E. No 
Brassfield was found in this quarry and the elevation seems to be too low to expect 
it. The metal on the road reported to be from this quarry contains pieces of a 
brown limestone that looks like the Brassfield. 

Conclusion. Not enough field work has been done at present to completely 
outline the area of Silurian outcrop. It seems to be an outlier similar to the one 
mentioned in Switzerland County. One quarry between Morris and Batesville 
shows all Ordovician. The region around Pierceville has an elevation of over a 
thousand feet. This elevation should be high enough to catch the Brassfield. No 
outcrops have been located near Pierceville as yet, but further field work may re- 
veal them. 



Notes on Outcrops of Silurian Near Sunman 215 

The economic value of this work lies in the fact that there is little good road 
metal found in the Ordovician. After most Ordovician rocks are placed on roads 
they slack and form muddy roads, due to the high content of shale in the lime- 
stones. The Silurian limestones on the other hand make good road material. As 
there is little good road metal in this part of the county outcrops of Silurian are 
valuable. 

REFERENCES 

Borden, W. W., 1875. The Geology of Ripley County. 7th Report, Geological 

Survey of Indiana, pp. 181-202. 
Cumings, E. R., 1908. The Stratigraphy and Paleontology of the Ordovician 

Rocks of Indiana. 32nd Report, Indiana Department Geological and 

Natural Resources, pp. 403-570. 

1922. Nomenclature and Description of the Geological Formations of 

Indiana. Handbook of Indiana Geology, Division of Geology, Department 

of Conservation, Pub. No. 21, pp. 405-570. 
Foerste, A. F., 1894. An Account of the Middle Silurian Rocks of Ohio and 

Indiana, including the Niagara and Ohio Clinton, and the Beds at the top of 

the Lower Silurian Strata, formerly considered Mediana. Jour. Cin. Soc. 

Nat. Hist,, vol. 18, pp. 161-200. 

1897. A Report on the Middle and Upper Silurian rocks of Clark, 
Jefferson, Ripley, Jennings, and southern Decatur Counties. 21st Report, 
Indiana Department Geological and Natural Resources, pp. 213-288. 

1898. A Report on the Niagara Limestone Quarries of Decatur, Frank- 
lin, and Fayette Counties, with remarks on the Geology of the Middle and 
Upper Silurian rocks of these and neighboring (Ripley, Jennings, Bartholo- 
mew, and Shelby) Counties. 22nd Report, Indiana Department Geological 
and Natural Resources, pp. 195-255. 

1899. General Discussion of the Middle Silurian Rocks of the Cincin- 
nati Anticinal Region, with their synonymy. 24th Report, Indiana Depart- 
ment Geological and Natural Resources, pp. 41-80. 



Geologic Structure in Martin County 21' 



GEOLOGIC STRUCTURE IN THE INDIAN AND TRINITY 
SPRINGS LOCALITY, MARTIN COUNTY, INDIANA 



Clyde A. Malott, Indiana University 

Introduction. The purpose of this paper is to present the details of the 
topography, stratigraphy and structural geology of a locality in southwestern 
Indiana which has hitherto received little attention in these respects. Some rather 
unusual drainage and topographic features first attracted the attention of the 
writer, and a detailed study of them led to the consideration of the geologic 
formations of the region. It was found that the unconformity between the massive 
basal sandstone of the Pennsylvanian system and the Chester formations of the 
upper Mississippian system possesses some rather unique relief characteristics. 
It is believed, however, that the valley-like relief features of this notable uncon- 
formity as revealed in the locality are a general characteristic of the unconformity 
over a rather large area, and it is hoped that the study will call attention to the 
detailed characteristics of this wide-spread unconformity elsewhere. In addition 
to the relief features of the Pennsylvanian-Mississippian unconformity, it was 
discovered that the region possesses an anticlinal structure of greater size and 
distinctness than is common in southwestern Indiana. The features of topography, 
and geologic structure are depicted on the specially prepared maps which con- 
stitute the most important part of this presentation. 

Location of the Area. The area which is the subject of this paper consists 
of 12 square miles in the middle northeastern part of Martin County, Indiana. 
The area is six to 10 miles north-northeast of Shoals, the county-seat, and about 
15 miles southwest of Bedford in Lawrence County which adjoins Martin on the 
east. The area is in congressional Township 4 north, Range 3 west, and comprises 
all of sections 8, 9, 16, 17, 20, 21, 29, and 28, and parts of sections 7, 10, 15, 18, 
19, 22, 27, and 30, as shown on the accompanying maps. The villages of Indian 
Springs and Cale are near the northern margin along the Chic. Mil. and St. Paul 
Railway which crosses the northern part of Martin County. The village of Trinity 
Springs is near the southern margin of the mapped area and about three miles 
south of Indian Springs. The area has been designated the Indian and Trinity 
Springs locality after these two villages which in turn have been named for two 
highly mineralized springs near which they are located. 

An improved road leads south through the region from Indian Springs to 
Shoals, passing about one-half of a mile west of Trinity Springs. The Williams- 
Bedford road leads east from Indian Springs through Cale and thence northeast. 
Another improved road passes through Trinity Springs and connects with the 
Shoals road and the Williams-Bedford road. Other roads shown on the maps are 
in poor condition and are subject to little travel. 

The region is in the Indian Creek drainage basin a short distance north of the 
junction of Indian Creek with the East Fork of White River. Sulphur Creek joins 
Indian Creek just south of the center of the area. These two streams are fed by 
springs and flow throughout the year. Physiographically the region is located 
in the driftless area a few miles east of the glacial boundary in southwestern 



Prof. Ind. Acad. Sci. 40: 217-231. (1030) 1931, 



218 



Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 



Indiana. It is wholly within the Crawford upland which constitutes the most 
rocky and rugged physiographic division in southern Indiana 1 . Geologically the 
region is located along the boundary zone of the Mississippian and Pennsylvanian 
formations. It is with respect to the features pertaining to the boundary that 
the region is especially interesting topographically and geologically. 

Altitude and Topography. The altitudes in the Indian and Trinity Springs 
locality range from 460 feet above sea level on Indian Creek at the southern mar- 
gin of the area to 775 feet in the hills about three-fourths of one mile southwest 
of Indian Springs village. The maximum relief of the region is therefore 315 feet. 
The rather flat floors of the valleys of Indian and Sulphur creeks are below 500 




Fig. 1 — -Topographic map of the Indian and Trinity Springs locality, Martin County, Indiana 
Contour interval: 25 foot. 



feet. The rugged upland ridges and the outstanding isolated and nearly isolated 
hills reach varying altitudes up to the maximum of 775 feet. The topographic 
map, Fig. 1, based upon plane-table sketches and barometric determinations of 
altitude, shows the altitudes and the topography of the region in terms of 25-foot 
contours. 



iSee Handbook of Indiana Geology, 1022, pp. 9S-102 and 215-220. 



Geologic Structure in Martin County 219 

Topographically the region consists of the main and minor valleys of a highly 
dissected upland plain with a relief of 300 feet or more. Only a small part of the 
area reaches back away from the influences of the main valleys. Consequently 
the outstanding topographic features are in close association with the flat-floored 
main valleys rather than with the intervalley upland plain which would be in- 
cluded in a larger section of the same region. 

The broad, flat floors of the valleys of Sulphur, Indian and Flat creeks are in 
great topographic contrast to the rocky and rugged upland spurs and upstanding 
isolated hills or hill tracts which rise in relief. Swampy areas are common in the 
flat valley floors. A set of low terraces marks all of the main valleys. The flood 
plain areas below the terraces are subject to the backwater floods from White 
River. In January 1929 backwater from White River extended up Sulphur Creek 
as far as the railway at Indian Springs and the ice frozen on the surface marked 
the trees throughout the lowland area at an estimated altitude of 485 feet. These 
marks on the trees and the trash line formed at the edge of the backwaters along 
the valleys served as an extensive bench mark in the making of the topographic 
map by barometer in the early spring of 1929. 

The isolated hills or hill tracts are very striking features of relief. Bear Hill 
near the center of the mapped area rises abruptly more than 250 feet above the 
alluviated valley floors about it. It is the most conspicuous hill of the entire region 
because of its abrupt rocky slopes, great height and the broad, flat and swampy 
valley area which completely surrounds it. Donihue Hill just west of it is a small 
counterpart of Bear Hill. Both are hills of circum-denudation and hills of circum- 
alluviation. Indian Springs Hill, named from the mineral springs which issue at 
creek level just northwest of the hill, rises about 75 feet above Sulphur Creek. 
This hill is nearly severed from the upland, only a narrow neck on the northwest 
saving it from being a hill of circum-alluviation. In the northwest corner of Sec. 
17, just north of Indian Springs Hill, is a hill of circum-denudation which rises 
100 feet or more above the valleys and saddles w r hich encompass it. Tempy Hill, 
southeast of Cale, is a compound hill tract with abrupt sandstone slopes and 
bluffs which has been practically severed from the upland plain by valley dissec- 
tion. Similarly Raven Cliffs Hill with its southwesterly projecting snout and the 
compound hill tract upon which the village of Trinity Springs is built are abrupt 
nearly isolated hills of circum-denudation. They are surrounded by valleys and 
low and open saddles between the heads of minor valleys on the sides away from 
their cliffed sides along the main valley. These hills of circum-denudation and 
their relations to the valleys which encompass them are clearly depicted on the 
topographic map, Fig. 1. 

Physiographical Development. The Indian and Trinity Springs locality 
is in the rugged Crawford upland of southwestern Indiana. In general the 
upland ridges in the intervalley areas of northern Martin County range from 
700 to 800 feet or slightly more in altitude. Some ridges adjacent to the major 
streams have been unevenly reduced below the common altitude. A careful 
analysis of the topographic condition of the region indicates that the upland 
divides are remnants of an old erosion surface reduced to a relatively low relief 
in which the interstream areas were rarely more than 100 feet above the very 
broad valleys of the main streams. The common level of the old valleys if restored 
would be at present about 700 feet above sea level. The presence of cherty stream 
gravels on the ridge spurs and divides at or near that level along White River 



220 Proceedings oe Indiana Academy of Science 

confirms the suggestive origin of the common level of the remnants of the upland 
plain. These old stream gravels are thought to have been deposited in the wide 
valley of white River before the close of the Tertiary period and are correlated 
with the Lafayette gravel of late Pliocene age. Some remnants of these stream 
gravels are present along the road on the divide north of Pea Ridge School in 
the NE % of Sec. 28 and the SW M of Sec. 22 at altitudes of 660 to 675 feet. These 
gravels are probably lower than the general level of the original surface on which 
they were deposited. They are not far from a great valley meander cut-off of 
White River which makes a northward swing southeast of Pea Ridge School. The 
upland surfaces which reach 700 feet or more are regarded as remnants of the 
late Tertiary peneplain which has been greatly dissected since its uplift at the 
close of the Tertiary period or in the initial part of the Pleistocene. 

The present valleys are trenches developed below the late Tertiary peneplain. 
The main valleys have been cut out 200 to 300 feet below the level of the old 
uplifted peneplain. The ridges and hills have been left in relief above the floors of 
the valleys, and they also have suffered sculpture and reduction in uneven 
amounts. As a rule the upland ridges near the main streams have suffered the 
greatest reduction and sculpture. 

It appears that the floors of the main valleys have not always been at the 
level which they now have. First they were cut deeper than their present level of 
475 to 495 feet. Then they were filled probably 50 to 80 feet with silts which 
greatly broadened them. In recent times the silt material has been partly re- 
moved and flood plains established at a lower level, leaving areas of the fine grained 
calcareous silts which stand out as terraces along the valleys. The terraces along 
Indian, Flat and Sulphur creeks have a common altitude of about 490 feet. They 
extend as terraces as far up Sulphur Creek as Cale where the present broad flood 
plain coincides with the terrace level. The valley-fill material is characteristically 
a laminated calcareous silt which appears to have accumulated in ponded waters 
held back in Indian Creek valley by the upbuilt valley train formed in White 
River valley during the early part of the Wisconsin Glacial stage. The present 
flood plains developed below the silt terraces are post-Wisconsin or recent. 

Bear Hill appears to be a meander core which was cut off before the valley 
filling period of late Pleistocene time. Indian Creek valley is remarkably crooked 
upstream from the region. It appears that a great valley meander passed about 
Bear Hill. By lateral planation the spur which once connected the present Bear 
Hill with the upland in the south part of Sec. 21 was severed through the narrow 
neck, and Indian Creek then took the short route through the newly opened pas- 
sage. The abandoned valley loop about Bear Hill is approximately three miles 
in length. During Wisconsin glacial times the cut-off part of the valley was filled 
with silts in common with Indian and Sulphur creeks to an altitude of 490 to 
495 feet. Its present low, swampy condition is associated with the partly filled 
channel scar which connects with both Sulphur and Indian creeks, as indicated 
on the topographic map, Fig. 1.' It is apparent that this channel scar was made 
by Sulphur Creek which has only recently ceased to occupy the upper two-thirds 
of the old upbuilt valley. It followed up the cut-off valley meander following a 
course reverse to that of its pre-Wisconsin predecessor. Why it took this route 
rather than the shorter lower part of the valley loop is not clear. Its abandonment 
by Sulphur Creek is related to the developmental history of Donihue Hill. 

Donihue Hill, like Bear Hill, is a hill of circum-alluviation, but it is not a 
meander core. Donihue Hill appears to be a remnant of a spur which separated 



Geologic Structure in Martin County 



221 



the valley of Sulphur Creek and the valley of the stream which now connects 
broadly with Sulphur Creek west of Donihue Hill. Apparently Sulphur Creek 
valley made an eastward turn just south of the center of Sec. 17 and passed be- 
tween Indian Springs and Donihue hills before entering Indian Creek valley west 
of Bear Hill. By lateral planation, aided, perhaps, by valley filling, Sulphur Creek 
severed the ridge between it and the smaller stream south of it. It now goes 
directly south through the opening along the present route. Donihue Hill is 
therefore the severed end of a spur and is associated with a case of planation stream 
diversion or piracy. It is not clear whether this diversion of Sulphur Creek took 
place before the valley filling period or later. It is quite certain, however, that 
only recently has Sulphur Creek abandoned the route north of Donihue and Bear 
hills. 

Stratigraphy. The Indian and Trinity Springs locality lies in the zone of the 
overlap of the Mansfield sandstone of lower Pennsylvanian age and the Chester 
formations of upper Mississippian age. The Mississippian strata occupy the val- 
leys and the lower part of the valley slopes, while the basal Pennsylvanian Mans- 




.MflWSnCLD Ss 

2,00+ (PENNSVLVRHIHN) 
1/ Coal (smal/ mines) 

Hete-Tkebose oftheMansfieU 

Sandstone rests unconformably on 

the various members of ike Chester, 
ana has g stratioraphic ranae of 



n 



10' GLEN DERN Ls. 
40 HRRDIN5BURG S 

75' COLCONDR Ls. 5 

a. 

20 IHOIRN SPRINGS Sh Q_ 

40 cypretss ss. V> 

...,«.. <n 

Id beech creek ls. — 



40 ELWREN Ss. 



0-5 REELSVILLE Ls. 
30' SRMPLE Ss. 
"10' "bERVER^BENd" Ts. 
H X5 MOORETOWN SS. 

'40' PROLI Lo. 

FHEDONIR OOLITE 
CST CINE VI EVE) 

STRRTICRRPHIC SECTION 



vs; 



J 



R.3 W. 



MAP 

or THE 

INDIAN SPRINGS -TRINITV SPRINCS 
LOCALITY 

MARTIN COUNTY INDIANA 



CLYQC R MRLOTT 

DBpt of geology iNDmriH university 

I 9 X9 



Fig. 2 — Map of the Indian and Trinity Springs locality showing the areas of the occurrence 
of the Mansfield sandstone and the lines of the outcrops of the Chester limestones where they are 
known to occur. Altitudes are indicated on outcrops of the Chester limestones. 



222 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

field sandstone occupies the ridges and upper part of the valley slopes, except in 
the southeastern part of the area along the Williams road northeastward from 
Pea Ridge School where the Pennsylvanian is absent. The outcrop areas of the 
Mississippian and Pennsylvanian formations are shown in Fig, 2. 

The upper Mississippian or Chester strata of southern Indiana consist of 
many formations which constitute a series alternately composed of limestone and 
sandstone chiefly. In all, ten limestone units and nine sandstone or clastic units 
are now recognized in the outcrop area stretching northward from the Ohio River 
in Perry and Crawford counties to Putnam County. The limestone units exhibit 
diagnostic characteristics and are rather readily identifiable. The clastic units, 
mainly composed of fine-grained massive sandstones rather loosely cemented, 
are not readily determinable by themselves. They occupy and fill (with or with- 
out shale) intervals between the diagnostic limestones. The entire series of units 
or formations in southern Indiana and their probable correlates in southern Illinois 
are as follows: 

Indiana Illinois 

19. Negli Creek Is. Kinkaid Is. 

18. Mt. Pleasant ss Degonia ss. 

17. Unnamed Sh. and Is. interval Clore Is. 

16. Bristow ss . Palestine ss. 

16. Siberia Is Menard Is. 

14. Wickcliff ss Waltersburg ss. 

13. Unnamed Sh. and Is. interval. .Vienna Is. 

12. Tar Springs ss Tar Springs ss. 

11. Glen Dean Is Glen Dean Is. 

10. Hardinsburg ss. Hardinsburg ss. 

9. Golconda Is Golconda Is. 

8. Cypress ss Cypress ss. 

7. Beech Creek Is. 1 

6. Elwren ss f Paint Creek fm. 

5. Reelsville Is. J 

4. Sample ss Bethel ss. 

3. Beaver Bend Is | 

2. Mooretown ss > Renault Is. 

1. Paoli Is J 

In southern Indiana it is only in Perry County along the Ohio River that all 
19 of the recognized formations are present. The Mansfield sandstone forming the 
base of the Pennsylvanian in Indiana and resting unconformably on the Chester 
and lower formations, progessively descends lower and lower stratigraphicall}' 
northward from the Ohio River. In the Indian Springs locality of Martin County 
the Glen Dean limestone is the highest Chester unit. Farther north, in middle 
western Putnam County, the Mansfield sandstone descends below the Chester and 
rests upon sub-Chester formations from there northward. 

The thicknesses of the formations and the general characteristics of the 
clastic intervals are indicated for the Chester series in the Indian and Trinity 
springs locality in the stratigraphic section shown in Fig. 2. Only the top of the 
Paoli limestone shows at the very eastern margin of the region near the center of 
Sec. 15 in the bed of Indian Creek. Nearby is a poor exposure of the Mooretown 



Geologic Structure in Martin County 223 

mostly composed of shale. The Beaver Bend limestone is exposed at or near drain- 
age level in the W. }/2 of Sec. 15, in the W. 3^ of Sec. 10, along the branch just 
north of the center of Sec. 28, and along the foot of the bluff on the northwest side 
of Indian Springs hill in Sec. 17. It appears to be 5 to 15 feet thick, its greatest 
thickness being at Indian Springs Hill. Where exposed in the roadside near the 
railway in the W. 3^2 of Sec. 10 it is very impure, containing pebbles of clay and 
much sand. Usually it is a relatively pure, white, oolitic limestone. 

The Sample sandstone is rather massive where exposed in the region. Excel- 
lent exposures of it occur in the railroad cut west of the center of Sec. 10; in the 
bluff at the bridge across Sulphur Creek just southeast of Cale; in Indian Springs 
and Donihue hills; and at and near drainage level at the Trinity Springs in the 
NW 34 °f Sec. 28. It is difficult to find the top of the sample sandstone in much of 
the mapped area, because of the poor development of the Reelsville limestone 
unit in the region. The Reelsville is only a few feet thick and appears to be nor- 
mally developed in only a few outcrops in the southeastern part of the area. It 
is about five feet thick in the SE \i of Sec. 21, and in the NW \i of Sec. 28 
where it is exposed as a weather-stained oolitic limestone. Its horizon is identi- 
fied elsewhere by thin fossiliferous plates of limestone one-half of an inch or 
more in thickness imbedded in shale, or by a very fossiliferous brown sandstone 
horizon a few inches to a few feet thick. Both of these phases are exhibited west 
of Indian Creek along the abandoned railway cuts in the NE 34 Sec. 29, near the 
village of Trinity Springs. 

The Elwren clastic interval of sandstone and shale is not readily distinguished 
in many exposures which are certainly below the Beech Creek limestone. It 
appears to make up a part of the massive sandstone below the Beech Creek lime- 
stone in the N 34 of Sec. 9, just northeast of Cale. Ledges of it show below the 
spring east of the railway one-fourth of one mile northeast of Indian Springs 
village. It is quite probable that the upper part of the sandstone in Indian Springs 
and Donihue hills is Elwren sandstone, though the horizon of the Reelsville lime- 
stone is not discernible. The soft olive shale exposed in the road below the pebbly 
Mansfield sandstone in the southeast edge of Bear Hill is Elwren. Shows of sand- 
stone and shale occur below the Beech Creek springs in the SW H of Sec. 28, in 
SE M of Sec. 28, in NE U of Sec. 21, and in the NW 34 of Sec. 16. 

The Beech Creek limestone is the most wide-spread readily identifiable lime- 
stone unit in the area and perhaps also throughout the Chester outcrop area in 
southern Indiana. Springs very commonly issue from its base, heading in a sharp 
valley which ends abruptly in an overhanging wall of the Cypress sandstone. 
Twenty such springs are located along the outcrop line shown in Fig. 2. The 
limestone may be identified by the presence of large delicately marked crinoid 
stems which show on its weathered surfaces. The limestone is a hard, gray, semi- 
crystalline limestone which exhibits in weathered surfaces ragged cubical blocks 
a few inches across. Except where the limestone is overlaid by the Mansfield 
sandstone the fine-grained massive and evenly laminated Cypress sandstone rests 
directly over it. The Beech Creek appears to be rather uniformly 15 feet thick 
throughout the area. 

The Cypress sandstone is about 40 feet thick and typically is a massive, evenly 
laminated sandstone which holds its thickness and characteristics with little 
variation throughout the outcrop area of the Chester in southern Indiana. It 
rests upon the Beech Creek limestone usually without a trace of shale. Twenty 
feet of shale commonly intervene between it and the Golconda limestone formation 



224 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

above. This shale Is a foil rock for the massive resistant sandstone and benches 
are commonly formed on the Cypress sandstone. This shale is always present and 
it has been called the Indian Springs shale after the outcrop one-fourth of one 
mile northwest of the village of Indian Springs above the outcropping bench of 
massive Cypress sandstone and below the outcropping slabs of Golconda lime- 
stone. The 40 feet of Cypress sandstone and the 20 feet of blue-gray shale con- 
stitute the clastic interval between the Beech Creek limestone and the Golconda 
limestone. 

The Golconda limestone formation is usually poorly developed in the eastern 
section of its outcrop. In the Indian and Trinity Springs locality it does not occur 
east of Indian and Sulphur Creek, because its horizon is occupied by the Mansfield 
sandstone. Exposures are few on the western side of the area. The formation 
is about 15 feet thick and is composed of several layers of limestone separated by 
argillaceous shale a few inches to several feet thick. Its known exposures with their 
altitudes are indicated in Fig. 2. 

Very few exposures of the Hardinsburg clastic interval are present in the 
Indian and Trinity Springs locality, chiefly because of the covering of talus from 
the Mansfield sandstone which caps the ridges. Very little sandstone appears 
to be present. It is characteristic of the interval to be composed largely of shale 
north of Orange and southern Martin counties. The Glen Dean limestone is 
known to outcrop in only two places within the mapped area. A few feet of rather 
hard Glen Dean limestone outcrop one-fourth of one mile north of Indian Springs 
Village in the N ^ of Sec. 8, and another exposure of it occurs in the ravine near 
the western margin of the area in SW of the SE \i of Sec. 7. 

The Mansfield sandstone of Pottsville age is the basal formation of the 
Pennsylvanian system in Indiana. It rests upon various members of the Chester 
formation from the Elwren sandstone and shale to the Glen Dean limestone in 
the region, its base having a stratigraphic range of about 175 feet. Its base is 
therefore notably uneven. Usually a thin band of limonitic sandstone forms the 
base. The formation in Bear Hill is 230 feet thick and the lower 100 feet of it is a 
pebbly, and gritty sandstone which exhibits much cross-bedding. Little normal 
bedding is exhibited in the pebbly sandstone. The pebbles and grits are composed 
of milky vein quartz. The pebbles are well rounded and smoothed and range in 
size from peas to quail eggs, though few of them exceed one-half of an inch in 
diameter. Near the turn of the road on the southwest side of Bear Hill the base 
of the formation contains white kaolin. Here it rests on the Elwren shale in which 
are residual boulders of the base of the Beech Creek. Elsewhere, as in south- 
western Lawrence County beds of clay and kaolin are in places several feet 
in thickness. In practically all cases the kaolin occurs where the contact is on the 
argillaceous shale just below one of the Chester limestones. The kaolin outcrop 
along the road near the southwest part of Bear Hill is the only known occurrence 
of kaolin in the region. 

The pebbly sandstone forming the lower part of the formation composes 
a goodly part of the formation in the hill upon which the village of Trinity Springs 
is located. Also pebbles show conspicuously in the lower part of the formation 
composing Tempy Hill, Raven Cliffs, and the hill mass northeast of the Trinity 
Spring chiefly located in Sec. 21. No pebbles appear to be present in any of the 
sandstone occupying (he upland west of the Indian Springs-Shoals road. Here 
the base of the formation is much higher than in the areas where the pebbly sand- 
stone occurs. Tt appears that the pebbly sandstone occurs only where the base 



Geologic Structure in Martin County 225 

of the formation is notably low. Above the massive pebbly sandstone the forma- 
tion is commonly well bedded. A local coal is mined at a number of places west 
of the Indian Springs-Shoals road. The coal is about 65 feet above the base of the 
formation in the locality. Still 55 or 60 feet higher is another coal a foot or more 
in thickness underlaid by an underclay. Neither of these coals appear to be in 
Bear Hill or the other hills east of the Indian Springs-Shoals Road. Sandstone 
shows nearly to the top of the hills southwest of Indian Springs village, indicating 
a maximum thickness of about 150 feet in the western side of the area. Including 
the pebbly sandstone which forms the lower and older part of the formation 
deposited in the pre-Pennsylvanian depression extending northeast-southwest 
through the region, the Mansfield sandstone appears to be at least 250 feet thick 
in the region. 

Geologic Structure and the Indian Springs Anticline. The geologic 
structure in southwestern Indiana is relatively simple. The region is well down 
the gently dipping western flank of the Cincinnati geanticline adjacent to the 
broad structural basin which centers in southern Illinois. The normal dip of the 
strata is about 35 feet west or slightly south of west to the mile. The structure 
is usually quite simple, though it does possess small irregularities of dip and changes 
in direction of dip. Terraces and slight flexures are common. Small faults are 
likely present, though the evidence of their existence is usually more suggestive 
than it is conclusive. Reversals of dip for more than a few hundred yards are rare, 
and anticlinal structures with a closure of more than 15 or 20 feet are also rare. 
Small anticlinal structures do exist in the surface rocks, though it is difficult to 
substantiate them. Rarely are they more than one-half or three-fourths of a mile 
across. More commonly the structural flexures are shallow dip-inclining basins 
bordered by positive terraces or "noses" on which closures are rarely well sub- 
stantiated. 

In the Indian and Trinity Springs locality, the altitudes on the Beech Creek 
and other Chester limestones indicate the presence of two dip-inclining synclines 
with an anticline between them. Carefully checked barometrically determined 
altitudes on exposures of the Beech Creek and other limestones of the Chester 
series compose the structure data of the region. In all, 43 separate altitudes are 
on the Beech Creek and 25 or 30 on the other outcropping limestones. These are 
shown on both Figs. 2 and 3. In Fig. 2 the data are all the actually determined 
altitudes, while in Fig. 3 the altitudes on the Beaver Bend, Reelsville and Gol- 
conda limestones have been either raised or reduced to the horizon of the Beech 
Creek. The structure contours shown in Fig. 3 are interpretative of the altitude 
data recorded on the map. The data substantiate the presence of a well defined 
anticline at the Indian Springs about one mile south of the village named after 
these highly mineralized sulphuretted springs. A discussion of the data of the 
Indian Springs anticline follows. 

The data which clearly indicate an anticlinal structure at the Indian Springs 
in the NE l /i of Sec. 17, are chiefly the altitudes of the exposures of the Beech 
Creek limestone. The line of the outcrop of the Beech Creek is depicted in Fig. 2. 
Exposures are plentiful west of the axis of the anticline, but are scanty east of the 
axis. The highest exposure is in the upland spur west of the road about one-eighth 
of one mile north of the Indian Springs in the NE % of Sec. 17. Here the top of 
the limestone is at an altitude of 575 feet and 95 feet above the flood plain of 
Sulphur Creek. Northward it descends into what appears to be a rather shallow 



226 



Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 



dip-inclining syncline the axis of which extends nearly west from the village of 
Indian Springs. In one mile northward from the 575 foot datum the Beech Creek 
limestone descends 60 feet or to an altitude of 515 feet at the spring in the north- 
west edge of the village of Indian Springs. East of the crest of the anticline the 
data are rather meagre. Exposures of the top of the Beech Creek at the two springs 
on the west side of Bear Hill are 550 feet. At the spring a short distance north of 
the center of Sec. 16 and at the Tempy Spring in the SE Y± of Sec. 9, the top of the 
limestone appears to be at an altitude of 555 feet. The actual figure at the Tempy 
Spring is 550 feet, but the Mansfield sandstone there rests on the Beech Creek 




Fig. 3. Structure map of the Indian and Trinity Springs locality. Structure contours arc 
drawn on the Beech Creek limestone. 



limestone obviously below the top, and five feet has been added to approximate the 
former top of the formation. The Beech Creek is well exposed at a spring a little 
over a mile south of the Indian Springs near the center of Sec. 20 at an altitude 
of 530 feet, and at another spring in the southeast corner of Sec. 19 it has an alti- 
tude of 510 feet. The exposures from the Tempy Spring south-southwest, through 
Bear Hill to the southeast corner of Sec. 19, are low, and in their relations to the 
higher altitudes indicated along the axis of the Indian Springs anticline are very 



Geologic Structure in Martin County 227 

likely along the trough of a syncline. This syncline is designated the Bear Hill 
syncline on Fig. 3. The Beech Creek data therefore, indicate a structural high 
near the mineral springs in Sec. 17. The northward dip in one mile is 60 feet, 
the southward dip in a little over (me mile is 45 feet; and eastward and northeast- 
ward outcrops of the Beech Creek are 20 to 25 feet lower. 

Data on the Beaver Bend limestone in connection with the Beech Creek data 
indicate that the Indian Springs anticline is about 15 feet higher than the Beech 
Creek data alone show. Around the north and west sides of Indian Springs Hill 
in See. 17 the Beaver Bend limestone is well exposed at an altitude of 500 feet. 
No exposures are present on the eastern side of this same hill. North of the mineral 
springs at the foot of the hill which has the 575 foot datum on the Beech Creek 
limestone, the top of the Beaver Bend is exposed in the road at an altitude of 485 
feet. These figures indicate that the apex of the structure is at the northwest edge 
of the Indian Springs Hill, at the foot of which the highly mineralized waters of the 
Indian Springs rise in five separate places practically at creek level. The springs 
appear to be on the very crest of the anticline. The Beaver Bend limestone is 90 
feet below the Beech Creek in the spur just northwest of the mineral springs. The 
altitude of the Beech Creek at the springs should be 590 feet, as indicated on 
Fig. 3. 

Attention is called to the Beaver Bend limestone northeast of the mineral 
springs. This limestone passes beneath the alluvial flat of Sulphur Creek at an 
altitude slightly below 500 feet along the road at the east line of Sec. 9. A large 
pile of Beaver Bend limestone has been heaped up along the road at the well 
about 100 yards southeast of the bridge across Sulphur Creek, near Cale and near 
the center of Sec. 9. This limestone is reported to have been encountered 15 or 20 
feet below the surface or at an altitude of 470 or 475 feet. The Beaver Bend lime- 
stone here is, then, 25 or 30 feet lower than at the mineral springs a mile southwest. 
The structural high, then, shows on the Beaver Bend limestone as well as on the 
Beech Creek. 

The probability of faulting being responsible for the structural conditions in 
the Indian Springs locality merits discussion. When the structure was first dis- 
covered by the writer 11 or 12 years ago, it was assumed that both the Indian and 
the Trinity springs were associated with faulting. The recent detailed work, 
however, has failed to verify this assumption. No evidence of actual faulting was 
obtained, though diligent search was made for features which would indicate the 
presence of faults in the region. The flat, deeply alluviated valleys mask the rock 
features in much of the region where it is probable that faults would extend if the 
structure is a result of faulting. The possible lines of faulting were investigated 
where it is likely, if they are present, that they would cross the sandstones which 
make benches adjoining the flat valley floors. No dips, rock fractures or topo- 
graphic offsets could be found which would in any way suggest faulting. On the 
other hand, the features suggest lack of faulting. A feature which on casual 
observation may suggest faulting is the absence of the Beaver Bend limestone 
at valley level on the east side of Indian Springs Hill and its total absence above 
drainage level in Donihue Hill and the bluff at Sulphur Creek Bridge just south 
of Donihue Hill. Its position is likely below drainage level in these places with 
the possible exception of the east side of Indian Creek Hill, and the interpretative 
structure contours of Fig. 3 are so drawn. As for the east side of Indian Springs 
Hill there are several ways to account for its unexpected absence there. The dip 
from the west side would only need to be about 10 or 15 feet to carry it below 



228 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

drainage level. The Chester sandstones beneath the Beech Creek limestone where 
massive, as they are in the locality, often exhibit an unconformable relationship 
at their bases. Their bases may extend below the level of the horizon of the Beaver 
Bend limestone. Again it is quite characteristic of both the Beaver Bend and 
Reelsville limestones to have sandstone facies in which there is little evidence of 
their presence at their proper stratigraphic positions. Hence this suggestion of 
a fault is only one of many probabilities and perhaps the least likely of them all. 
Another locality in which the relations suggest a fault is at the intersection of the 
Trinity Springs road with the Shoals road. In the ditch on the north side the Beech 
Creek limestone is overlaid by the Mansfield sandstone. Just across the road 
west the Cypress sandstone occurs at a higher level. If a fault occurs here with 
the down throw on the west side, it is not exhibited in the Beech Creek limestone 
and the Cypress sandstone around the bluff southwest of the cross-road. 

The Trinity springs in the NW of the NW M of Sec. 28 issue from three 
places about which a cement platform has been constructed. A bluff of the Sample 
sandstone rises 15 or 20 feet above the cement platform on the north. A ravine 
usually dry enters from the east. Nothing in the sandstone rock which swings 
nearly half around the springs suggests faulting. The springs issue at or near the 
expected horizon of the Beaver Bend limestone, though no traces of it are present. 
It is at drainage level about one half of a mile southeast of the springs, just east 
of the artificial lake, as indicated in Fig. 2. The fossiliferous sandstone, interpreted 
as the horizon of the Reelsville limestone, is higher than expected a short distance 
southeast of the spring. It appears to be slightly higher than it was found about 
one-half mile northeast of the springs, and 30 feet higher than it is on the west side 
of the valley. This was at first regarded as evidence of faulting, but a careful 
search along the sharp sandstone bench which extends west of the spring on the 
north side failed to show evidences of a down-throw. It is very probable that the 
535-foot datum on the fossil zone is high because of deposition conditions at the 
time the Chester strata were laid down. The lack of limestone over the massive 
Sample sandstone is suggestive of a high surface over which the limestone was 
not deposited, though some organic structures have been preserved in a thin 
sandstone which latterly passes into the Reelsville limestone at lower levels not 
far away. The absence of the Beaver Bend limestone above drainage north of the 
artificial lake and at the foot of the sandstone bluff near the 535 datum make the 
presence of a fault very improbable and adds much in support of the explanation 
offered for the horizon of the Reelsville being higher than expected just south of 
the mineral springs. 

The Indian Springs issue from at least five individual openings. Three of them 
are practically in the bed of Sulphur Creek just north of the bridge on the west 
side of Indian Springs Hill. The other two are northeast about 50 and 75 yards 
and line up directly with the three just north of the bridge. They are located in 
the low flood plain about 20 yards from the steep bluff of Indian Springs Hill and 
issue as boiling springs directly out of shallow depressions. The line of five springs 
extends northeast-southwest. Their alignment suggests the possibility that they 
occur along a fault. They occur between two outcrops of the Beaver Bend lime- 
stone which are about 200 yards apart and which show about 15 feet difference 
in elevation. It is my opinion that they do not rise along a fault. 

The depths from which the highly mineralized waters of both Indian and 
Trinity springs come are unknown. The up-rising highly mineralized waters very 
likely are associated with the underlying middle Mississippian limestones, some- 



Geologic Structure in Martin County 



229 



what similar to the springs in the low valleys at French Lick and West Baden 
where the topographic and geologic conditions are nearly identical. The water 
may come from the underlying St. Genevieve and St. Louis limestones or it may 
come from still greater depths. After a study of the relations it is the opinion of 
the writer that there is little significance to he attached to the occurrence of the 
mineral springs on the Indian Springs anticline. The occurrence of the mineral 
springs on the top of the anticline is merely incidental, and is more likely asso- 
ciated with the low valley where the thick karst-making Paoli-St. Genevieve-St. 
Louis limestone unit passes beneath the relatively impervious shales associated 
with the Chester formations above. 




Fig. 4 — Map of the Indian and Trinity Springs locality showing altitudes on the base of the 
Mansfield sandstone with interpretative contours which indicate the position of a pre-Pennsyl- 
vanian valley. 



The Character of the Mississippiati-Pctmsylvatiiaii Unconformity. 

Many writers on Indiana geology have commented on the general character 
of the great unconformity at the base of the Pennsylvanian system within the 
state. In the 200 miles from Perry County on the south to Benton County on the 
north the base of the Mansfield sandstone descends fully 1,200 feet stratigraphi- 
cally. Many details of the irregularities of the base of the Pennsylvanian have 



230 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

been given by Ashley in his detailed Coal Deposits of Indiana, 23rd Ann. Rept., 
Ind. Dept. of Geol. and Nat. Res., 1898. Especially illuminating are the dia- 
grams and comments of Logan on pages 683-688 of the Handbook of Indiana 
Geology, dealing incidentally with the nature of the irregularities of the base of 
the Mansfield sandstone close by the Indian and Trinity Springs locality. It is my 
purpose here to give some of the details of the relations of the base of the Mansfield 
sandstone in the region under discussion and to call attention to their significance. 

The Mansfield sandstone as a formation in the region has already been de- 
scribed and attention has been called to the unevenness of its base. In Fig. 4 the 
altitudes of the base of the sandstone are given at such places as were readily 
determinable. The highest altitude determined for the base is 660 feet, just north 
of the village of Indian Springs, and the lowest is 520 feet, along the road in the 
southeast part of Bear Hill. The total known difference of the relief of the base 
of the formation in the region is, therefore, 140 feet. West of the Indian Springs- 
Shoals road the base of the sandstone rests on the Hardinsburg sandstone interval 
or on the Glen Dean limestone at altitudes of 625 to 635 feet. Along the ridge 
road in sections 28 and 22 in the southeast part of the area, no Mansfield sand- 
stone is present, though the altitudes reach and exceed 650 feet. The highest 
formation there is the Cypress sandstone. The altitudes are systematically low 
in a strip one-half to one mile wide extending south-southwest from Tempy Hill 
and Raven Cliffs, through Bear Hill, the village of Trinity Springs, and beyond. 
In this strip the altitudes determined range from 520 feet to 565. The Mansfield 
sandstone rests on the Beech Creek limestone and the Elwren sandstone and shale, 
approaching the stratigraphic position of the Reelsville limestone at the lowest 
places. The stratigraphic range of the uneven base of the Mansfield sandstone 
within the area is about 175 feet. 

The altitudes of the base of the Mansfield sandstone indicate quite clearly 
that the pre-Pennsylvanian topography had a relief of at least 140 feet within the 
area. The nature of the relief is also revealed by the altitudes. A trough-like 
valley, filled with the lower and older part of the Mansfield unit, passes through 
the region in a south-southwest direction. The general character of this pre- 
Pennsylvanian valley is indicated by the contours drawn on the given altitudes 
as a basis in Fig. 4. The altitudes of the base of the Mansfield were not obtained 
in a sufficient number of places to give the details of the buried pre-Pennsylvanian 
valley, but it is believed that the valley-like trough depicted in Fig. 4 is a river- 
formed valley whose further development was stopped by the invasion of the re- 
gion by the Mansfield deposition processes. This same valley has been traced 
northeast to near the overhead bridge across the railway about two miles west of 
Williams in Lawrence County. Here the old valley is filled with the characteristic 
pebbly Mansfield sandstone resting on the Beaver Bend limestone at an altitude 
of about 600 feet or possibly slightly lower. Nearby the top of the Cypress sand- 
stone is exposed at an altitude of about 700 feet. South of the region the old valley 
passes near McBrides Bluff on White River at the mouth of Indian Creek, where 
the massive pebbly Mansfield sandstone rests on the Cypress sandstone 20 feet 
above the Beech Creek limestone at an altitude of 515 feet. It is thought that it 
continues south and slightly west to Shoals where the Mansfield sandstone is 
below the bed of the White River at an altitude less than 450 feet. 

Observations made elsewhere along the Mississippian-Pennsylvanian contact 
indicate that the conditions depicted in the Indian and Trinity Springs locality 
are characteristic of the base of the Mansfield sandstone. The irregularities of 



Geologic Structure in Martin County 231 

the contact take on the nature and character of pre-Pennsylvanian valleys. These 
valleys are filled with the cross-bedded pebbly sandstone which appears to be 
characteristically present in the pre-Pennsylvanian valleys and wanting or thin 
on pre-Pennsylvanian upland areas between the valleys. It is my opinion that the 
Mansfield sandstone occupies pre-Pennsylvanian valley-like troughs where it is 
composed of massive cross-bedded pebbly sandstone 75 or 100 feet thick, this being 
the characteristic deposit made in the pre-Pennsylvanian valleys. Where such 
thicknesses of the massive pebbly sandstone occur I would suspect the deposit very 
likely be in a low trough-like valley. It is not my opinion that the pebbly phase of 
the Mansfield sandstone is confined to the valleys, though my observations indi- 
cate its absence in areas that are obviously pre-Pennsylvanian inter- valley areas. 
These observations open up an interesting perspective of the conditions of the 
deposition of the Mansfield sandstone. This perspective invites attention to the 
source of the materials and to the method of transportation and deposition in the 
valley-trough areas which is characteristically exclusive of the deposition in the 
deposition of similar materials on the pre-Pennsylvanian inter- valley uplands. 
More fact-finding studies must be made before these particular characteristics of 
the limited area under discussion may be asserted to prevail over a wide area. 
Such studies must furnish the informational data necessary for a proper considera- 
tion of the sources of materials, means of transportation to the region of deposit, 
and the conditions which governed the deposition of vein-quartz facies of the 
widely distributed basal Pennsylvanian formation in Indiana, Kentucky, Illinois, 
and other states. 



Model of the Two Medicine Valley 



233 



MODEL OF Til JO TWO MEDICINE VALLEY, 
GLACIER NATIONAL PARK, MONTANA 



Ersie S. Martin and Viva D. Martin, Indianapolis 

The authors spent a large part of the summer of 1926 making a detailed 
study of the glaciation of the Two Medicine Valley, Glacier National Park, 
Montana. They were so much impressed by the number and perfection of the 
special topographic features developed by glaciation in this area that they decided 
to make a model which would show these features to a fine degree of accuracy. 




Fig. 44. 



The following plan was used. Two photographic copies, from the U. S. 
Topographic Map, of the drainage area to be mapped were secured, one for cutting 
and the other for checking. These enlargements were exactly four times the 
topographic map making a horizontal scale of one-half mile to the inch. Since 

Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 40: 233-234. (1930) 1931. 



234 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

the model was to be built up of layers of cardboard, it was desirable to have one 
layer of cardboard for each contour interval of 100 feet. The exact thickness of 
paper for this purpose was computed mathematically in the same scale as the 
horizontal, namely one-half inch to the mile. A micrometer was set to the exact 
thickness computed and taken to a wholesale paper company where cardboard 
of the right number of ply to produce said thickness was secured. A special 
printers paste, negligible in thickness was used to insure no accumulation of 
errors in the vertical scale 

The model was constructed by cutting along the lowest line on the topo- 
graphic map, then marking around this on the cardboard, and then cutting that 
out and pasting it to a firm base. The map was cut along the next higher con- 
tour line, marked on the cardboard, and pasted on to the first layer. This process 
was continued until the entire model was built up. The completed model was 
shellaced, and lacquered white with all drainage put on in blue, roads and trails 
in black, and buildings represented by tiny wood carvings. Names, labels, bench 
marks, etc., are painted directly above the place in question on a glass cover held 
in place by the box frame. 

Features of glacial topography especially well brought out by the model are: 
U-shaped valleys; cirque, single and cloverleaf cirque; hanging valleys; sharpened 
divides; pyramidal peaks, typical of a glaciated area in maturity; a rock bar 
across a valley, valley steps, rock basins mostly occupied by lakes. In addition to 
several interesting problems in diverted drainage due to glaciation, the area con- 
tains a post glacial stream and valley which furnishes an interesting contrast to 
the glaciated valleys and streams. 



Parent Materials of Pike County, Indiana Soils 



235 



PARENT MATERIALS OF PIKE COUNTY, INDIANA SOILS 1 



John T. Miller, U. S. D. A. Bureau of Chemistry and Soils 

Pike County, Indiana, is located near the southwestern corner of the state, 
and it forms a part of the physiographic unit known as the Wabash Lowland 
Region 2 . 

The topography of Pike County is quiet variable. The flattish valley of the 
White River extends along the northern side of the county. At its fartherest 
point the stream is about three miles from the southern walls of the valley. Along 




irell 



Fig. 1 



Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 40: 235-236. (1930) 1931. 

1 During the course of the soil survey of Pike County in 1929 numerous observations were made 
along roads cuts and by deep borings of the parent materials of the different soils types. The 
accompanying map is my interpretation as a member of this party, of which H. P. Ulrich, of Purdue 
University, was in charge, of the observations of the entire party. The boundaries are approximate 
boundaries showing as much details as possible on the scale used. 

2Based on Clyde A. Malotts "Physiographic Map of Indiana." 



236 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

this wall of the valley there is an irregular belt of the old sand dunes which are 
now securely anchored by vegetation. In the northeastern part of the county 
around Otwell and Cato there is a large lake plain which is level and poorly drained. 
The western part of the county is undulating or slightly rolling. The southern 
part of the county is characterized by rolling uplands and poorly drained bottoms 
and terraces. 
Legend: 

1. Stratified deposits of calcareous material of recent origin forming the 
first and second bottoms of the White River. These deposits range from clays to 
sands. 

2. Blackwater deposits of heavy silty clay or clay. Calcareous concretions 
are commonly found at the depths of three feet or more. These deposits are 
slightly elevated above the first and second bottoms and were probably formed 
during the early Wisconsin period of glaciation. 

3. Dune like deposits of yellow to grayish yellow fine sand occupying the 
southern bluffs of the White River. These deposits are calcareous below four feet 
and contain carbonate concretions. This material represents Late Wisconsin and 
recent windblow deposits. 

4. Light reddish yellow to grayish yellow smooth silt or very fine sand with 
a few dark yellowish brown concretions, and with some thin gray streaks along 
drainage lines. 

This material has vesicular structure and stands in perpendicular banks. It is 
calcareous at depths ranging from thirty to sixty inches and overlies Illinoian 
drift at about eight feet. This material may represent a loessial stage following the 
early Wisconsin Glaciation. 

5. Reddish yellow non-calcareous soft silt with fine yellowish gray streaks 
along drainage lines. This material lies over Illinoian drift at about eight feet, 
and is Iowan Loess. 

6. Iowan Loess over roughly stratified and highly weathered deposits of non- 
calcareous sand and gravel in the Illinoian drift. 

7. Iowan Loess over a highly weathered deposit of non-calcareous sand. 
This deposit is located in the northwestern part of the county along the Gibson 
County line and may represent an extinct glacial lake 

8. Iowan Loess over thinly bedded Pennsylvanian sandstone and shale. 

9. Highly acid bottom deposits derived from sandstone and shale. 

10. Thinly bedded Pennsylvanian sandstone and shale. 

11. Glacial Lake Patoka Sedements. 

12. Silt over highly weathered deposit of gritty sandy clay. This is probably 
a beach line of the extinct Glacial Lake Patoka. 



Two Subterranean Cut-Offs in Central Crawford County 237 



TWO SUBTERRANEAN CUT-OFFS IN CENTRAL 
CRAWFORD COUNTY, INDIANA 



W. D. Thornbtjry, Indiana University 

The purpose of this paper is to describe two subterranean cut-offs in central 
Crawford county, Indiana, which so far as the writer is aware have never been 
previously described. These cut-offs are herein designated as the Bottomley Spring 
and Carries Mill cut-offs. 

Bottomley Spring Cut-off. This designation is here applied to this cut-off 
because the water which abandons its surface route for a shorter subterranean 
course rises in a large artesian spring known locally as the Bottomley Spring. 
(See fig. 1). This spring has long attracted the attention of the people in the lo- 
cality because of its great volume and supposedly great depth. Its true origin 
has never been understood. It is simply the "rise" of a subterranean stream which 




Fig. 1. View of the Bottomley Spring. This spring marks the rise of the waters which sink 
along the stream beds of Brushy and Bogard creeks. 



has been formed from the sinking of surface waters from Bogard and Brushy 
creeks. The depth of the spring has usually been greatly exaggerated. According 
to soundings made by the writer its depth hardly exceeds 15 feet. It is possible 
that its depth slightly exceeds this amount as considerable debris was present in 
the bottom of the spring. 

In the spring of 1930, the writer in company with Dr. C A. Malott of the 
department of geology of Indiana University made a reconnaissance of the region 
near the Bottomley Spring. It was thought at that time that all of the water 
which empties out of this spring came from a "sink" in Brushy Creek near the 
home of Dan King, in the southeast part of the S. W. \i of the NE % of Sec. 31, 
T. 2. S., R. 1 E. (See fig. 2). The water could be heard pouring into a large joint- 

Proc. Inch Acad. Sci. 40: 237-242. (1930) 1931. 



238 



Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 



opening in the stream bed but considerable more water was flowing in Brushy 
Creek at that time than the inlet could accommodate. However, in the latter 
part of the summer of 1930 when the accompanying map was made no water 
was passin along the stream bed beyond the "sink" mentioned above. 

The "sink" in Brushy Creek occurs at an elevation of 480 feet, according to 
barometric determinations made by the writer. The elevation of the surface of 
the Bottomley Spring is approximately 460 feet. There is thus a difference of 



11 e 



wMyM 




W0.T-/W 



Fig. 2. 
Fig. 2 — Topographic map of the- Bottomley Spring locality 



20 feet in the elevation of the "sink" and the "rise" of the waters of the subter- 
ranean cut-off. The straight-line distance between these two points is slightly 
over one-half mile. This difference in elevation is approximately equal to the 
regional dip of the underlying Paoli limestone and in line with the direction of dip. 
The underlying rock formation is the Paoli limestone (upper part of the so- 
called Mitchell formation) of Mississippian age. A knowledge of the character- 
istics of this limestone formation is essential to a proper understanding of the 
features developed. Two outstanding characteristic features of the Paoli limestone 



Two Subterranean Cut-Offs in Central Crawford County 23!) 

are its thin-bedding and numerous joints. These features have favored the de- 
velopment of an underground conduit down the dip of the rock, The subter= 
ranean course is only about one-half as long as the surface route. The "sink" in 
the bed of Brushy Creek occurs about 35 feet below the top of the Paoli limestone. 
A number of joints, greatly enlarged by solution, show conspicuously along the 
rocky stream bed. One, more prominent than the others, opens deeply and re- 
ceives most of the water entering the underground channel. (See fig. 3). 







Fig. 3. 

Fig. 3 — View of one of the enlarged joint-openings into which the water in Brushy Creek 
sinks. The opening is the result of solution along one of the many vertical joints in the Paoli 
limestone. 



Until the mapping of the area was begun it was supposed that all of the water 
of the Bottomley Spring came from the "sink" in the bed of Brushy Creek. In the 
course of the mapping a similar "sink" was discovered along the channel of Bogard 
Creek. This "sink" is located about one-half mile southeast of the "sink" in 
Brushy Creek and occurs at an elevation of 485 feet. The water which sinks here 
passes beneath the spur which lies between the valleys of Bogard and Brushy 
creeks also rises in the Bottomley Spring. The geological conditions are similar 
to those described above. The difference between the inlet and the outlet is 
25 feet or approximately the same as in the case of the cut-off developed by 
Brushy Creek. The straight-line distance between the "sink" in Bogard Creek and 
the Bottomley Spring is approximately three-eights of a mile, whereas the dis- 
tance around the surface channel is one and one-half miles. The underground 
course is thus about one-fourth as long as the surface route. 



240 



Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 



Carnes Mill Cut-off. The second cut-off to be described may well be 
designated as the Carnes Mill cut-off since it occurs at the site of an old abandoned 
mill of that name. It is located about a mile and one-fourth southeast of state 
road 37 in the NE M of Sec. 13 T. 3 S., R. 1 W. The mill was no different from 
many others that used to do custom grinding but it was unique in that it utilized 
a subterranean cut-off that had developed at this point in Little Blue River 




H l\N 



Cot\tour lKVerVft\ 7,0 {>, 



Fi»\ I. Topographic 



Fig. 4. 
ip of the Carnes Mill loca 



(See fig. 4). Little Blue River follows a deeply-set meandering valley and in the 
Carnes Mill meander the neck of the spur has been practically severed. A sub- 
terranean channel has been dissolved out of the limestone through the neck of the 
meander, permitting the water to flow beneath the spur. The length of the sub- 
terranean route is only 200 feet, whereas the distance around the surface channel 
is approximately three-fourths of a mile. The underground distance is thus only 
about one-eighteenth that of the surface course. 



Two Subterranean Cut-Offs in Central Crawford County 241 

The cut-off has been developed in the very top of the Paoli limestone. The 
contact between the Paoli and the overlying Mooretown sandstone is only six 
feet above the surface of Little Blue River. The elevation of the inlet is approxi- 
mately 439 and that of the outlet is 434 feel. There is accordingly a fall of five 
feet in a horizontal distance of 200 feet. Additional fall was obtained for the mill 
by the construction of a dam about three-eights of a mile below the site of the 
cut-off. It is not known what the exact height of the dam was but the ruins of the 
dam would indicate that between eight and ten feet additional fall was obtained 
by this method. 

Only a small part of the water of Little Blue River follows the underground 
conduit but a large enough stream of water passes through this channel to turn 
a fair-sized wheel. Figure 5 is a view of the outlet of this cut-off. At present there 
is no large opening on the up-stream side of the cut-off. Since abandonment of the 
mill, considerable debris and silt have obscured this opening and the water now 
filters through the gravel and silt along the stream bed. 




Fig. 5. View of the outlet of tli 
cut-off at the site of Carues Mill. 



Fig. 5. 
waters of Little Blue River which follow the subterranean 



It is probably only a matter of time until Little Blue River will abandon the 
route around the meander bend for the shorter course which is developing beneath 
the narrow spur. This will likely come about through the rutting into of the spur In- 
deral erosion rather than by further enlargement by solution of the underground 
conduit. The slight difference in elevation between the two sides of the cut-off will 
not permit the development of an underground channel large enough to carry all of 
the water in Little Blue. The cut-off which has occurred here as the result of the 
solution of a subterranean passageway simply marks the initial stage in the de- 
velopment of a permanent surface cut-off. Little Blue would soon have cut the 
neck into by lateral erosion but the geologic conditions were such as to permit the 
waters to flow through underground along the joint-openings in the Paoli lime- 
stone. 



242 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

It is improbable that the cut=offs along Brushy and Bogard creeks will ever 
develop to sufficient size to accommodate all of the waters of these two streams, 
although it is probable that there may be some further increase in the volume of 
water sinking along these two streams. The difference in elevation between the 
"sinks" and "rise" is hardly large enough to permit the development of a subter- 
ranean channel way large enough to carry all the waters of these two streams. 
However, even under present conditions most of the water in these two streams 
<luring the summer months flow through the subsurface route. During the summer 
of 1930, no water at all passed beyond the "sink" in Brushy and there were only a 
few pools of standing water below the "sink" in Bogard. This summer was an ab- 
normally dry one, so it is probable that the diversion is not as complete as this 
year would indicate. 

The two topographic features described above are particularly interesting 
because they occur at the very western edge of the area where the Paoli limestone 
outcrops. Only a mile or two west of the areas described the Paoli limestone is 
below the level of the streams. They attract one's attention because they occur 
in an area where the topography is on the whole lacking in features resulting from 
solution. The rocks in this part of Crawford county are the Chester sandstones, 
shales, and limestones. A few sinkholes occur in places where some of the thicker 
limestones immediately underlie the surface, but in no place are these features 
developed in anything like the abundance that they occur where the Paoli lime- 
stone is the subsurface formation. Here is further evidence of the important in- 
fluence which this formation has upon the topography of any region where it out- 
crops or forms the immediate bedrock. Wherever one finds this limestone forming 
the immediate bedrock of a region there he may expect a development of karst 
topogrpahy. 



Some New Tertiary Pectens 



243 



SOME NEW TERTIARY PECTENS. 



H. I. Tucker 



Pecten (Chlamys) gilbert harrisi, n. sp. PI. 1 , fig. 1 . Shell ovate; small, 
rather thin, somewhat gibbous, radial sculpture well developed over general sur- 
face of the disk; ten to twelve abruptly elevated, broad, flat ribs which in the um- 
bonal region appear to be beaded and toward the periphery show distinct bipartite 
marking. The type has only one or two scaly, radial threads in the interspaces 
while specimens of apparently the same species from the Jackson of the the Sabine 




PI. 1 Fig. 1. 



Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 40: 243-245. (1930) 1931. 

!The author wishes to express her thanks to Prof. G. D. Harris of Cornell University, under 
whose direction this work was done, for use of material and for permission to publish. 



244 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

River, La., show three or six, one of which, in some cases, is much better developed 
than the others. The ribs of one specimen from this locality increase by dicho- 
tomy. Sub-margins narrow, plain or ornamented with very fine, obsolete, radial 
threads. Beak narrow, quite pointed. Ears unequal, sculptured with fine, scaly, 
radial threads. Right anterior byssal ear the larger, corrugated near the cardinal 
margin. Cardinal margin of right valve bent over that of the left valve. Fasciole 
well marked. Byssal notch deep, conspicuous. Ctenolium consists of about three 
or four denticles. Cardinal crura well developed. Provinculum retained in the 
form of obsolete, fine lines normal to the cardinal margin. Height 18 mm., length 
15.5 mm. 

This variety is distinguished from wauhibbeanus by its fewer, broader ribs, 
more oval outline, stronger development of sculpture, the shape of its ears and the 
retention of the provinculum. 

Holotype: Harris Collection, Cornell University. 

Range: Jackson Eocene. 

Localities: Lisbon, Ala., Sabine River just below Robinsons Ferry, La. 

Pecten (Chlamys) kathrinepalmerae, n. sp. PL 1 , fig. 2 , 5 . Shell large, 
rather thin, quite gibbous, radially sculptured with little elevated, broad, rounded 
ribs which bifurcate and so increase in number. General surface of disk con- 
centrically sculptured with fine, scaly, lamellae. In the type the concentric 
lamellae are practically worn away, except next the margins. Sub-margins very 
narrow, ornamented only with fine, concentric lines. Ribs become narrower near 
the sub-margins. Disk bent over abruptly at the margins. Anterior byssal ear 
rather large, radial sculpture feeble, fascole distinctly marked. Byssal notch shal- 
low, inconspicuous. Posterior ear? Interior fluted to the beak. Ctenolium absent. 
Resilial pit rather broad, shallow. Cardinal margin of the valve bent over to the 
left. Auricular crura developed. Provinculum retained in form of numerous, 
fine ridges normal to hinge margin. Height 72.5 mm., length 79 mm., convexity 
about 2.3 mm. 

This species is distinguished from P. hemicylica Tuomey and Holmes by the 
retention of the provinculum, its smaller size and much less circular form. 

Holotype: Harris Collection, Cornell University. 

Range: Chipola Miocene. 

Locality: Near Baileys Ferry, Fla. 

Pecten ernestsmithi, n. sp. PI 1 ., fig. 3 , 4 . Shell ovate, rather large, heavy, 
with five ribs, three of which are better developed. The ribs are broad and rounded 
on their summits and show a marked tendency to become nodose from the um- 
bonal region to the periphery. Interspaces wider than the ribs and deeply chan- 
neled. Both ribs and interspaces strongly, radially threaded. A fragment of a 
right valve shows a strongly developed, concentric sculpture of scaly lamellae 
over both ribs and interspaces. Beak narrow and quite pointed. Sub-margins 
narrow, the outer margins nearly smooth, the inner radially threaded like the rest 
of the disk. Ears large, unequal and radially threaded. Anterior byssal ear quite 
pointed and somewhat corrugated along the cardinal margin. Posterior ear some- 
what less strongly threaded. Byssal sinus deep, narrow and inconspicuous. 
Fasciole broad. Interior fluted to the unbones. Margins crenulated. Ctenolium 
consists of six, prominent denticles. Resilial pit narrow, trigonal, lateral margins 
elevated. Cardinal margin of the ri<>;lit valve bent over the left. Provinculum 



Some New Tertiary Pectens 245 

strongly developed. Valve retains traces of a blotchy color pattern. Height 85, 
length 82.5, length of hinge line 60 and convexity about 20 mm. 

This species differs from P. caloosaensis Dall in the shape of the ears, in the 
width of the interspaces and in sculpture. P. ernestsmithi shows a well developed 
sculpture of radial threads w T hile in caloosaensis the interspaces are sculptured 
only with feeble concentric lines. The anterior byssal ear of ernestsmithi is much 
more pointed at the cardinal margin than that of caloosaensis. 

Holotype: Deposited Museum Paleontology, Cornell University. 

Range: Pliocene. 

Locality: Keith's marl pit, Neill's Eddy Landing, Cape Fear River, five 
miles from Acme, N. C. 



Contrasts Between Richest and Poorest Indiana Counties 247 



CONTRASTS BETWEEN THE TWELVE RICHEST AND 
POOREST INDIANA COUNTIES 



Stephen S. Visher, Indiana University 

Comparative wealth is not easy to ascertain because many areas that are 
rich in one respect are poor in another. But by considering a large number of 
criteria, it is possible, however, to determine which counties are poorest in most 
significant respects, and winch richest. The data presented by counties in the 







Fig. 1 
Fig. 1 — Indiana, showing the counties that are richest and poorest in most respects. 



recent official summary of census data and other reliable data, "The Market 
Data Handbook of the United States," U. S. Dept. of Commerce, 1929, has been 
of great service in this respect, but in addition, numerous other criteria have 
been used. Maps showing the contrasts among Indiana's 92 counties in respect 
to more than a hundred criteria have been made. The following is a summary of 
some of the more distinctive of these criteria as they apply to the twelve counties 
considered to be richest and the twelve poorest. These counties are indicated on 
Fig. 1. 

Proe. Ind. Acad. Sci. 40: 247-250. (1930) 1931. 



248 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

Crop Yields and Land Values. The 1925 agricultural census reported a 
crop production valued at an average of $3,000,000 for each of the twelve richer 
counties, slightly more than twice that of the twelve poorest ($1,400,000.) This 
is despite the fact that in the poorer counties agriculture is the predominate 
source of income to a degree not true in the richer counties. The per capita value 
of farm products per farm person, for the average of 1922-1925, was $539 in the 
richer counties but $308 for the poorer. In other words, each average person on 
the farms of the richer counties had 63 percent more income from the farm than 
did the average farm person of the poorer counties. 

Tenancy is nearly twice as great in the richer counties as in the poorer 
(24 percent vs. 19 percent) . This is partly due to the fact that in the poorer coun- 
ties few farms can support a tenant and also yield much rent to a landlord. 
Furthermore in the richer counties the land is less likely to be injured by tenants 
than is true in the poorer, which have considerable areas of sloping land and thin 
soil. 

The average value per farm was $19,200 in the richer counties in 1925, but 
less than one-fourth as great, $4,720, in the poorer. This reflects not only higher 
values per acre in the richer counties, but also better improvements. 

In the richer counties 37 percent of all farms were mortgaged in contrast to 
29 percent in the poorer counties. Not only were a larger percentage of the farms 
mortgaged in the richer counties, but the mortgages were for a larger percentage 
of the assessed values, 37.8 percent vs. 35.7 percent. Although these contrasts 
in mortgages might be thought to be in favor of the poorer counties, the opposite 
is in fact true. Rich land gives a greater surplus over cost of production, which 
surplus can be used to pay interest and reduce indebtedness. Furthermore in the 
richer counties the land is more salable. Also the interest rates average more than 
one-eighth lower. 

Contrasts in Manufacturing. Not only did the richer counties reap twice 
as much from the soil as did the poorer counties, but their wealth producing 
activities in other directions are even more impressive. The richer counties in 
1927 added to the value of goods by manufacturing an average of $50,470,000 
per county and a total of one-half of the state's total. In contrast the poorer 
counties added only one-nineteenth as much, $2,680,000 per county. 

The difference in value added by manufacturing per capita, $396 in the richer 
counties, $109 in the poorer counties, gives a ratio of three and one-half to one, 
not nearly so great as the above nineteen to one ratio, largely because of the 
richer counties having an average population density five times as great as in the 
poor counties. 

Contrasts in Hank Deposits and Loans. The greater soil productivity 
and industrialism would cause us to expect evidences of greater pecuniary re- 
sources. The richer counties in 1920 had bank deposits of $340.75 per capita 
while the poorer counties had $166.75 per capita. Loan companies have found 
the poorer counties less attractive than the richer as the average combined capital- 
ization of loan companies in the poorer counties is $2,320,000, as compared with 
an average of $40, 280, 000 for the richer counties. Capital flows most freely and 
is most used where the chances of reward are best. 

Taxable Properly. In taxable property, the richer counties had in 1922 an 
average of $2,320 per capita in contrast to $780 for the poorer counties. Further- 



Contrasts Between Richest and Poorest Indiana Counties 249 

more a much larger fraction of the wealth of the poorer counties is railroads, and 
other items of wealth not owned by the people of the poorer counties than is true 
in the richer counties. 

Income Tax Returns. In 1926 the income tax returns from the richer coun- 
ties were at the rate of 27 per 1,000 people, or more than three times as many 
proportionately as from the poorer counties, in which only 8.4 returns were filed 
per 1,000 population. 

Rural vs. Urban. The poorer counties are distinctly more largely rural than 
is true of most of the richer counties, which have about 82 percent of their popu- 
lation living in places of over 2,500 in contrast to about 33 percent living in places 
of that size in the poorer counties. 

Proportion of Adults. Adults are relatively numerous, 65 percent of the 
total population, in the richer counties while in the poorer counties they make up 
about one-fifth less, 53 percent of the total. Children under ten years of age, how- 
ever, are most numerous in the poorer counties where they comprise 23.2 percent 
of the total population as compared with 17 percent in the richer counties. Since 
many of the one-third more children reared in the poorer counties later go to the 
richer counties when the children are youths, the richer counties received, without 
any expense, many of the more ambitious mobile young people in which the 
poorer counties have made a large investment. The poorer counties average 
slightly larger families, 4.32 persons per family as compared with 4 persons per 
family in the rich counties. But the census "family" does not mean the same 
thing in country and city. In the country, most "families" are the type ordinarily 
thought of when the term is used, parents and children. In the city, however, the 
persons rooming in the same home are all grouped as a famify, even though they 
be strangers. The actual families in the cities relatively are eonsideramy smaller 
than in the country. 

Literacy. In literacy the poorer counties had in 1920, 3.7 percent illiterate 
over ten years of age, the richer counties approximately half as many, 1.9 percent — 
that in spite of having a larger percent of its people not native born. Literacy might 
be expected to correlate with reading habits and such is the case. In respect to 
Sunday papers the ratio is three to one: for daily newspapers, three plus to one; 
national magazines three and one-half to one; state and national farm papers, 
two to one, all in favor of the richer counties. Only in one class do the poorer 
counties excel, that of the weekly, semi or tri-weekly, of which they take five 
times as many in proportion to population as do the richer counties. These of 
course are substitutes for the more costly daily and Sunday newspapers. Not only 
reading matter received but outgoing postal expenditures are an index of cultural 
wealth. The average family in the twelve richer counties, had postal expenditures 
in 1927 three and one-half times as great as the average family of the twelve 
poorer counties. 

Criminality. A negative means of determining wealth is the number of com- 
mitments to the various state penal institutions. During the years 1917 to 1927 
inclusive the average poorer county had 28,100 persons so committed. Hut the 
average richer county had only 10,700 persons committed in spite of having an 
average population five times as great and more largely composed of adults. 
(Children are not committed to the penal institutions studied.) 



250 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

Insane commitments also show a tendency in the same direction, though 
not so noticeable. The years 1918-27 show 2,200 persons so committed from the 
average poorer county with its small population, in contrast to 1,900 persons 
from the average rich county. 

Summary. Thus the twelve richest counties, largely in central and northern 
Indiana, offer important contrasts and comparisons with the twelve poorest 
counties, nearly all of which are in southern Indiana. 

The population of the richer counties averages five times as dense, is much 
more urban, has slightly smaller families, fewer children but more adults, less 
illiteracy, and fewer commitments to state prisons and penal institutions, and 
asylums. 

The people of the richer counties use more reading material of several classes, 
spend much more for outgoing postage, have three times as much taxable property 
per capita; and, in proportion to population, three times as many persons who 
made income tax returns. 

The richer counties are greater borrowers, mortgage a larger percent of the 
farm land for a larger percent of its value ; they have double the percent of tenants, 
and per capita bank deposits that are twice as large. The richer farm land of the 
richer counties gives a product having twice the value of the poorer counties and 
a per capita farm income of half again as much . The farms also average five times 
as high a value as those of the poorer counties. 

Lastly, in value added by manufacturing the richer counties are far in the 
lead, both as to total value and per capita value. 

Conclusion. Although there are some exceptions, most of the criteria of 
wealth point in the same direction. Areas that stand high in one respect are 
likely to stand high in another. The poorer counties are badly handicapped in 
numerous respects and their people should wisely be helped in the rearing and 
educating of their children, many of whom later migrate to the richer counties, 
and as wealth producing adults, contribute to the exceptional wealth of those 
counties. 



A Probable Fault Near Bretzville, Dubois County 251 



A PROBABLE FAULT NEAR BRETZVILLE, 
DUBOIS COUNTY, INDIANA 



George Whitlatch, Indiana University 

During the past summer (1930), while engaged in the investigation of the 
clay resources of Indiana, the writer found a structure just north of Bretzville, 
southern Dubois county, that exhibits very peculiar relations. At the moment, 
believing that the structure was probably well known in geologic literature, only 
casual interest was aroused. Later, however, on finding that the literature 
contains only a single meager description of the structure, and that at variance 
with the writer's observations, it was felt that further consideration should be 
accorded this abnormality. Consequently, a second visit to Bretzville was made 
in order to study the structure in greater detail. This additional study has further 
emphasized the very peculiar structural conditions existing at this place and has 
added much valuable evidence for the view that the structure is a result of faulting 

Review of Literature. The railroad cut just north of Bretzville, in which 
the above structure is exposed, has been described by J. A. Price in the report on 
the coals of Dubois county. He describes it as follows: "In the cut north of Bretz- 
ville, the coal measured 32-34 ', with 2-4" of discontinuous shale above, 6-8" of 
light reddish shale to shaly sandstone above the shale and shaly sandstone, and 
above this last mentioned shaly sandstone occurs 6-8' of shale. The coal has a de- 
cided dip to the west at this point, dipping probably 4-5' in 50 or 60 yards. At 
the west end of the cut the strata are somewhat distorted. Coal II has dipped 
beneath the surface and 7' above the railroad track is an exposure of a broken 
ledge of whitish sandstone, 12-15" thick. In this sandstone ledge occur streaks 
of coal sometimes 2 inches thick. This coal outcrop is best seen along the south side 
of the cut where it is exposed for 40' or more with a dip to the east, 3 feet or more 
in 15 feet. Above the coal at one place is a broken ledge of whitish sandstone, 
1-3' thick and 20' long. Below the coal is an outcrop of 6' of shale to shaly sand- 
stone. Just east of the center of the cut the rocks form a trough, as seen on the 
south side, and on the west side of the trough, near the top of the cut, are two 
large impure limestone boulders. 1 " 

Location. The above structure is located in a cut on the Southern Railway 
just north of Bretzville, a railroad station 3 miles east of Huntingburg, southern 
Dubois county. The railroad runs practically due east and west at chis point and 
is crossed at right angles, by means of a wooden overhead bridge, by the north- 
south road to Ferdinand and Jasper. The cut in question is directly below this 
bridge. As the railroad passes approximately one-eighth of a mile north of the 
cross-roads known as Bretzville, the cut is thus located in the southwest quarter 
of the northeast quarter of Section 32, Township 2 South, Range 4 West. 

Topography and Geology. The topography of southern Dubois county 
is fairly rugged with hills rising in places to heights of 75 to 150 feet or more. 
In passing through this area, the SouthernRailway has been forced to make numer- 

Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 40: 251-257. (1930) 1931. 

*23rd Ann. Report, Ind. Dept. Geol. Nat. Resources, 1898. (Geo. H. Ashley) , pp. 1123-24. 



252 



Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 



ous cuts, some of considerable depth. Most of the more rugged portions of the 
area are characterized by long ridges of fairly uniform slope, as would be expected 
in a region of sandstones and shales. Southern Dubois county has not been glaci- 
ated and outcrops of Pennsylvania!! (Pottsville) rocks, which underlie the area, 
are numerous. The normal dip of this region is to the west. 

Description of Cut. The north-south road to Ferdinand and Jasper follows 
the crest of a long ridge in the vicinity of Bretzville. The top of this ridge is 
slightly flattened, with the west side somewhat the higher. The slopes of the ridge 
are fairly uniform. The Southern Railway passes through this ridge, by means of 
a cut, in an east-west direction for a distance of approximately 675 feet. The cut 
is about 30 feet deep at the point of maximum depth. 

Of the two sides of the cut, the north side is freest of debris and the position 
of the strata is plainly visible. The structural conditions exhibited on the north 




I ; — ; — *» 



NoBTH 5lO£ of SovTHCA* ft./?Cur, *£AH Gfi£ TZ */U£. Tmo. 
Vert.cAi £*tLggei-a.t,.*, ' 5 timet harUo»**.) 



Fig. 1. 



side are almost startling. The eastern half of the cut (Section A — Figure 1). 
measured from the eastern end of the cut to the bridge, is about 320 feet in length 
For practically half of this distance westward from the eastern extremity of the 




Fig. 2. Fig. 3. 

Fig. 2. View of east end of Southern Railway cut near Bretzville, showing steep dip of coal 
bed. Top of coal indicated by man's hand — coal disappears at overhead bridge due to faulting. 

Fig. 3. View of north side of cut at overhead bridge, showing fault relations of "block" and 
eastern half of cut. Light portion directly beneath bridge is horizontal strata of "block." West 
dipping coal bed and its associated strata are to the right of "block." 



cut, the strata are obscured by heavy drift. At a point about 150 feet east of the 
bridge, a coal, 32-34 inches thick, and 2-3 feet of associated dark gray underclay 
are exposed and are unobscured for the remaining 160 feet to the bridge where they 
disappear. This vein of coal has a west dip of 4-5 feet in 160 feet. Above the coal, 



A Probable Fault Near Bretzville, Dubois County 253 

and conforming to the west dip of the coal is a succession of thin sandstones and 
shales. Six to eight inches of gray shale lie directly over the coal; above the shale 
is three feet of decidedly disconformable sandstone; overlying this sandstone is 
15-20 feet of brown, sandy shale. The three feet of thin sandstones of the above 
section become more shaly in character as the bridge is approached. The south 
side of the eastern half of the cut is practically identical with the north side in 
dip and sequence of strata. 

The above succession of west dipping strata end abruptly against a "block," 
some 50 feet in width in which the strata lie practically horizontal. Except for a 
small mass of thin sandstones directly under the bridge, at a height of six feet 
above the railroad bed, this block of horizontal strata is composed of shales 
similar to those in the eastern half of the cut, i.e., the shales are sandy and brown 
in color. The strata of this "block" meet the west dipping strata of the eastern 
portion of the cut in a very definite vertical line. (See Section B — -Figure 1). 

The west side of this "block" ends in a more or less well defined line, bringing 
up suddenly against 25 feet of similar shales that dip to the east at an estimated 




Fig. 4. 

Fig. A. Highly inclined shales as exposed on north side, west end of Southern Railway cut 
near Bretzville. Dip is to the east. 



dip of 20-25 degrees. The highly inclined strata of this western portion of the cut 
do not meet the strata of the "block" abruptly but seem to have a lessening dip 
over a distance of 4-5 feet as the horizontal strata of the "block" are approached. 
This flattening of dip ("E" — Figure 1) resembles a drag zone along the plane of 
movement of a fault. The ends of the strata of the block appear to have been 
dragged upward in this zone "E", and if such is actually the case, this drag would 
account for the apparent flattening of dip of the highly inclined strata to the west. 
A second factor which lends strength to the theory that this zone has been sub- 
jected to faulting is seen in the large number of vertical joints in the highly inclined 
shales. The vertical jointing has divided the shales into blocks, the effect of jointing 
being more pronounced towards the zone of junction of Sections C and B. 

These highty inclined strata of Section C appear to lie upon a semi-triangular 
shaped mass of sandstones and shales. The base of this mass extends from the 
extreme west end of the cut to a point some 150 feet east where the sandstone 
grades into the highly inclined shales. The lower three feet of this mass consists 
of fairly massive, gray sandstone, highly crossbedded. The crossbedding of this 
lower three feet of the sandstone makes it difficult to determine the point at which 
the shale and sandstone meet. The upper portion of this triangular mass is com- 
posed of 5-10 feet of thin bedded, nearly norizontal, yellow sandstones and some 



254 



Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 



shales. The entire mass of shales and sandstones of this extreme western part of the 
cut seem to dip slightly to the east as the highly inclined strata are approached, 
although the junction of Sections C and D is rather indefinite. The line EF (Figure 
1), however, does have some appearance of being a shear plane, i.e., that, Section 
C might have sheared towards the east over the triangular mass D. 

The stratigraphical relations on the south side of the cut are not so well ex- 
posed as those of the north side. (Figure 5). As noted above, the eastern half of 
the south side has practically the same relations as found on the north side, i.e., 
the coal and the overlying sandstones and shales dip to the west. At the bridge 
on the south side, opposite the "block" of the north side, the relations are much 
masked by drift, but there is apparently a block of nearly horizontal shales which 
abruptly meets the west dipping beds of the eastern half of the cut. This "block" 
of the south side is of considerably less width than the "block" on the north side; 
its width probably does not exceed 10 feet, whereas the north side "block" had 
a width of some 60 feet. The west side of this smaller block, similar to the condi- 
tions on the opposite side of the cut, meets a mass of shales, highly inclined to the 
east, which extends west for about 30 feet. The true conditions are so masked 



E/ 






fifc^ 




..'^^S^tT^ 






. A -I 

B 


D 






bourn 


S*o£ of Southern RR. Cut, nebr Bxetzvule^hd. 


Verticil E*a.ggcr&.i;o>,: S timet Aer/j.onta.1 

6 M-I130 



Fig. 5. 



by drift that it is impossible to determine whether there is a drag zone at the point 
of contact of the "block" and the highly inclined strata. A small ravine has cut 
down through the steeply dipping strata and exposed the shale along its course. 
Shear planes are evident in the shale at that point. The planes dip steeply toward 
the southeast indicating some movement in that direction. The jointing noted 
in the highly inclined shales of the north side is equally well developed on this 
south side. Fifty feet west of the bridge the relations are less obscured. From 
this point west to the western end of the cut, the entire section is revealed as 
brown sandy shale, except for two lenses of sandstone and three small veins of coal 
at the extreme west end. The shale has a fairly uniform dip of approximately 
10 degrees to the east. 

The sandstone lenses mentioned above are about 100 feet from the west 
end of the cut. The lower lense lies about 8 feet above the railroad bed; it is com- 
posed of whitish sandstone, two feet thick in its eastern extension, and is underlain 
with 3-4 inches of coal and 5 to 6 feet of shale. The lense has a dip to the east, 
conforming to the dip of the shale that encompasses it. This lower lense is exposed 
for a distance of 30-40 feet, and as it is traced to the west, the sandstone splits into 
two small lenses which are separated by streaks of coal, 1-2 inches thick. This 



A Probable Fault Near Bretzville, Dubois County 255 

portion of the lower lense is overlain by 2 feet of gray underclay, 1 inch of coal, 
and a second lense of whitish sandstone, 2-3 feet thick, that has a slight dip to- 
wards the west. These sandstones and coals lense out to the east, and although it 
is impossible to trace their westward extensions to the end of the cut due to the 
thickness of drift, they apparently pinch out in that direction also. 

Discussion and Conclusions. It would be unwise to attempt to draw any 
final conclusions in regard to the above feature at Bretzville, since the present 
data are too meager and insufficient to justify such procedure. Practically anyone 
who has had occasion to make correlations based upon data from the Pennsyl- 
vanian strata will realize the danger of drawing conclusions based upon the study 
of small areas. The same is true in a measure for all conclusions, as generalizations 
require study of a structure both as an isolated unit and as a unit of the regional 
structure; but the rule is particularly applicable to Pennsylvanian structures. 
Change of character of sediments due to depositional factors is, at times, bewilder- 
ing in the Coal Measures. It is not unusual to find shales changing into sandstone 
along the same horizon within incredibly short distances. Much of the coal of this 
period was laid down in small basins, many of which were steep sided, the result 
being that often the strata of these basins have steep dips. Again, horizons are 
not continuous over wide areas but are often interrupted, due to erosion periods 
during times of emergence. Consequently, it is evident that any conclusions re- 
garding the structure at Bretzville must necessarily involve further investigation 
of the surrounding area adjacent to the structure. 

Despite the inadequate nature of the present data, the writer does feel that 
certain assumptions based upon the observed facts are justifiable. In making such 
assumptions in an attempt to give a possible explanation of the origin of the Bretz- 
ville feature, the writer wishes it to be clearly understood that both the assump- 
tions and the suggested explanation given below are not necessarily true. They 
are merely an attempt to explain the structure on the basis of present knowledge; 
future study may reveal facts out of harmony with the following explanation. 

In the first place, the conditions existing in the cut at Bretzville may be 
ascribed, at least in part, to the presence of a small coal basin and its attendant 
depositional features. The high dip of the coal and its associated strata in the 
eastern end of the cut may be due to the original dip of the basin in which these 
sediments were laid down. The east dip of the western half of the cut may also 
be partially explained in this manner, particularly D of Figure 5 of the south side. 
Possible supporting evidence for this assumption is seen in the thin veins of coal 
at the west end of the cut. The basin may have been very steep sided on the west- 
ern side since some known coal basins of Indiana are of this type. However, the 
idea of a coal basin does not explain the "block" of horizontal strata found at B 
on both sides of the cut, the drag of this block on the north side and the shear 
planes on the south side, the vertical jointing of the shales just west of the 
' 'blocks,'' and the portions of highly inclined shales. Were the structure due to 
deposition alone, one would expect more or less uniformity of relations between 
the north and south sides of the cut— relations that are conspicuous by their 
absence. 

We are thus forced to seek for other factors that may have aided in producing 
the present features. The cut, when viewed in its entirety, presents the appearance 
of having been subjected to faulting. It is, therefore, a logical assumption to 
ascribe the present abnormalities to faulting within a coal basin. The block 



256 



Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 



diagram, Figure 6, is a hypothetical attempt to illustrate the probable faulting 
within a portion of this coal basin and the relation of the form of the basin to the 
present features now exposed in the railroad cut near Bretzville. This diagram is 
based upon the structural relations of the north side of the cut. 

The coal basin depicted in Figure 6 is assumed to have a fairly uniform but 
rather high dip to the west in its eastern extension, but to rise sharply to the west. 
This assumption is based upon the presence of the nearly horizontal sandstone 
mass, D, that is exposed at the west end of the cut, the mass being considered 
a part of the steep side of a coal basin. A further assumption is made that this 
steep side, being a part of an irregular basin, does not extend north and south but 
runs northeast-southwest at this point; hence the absence of a similar mass on 
the opposite (south) side of the cut. The influence of this steep side in developing 
the present relations of the cut is important. The sediments deposited in the 
northwest part of the basin were laid down over a steeply inclined surface. As 
a consequence of such deposition, the strata of shales at this point, previous to 
the faulting, were already dipping strongly to the east. (C — Fig. 6). The shales 



+ 



<^_ _ . — Jf — r's- - 7~? " - s- 



tr7r4 




Hypothetical Sketch or Bretzv.ue Coax. Basin, ShowincP»ob«olc Fault Relations 

e*srt> iwoa/C/toss Scct,°~ or No*t*Sio£ or 5"-."'« f- u r c ».*, 



Fig. 6. 



a short distance to the south (those exposed at D — Fig. -5), being deposited on a 
more gentle slope of the west side of the basin, possessed a lower dip to the east 
than the corresponding strata to the north. These differences of dip due to original 
deposition upon high and lower portions of the basin floor would seem also to 
account for the coal streaks found at the west end of the cut on the south side and 
the absence of such on the north side. To the north and west the coal probably 
pinched out rapidly, due to the steep dip of the basin, whereas the coal deposit 
thickened to the south, although even there one sees the rapid thinning of the 
coal to the west. 

The initiation of stresses which resulted in the faulting of this area is not 
pertinent to our problem; it is sufficient to say that movement likely began along 
the plane of X-Y, Fig. 6, and a little later, along the plane of O-P. The plane of 
X-Y is sharp, with no notable evidence of excessive drag. We can assume from 
such criteria that this eastern side (X-Y) of the "block," B, suffered a sharp frac- 
ture along its entire vertical plane of morement. The result of such a clean break 
would be more rapid displacement of the east side of the block than along the west 
side (O-P) in which the displacement was retarded by excessive drag. The drag 
zone along O-P indicates such a relation attending the down-faulting of B. The 
ultimate effect of this differential movement of the two sides of the block was 



A Probable Fault Near Bretzville, Dubois County 257 

a slight up-tilting of the west side of the block until the strata were practically 
horizontal as now exposed. 

The displacement of B and the consequent drag of the strata along O-P set 
up definite stresses, principally of tensional character, the components of which 
were downward and horizontal (eastward). The effect of this tension is well 
exhibited by the vertical jointing of the shales in the portion of the cut marked 
"C." The strata of C, being already highly inclined, were easily affected by these 
stresses and sheared eastward as well as downward along the plane of E-F. The 
net result of this shearing was an increase of the high dip of these strata in the 
northwest portion of the basin. The strata to the south, not possessing an original 
high dip like those to the north, did not shear so readily and were not disturbed 
over so great a lateral distance. An additional reason for the shales being inclined 
over a zone of less width on the south side is seen in the fact that the fault block, 
B, narrows to the south. The cause of this narrowing of the fault block to the 
south is not known. 

Such are the probable conditions that prevailed during the faulting of the 
Bretzville coal basin. The above hypothesis of the origin of the present structural 
features of the cut near Bretzville will explain most of the features of the structure, 
but there are some factors still unknown that no doubt would throw much light 
upon the problem. The amount of displacement of B, the true direction of the 
faults, and their extent are among the factors which might be determined by study 
of the surrounding areas. The foregoing theory of the development of the structure 
is confined to the consideration of the structure itself. No consideration has been 
given the regional structure. This should be done and no theory of the above 
structure should be considered as final without such a study. For instance, the 
Bretzville feature may be a fault as suggested but may also be related to a major 
regional fault. The suggestions of certain oil geologists, who have worked in this 
territory, that "there is something wrong in the vicinity of Bretzville," would 
seem to support the possibility of major faulting in southern Dubois county. It is 
hoped that future study may be made of this region and that the true relations 
of the feature at Bretzville mav be solved. 



Effect of Humidity 259 



THE EFFECT OF HUMIDITY ON THE REVERBERATION 
PERIOD OF A ROOM 



Halson V. Eaglesoint, Morehouse College 

It has been said that broadly considered there are only two variables in 
a room which affect its period of reverberation— shape, including size, and ma- 
terials, including furnishings 1 . There are, however, other factors that have an 
effect upon the reverberation period, 2 and it is with one of these factors, namely, 
humidity, that this paper is concerned. 

The following experiment was carried on in a room that has been used for 
zoology conferences and which is located in the basement of Biology Hall at 
Indiana University. It is rectangular, approximately 22 feet by 15 feet, with a 12 
foot ceiling. It has three small windows and two ordinary doors. 

A determination of the period was made from the following measurements 
and calculations: 

Cement floor 315 sq. ft. at .01 — 3.15 units 

Plaster 1,057 sq. ft. at .025—26.42 units 

Wood 245 sq. ft. at .03 — 7.35 units 

Glass. 32 sq. ft. at .027— .86 units 

Metal 95 sq. ft. at .01 — .95 units 

Slate 20 sq. ft. at .02 — .40 units 

Observer. 4.70 — 4.70 units 

Total absorption 43.83 units 

The volume of the room is 3,900 cubic feet. Using these values, T = .05 X 3900 ■*■ 
43.83 =4.449 sees. This determination was followed by five hundred observations 
of the period, made on different days, with a general average of 4.465 sees, as 
a result, the error between the calculated and observed values being 0.35 percent. 

In order to start with the humidity as low as possible several large pans of 
calcium chloride were placed at different points in the room and allowed to remain 
for several days with the room well sealed. These pans were frequently taken 
out of the room and heated and the moisture thus driven out so that the calcium 
chloride could be used again. The humidity was then increased by permitting 
water to evaporate from shallow pans placed at various points in the room. This 
evaporation was accelerated by the use of an electric heater. The wet-and-dry- 
bulb-thermometer method was used to measure the humidity. 

In making the observations two organ pipes of pitches 384 and 480 vibs./sec. 
were used. Fifty observations were made with each pipe for each value of the 
humidity. These values were averaged for each pipe to obtain the period for that 
frequency and that particular humidity. These values were rechecked several 
times, making several hundred observations for each value of the humidity. 

In measuring the period the observer would first blow the pipe for five seconds 
or more and upon stopping would simultaneously start the stop watch. The watch 
was stopped just as the sound became inaudible. Observations were made when 

Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 40: 259-260. (1930) 1931. 
^"Collected Papers on Acoustics," W. C. Sabine, p. 10. 
2 " Acoustics of Buildings," F. R. Watson, pp. 28-29, 33. 



260 



Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 



the observer stood at ten different positions in the room. These same positions 
were used for each value of the humidity. 

The following table of period and humidity will help in showing the results 
obtained. 



Room 


Absolute 


Relative 


Period for 


Period for 


Temperature 


Humidity 


Humidity 


480 pipe 


384 pipe 


23.5°C. 


9.770 


.4545 


5. 136 sees. 


5 . 040 sees 


22 . 5°C. 


9.780 


.4832 


5.036 sees. 


4.952 sees 


23 °C. 


10.060 


.4823 


4.904 sees. 


4 . 846 sees 


25.5°C. 


12.229 


. 5047 


4 . 640 sees. 


4 . 540 sees 


24 °C. 


13.859 


.6256 


4 . 560 sees. 


4 . 432 sees 


26 °C. 


17 . 660 


.7076 


4.556 sees. 


4.352 sees 


26.5°C. 


19.168 


.7457 


4.444 sees. 


4 . 304 sees 


27 "C. 


21.591 


.8156 


4 . 560 sees. 


4.300 sees. 



Absolute humidity is given in millimeters of mercury. The graph of period 
and absolute humidity which follows will aid in showing the variation obtained. 



9- 



GRAPH OF REVERBERATION PERIOD 
AND ABSOLUTE HUMIDITY 



#/- CURVE FOR W PITCH PIPE 




-#a. 



o io // /x /3 /¥■ ifjt> // /8 /? Jto a.i A a. 

HUMIDITY 

Fig. 1. 



From the results obtained it appears that the period in this room varies 
Diversely, approximately .05 sec. for each millimeter of change in absolute hu- 
midity. It seems to hold in this case until the humidity is approximately 19 mm. 
when the period becomes fairly constant and is almost equal to the general average 
of the observed values of the period. 

At this time the writer wishes to express his most sincere thanks and appre- 
ciation to Dr. A. L. Foley, who suggested the problem, and to Dr. R. R. Ramsey 
and the other members of the staff of the Physics department of Indiana Univer- 
sity whose interest and assistance made the investigation possible. 

Note: As the result of additional work after the presentation of this paper, it is the 
opinion of the writer that the effect described is due to absorption. 



Effect of Frequency 261 



EFFECT OF FREQUENCY UPON THE END CORRECTION 
FOR CLOSED RESONANCE PIPES 



J. F. Mackell, J. H. Frushour and W. A. Parker, 
Indiana State Teachers College 

[introduction. There is no present mathematical theory to cover the end 
correction for an open unflanged pipe 1 . It is true that Rayleigh has experimented 
with unflanged pipes and has found the correction for pipes of small radius to be 
.62R. However, to secure this result, Rayleigh has used the mathematical theory 
for flanged pipes and by counting the number of beats between a pipe when 
flanged and unflanged has determined a relative value for unflanged pipes. 

Blaikley has determined the correction for unflanged pipes experimentally 
and arrived at the conclusion that the amount of the correction is distinctly a 
function of the frequency of the note produced. Thus the correction must vary 
as the wave length varies. This is important because if the correction depended 
only on the size of the pipe it would not affect the relative pitch of the notes at all. 

Most of the experimenting in sound in general, and upon this phase in particu- 
lar has, up until this time, been of English origin. However there has recently been 
some 1 work done in the United States on this subject and we are much indebted 
to the work of Anderson and Ostensen 2 in providing valuable guidance for the 
present experiment. 

XXX 
Since resonance in a closed pipe comes at the stages — , 3—, 5 — , etc., there- 

4 4 4 
fore the correction as determined by the first and second resonances would be 

l 2 -3li 
C = — — ; for the correction dependent on the first and third reading it would be 
2 

U-51i 
C= — — . We have evolved a general formula for use in this experiment which 
4 

Xy-{(2y-l) X t } 
serves for all resonances: C= — - where X is the resonant length 

2(y-l) 
and Y is the rank of resonance. 

Method. The present experiment was made in the Physics Laboratories of 
Indiana State Teachers College at Terre Haute during the summer of 1930. It was 
found that much better results could be obtained with pipes of larger bore than 
are ordinarily found in laboratories and that these pipes should be of a sufficient 
length to give several resonance stages. 

For the purpose of the experiment we therefore secured two six foot lengths 
of galvanized iron tubing one piece 7.44 cm. in diameter and the other 10.04 cm. 

Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 40: 261-264. (1930) 1931. 
iBarton, E. H. Sound, McMillan & Co., London, 1914, 249-254. 

2 Anderson, S. Herbert and Floyd C. Ostensen, Effect of Frequency on End Correction of Pipes, 
Phy. Review. 31, Feb. 1928, 267-74. 



262 



Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 



in diameter. These tubes were equipped with small \i inch openings at the bottom 
by which the water level in the tubes could be regulated by means of a clear glass 
siphon tube. Resonance forks of from 256 vps. to 512 vps. were used and from 
three to five resonance points were determined depending on the fork in use. At 
each resonance point three readings were taken and the averages of the obtained, 
corrections were obtained by the general formula given above and these correc- 
tions expressed in terms of the radius (R) of the tube. 

The readings are of course dependent on the interpretations of the human ear 
in detecting the correct resonant lengths and are subject to the limitations thereof. 
However, by obtaining the average of a large number of readings this error would 
not be so pronounced. 



— FIGURE/ — 



510 

500 

480 

mo 

WO 

no 
""wo 

320 
dOO 
280 
160 

in 

SI 



A —LARGE PIPE 
B — StlML PIPE 
C-riEAN VALUE6 




VARIATION OF 
END CORRECTION 
WITH FRE9UENCY 



.vjr^ 



.68 

c/r 

Fig. 1. 



According to Blaikley four sources of error are possible in this experiment 
namely: (1) Position of fork. (2) Temperature changes. (3) Capillary action of 
water in pipes and (4) Humidity. 

Anderson and Ostensen recognize three other possible sources of error: 
(5) The stationary wave pattern of the room (6) Resonance in the walls of the 
pipe and (7) Action of the resonator in "loading" the walls of the pipe. 

It was found that the position of the fork had little effect on results as long as 
it was kept uniformly above the top of the pipe and within four or five cm. from it. 



Effect of Frequency 



263 



Temperature and humidity would have some effect on the various resonant 
lengths but no appreciable effect on the relative correction value. 

The wave pattern of the room was changed by changing to different rooms, 
by opening windows, etc., but no difference in correction was noted. 

The pipes were of such a size that the influence of capillary attraction was 
negligible although this would be a factor of some importance in a small pipe. 

Resonance in the walls of the pipes made no difference but transverse vibra- 
tions causing lateral vibrations of the pipes was avoided by clamping the pipes 
firmly to a solid support at the open end. 

We used no "pick-up" on the resonator and therefore "loading" of the pipes 
was absent. 

Results are given in Table I while Fig. 1 is a graphical representation of the 
observed effect of frequency upon the correction. Curve A represents values for 
the large pipe, Curve B for the smaller pipe and Curve C, the mean values for both 
pipes. The latter curve seems to indicate that the end correction factor is a linear 
function of the frequency, tending to vanish as the frequency increases. 



TABLE I— RESULTS 



Fre- 
quency 


Temper- 
ature 


Radius 
(cm.) 


1st 
Res. (cm.) 


2nd 
Res. (cm.) 


3rd 
Res. (cm.) 


4 th 
Res. (cm.) 


5th 
Res. (cm.) 


C/R 


250 


28 . 5 


3.72 


31.4 

31.5 

32.2 

Ave. 31.7 


99.2 

99.2 

98.9 

Ave. 99.1 


168.8 

168.3 

169.3 

Ave. 168.8 






540 
.688 
Ave. .614 


.341 


29.4 


3.72 


23.7 

23.5 

23.1 

Ave. 23.4 


74.6 

74.5 

74.4 

Ave. 74.5 


125.6 
125.2 
125.7 

Ave. 125.5 


176.5 

176.7 

176.6 

Ave. 176.0 




.578 

.571 

.574 

Ave. .574 


384 


32.4 


3.72 


20.8 

20.5 

20.0 

Ave. 20.0 


65.3 

65.4 

65.8 

Ave. 65.5 


111.8 

lll.i 

111.6 

Ave. 111.5 


1 56 . 3 
157 
157.1 
Ave. 156.8 




.511 

.571 

.564 

Ave. .549 


512 


34 . 5 


3.72 


15 

15 

15 

Ave. 15 


48.9 

48.8 

48.7 

Ave. 48.8 


83.2 

83.3 

83.8 

Ave. 83.4 


117.8 
117.2 
118 
Ave. 117.7 


149.4 

149.6 

149.8 

Ave. 149.6 


.511 
.564 
.570 
.491 
Ave. .534 


250 


30 . 4 


5 02 


30.8 

30.9 

30.9 

Ave. 30.9 


98.8 
98.7 
98.75 
Ave. 98.75 


168 
168.1 
167.2 
Ave. 167.8 






.003 

.662 

Ave. .632 


341 


29.8 


5 . 02 


21 .7 
23 

22.1 
Ave. 22.2 


72.6 

72.2 

72.4 

Ave. 72.4 


123 :; 

122.8 

122.9 

Ave. 123 


174.9 

173.9 

175.4 

Ave. 174.7 




. 577 

. 597 

.041 

Ave. .605 


384 


27.0 


5 . 02 


19.5 

19.6 

19.6 

Ave. 19.6 


64.8 
64.7 
65 
Ave. 04.9 


108.8 

108.6 

109.3 

Ave. 108.9 


157 
1 57 . 2 
157.1 
Ave. 157.1 




.007 

.543 

.660 

Ave. .603 


512 


27.8 


5.02 


14.2 

14.2 

14.3 

Ave. 14.2 


47.6 

47.9 

48.1 

Ave. 47.9 


82.4 

81.9 

82.5 

Ave. 82.3 


115.6 

115.4 

115.2 

Ave. 115.4 


149.9 

150.4 

149.8 

Ave. 150 


.528 
.563 
.532 
.553 
Ave. .544 



264 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

CONCLUSIONS 

There is a distinct relation between the amount of correction and frequency, 
the correction decreasing as the frequency increases. This is in accordance with 
the work of Anderson and Ostensen on the subject although they find the decrease 
to be more pronounced at frequencies higher than we have attempted. 

The correction is slightly higher for the larger bore pipe but the range of values 
is practically uniform for the two pipes; in the larger pipe there was a variation of 
12 percent from the lowest to the highest frequency and in the smaller pipe a 
variation of 13 percent. 

The mean of all observed corrections is .5819 R; this is in accordance with the 
value determined by Blaikley at .58 R but is slightly lower than Rayleigh's 
value of .62 R. 

Helmholtz has found the correction to be 7r/4R,a result that is higher than 
that given by most authorities. However he supports the generally accepted 
theory that for very short values of X the correction would tend to vanish. 

In a study of this kind a sound proof or nearly sound proof room would be 
a decided help in adding to accuracy. The tube should be firmly clamped in order 
to prevent vibratory motion in the walls of the pipe. The air in the room should 
be perfectly still as an air jet across the top of the open pipe would tend to decrease 
the volume of the resonance and to set up transverse vibrations in the pipe itself. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

1. Anderson, S. Herbert and Ostensen, Floyd C. Effect of Frequency on 
End Correction of Pipes in Physical Review, 31: 267-274. 1928. 

2. Barton, E. H. Sound, McMillan & Co., London, 1914: 249-254. 

3. Capstick, J. W. Sound, Cambridge University Press, London, 1927: 175- 
176. 

4. Crandall, Irving B, Vibrating Systems and Sound, D. Van Nostrand Co., 
N. York, 1928: 149-152. 

5. Lamb, Horace, The Dynamical Theory of Sound, Edward Arnold & Co., 
London. 1925. 

6. Poynting, J. H. and Thompson, J. J. Sound, Griffin & Co., London, 1920. 



A Theoretical Lower Limit 2G5 



A THEORETICAL LOWER LIMIT TO THE MASS OF 
STABLE ASTEROID 



Oliver E. Glenn, Lansdowne, Pa. 

Since the time of Sir Isaac Newton's discovery of universal gravitation* 
it has been assumed in astronomy, and often stated, that a projectile, fired from 
the surface of the earth with a force large enough to counteract, ultimately, the 
effect of gravitational attraction, would assume a stable orbit, continuing to rotate 
around the earth. 

Yet, no one has observed a stable planetary body of small dimensions in 
motion upon an ellipse of small eccentricity. One of the moons of Mars (Deimos) 
is approximately five miles in diameter. 

In this paper there is derived a formula for the product of the masses, of an 
asteroid and the Sun, which shows that a lower limit to the mass of the former 
exists. A table of numerical verifications is being prepared. 

In accordance with a method which the author hasf previously developed, 
properties of a central orbit are studied by means of a transcendental curve whose 
equation is simple, a segment of which is in practical coincidence with a segment 
of the orbit. Since the central attraction for any astral orbit can be determined 
from a segment C of it, the method is analogous to the theory according to which 
the elements of a planetary orbit are computed from three observations. 

The transcendental curve is obtained from an equality between certain in- 
tegral invariants, viz:— 

(1) <pfdr/p(r)=9 + < x , 

where, 

(2) p(r)=ar n +br n - 1 + ---+l, 

and «, <p are arbitrary constants. Let n=2. Then the integral of (1) is, 

(3) r = vtan(e0 + /3)-u, 
in which 



e=m/2<p, m = V4ac — b 2 , u=b/2a, v=m/2a, /3=ea. 

If e, j8 5 u, v, are appropriately chosen, the curve (3) will coincide, over a part 
of its length, with an ellipse. Note that the choice of <p controls e when we wish 
the selection of u, v to be arbitrary. 

By hypothesis the central attraction F is constant at the center; hence (3), 
considered as the equation of C, determines F. For, a well-known equation of a 
central % orbit is, 

(4) d 2 w/d0 2 +w = F/ 7 2 w 2 , (w = l/r), 
and by substitution in (4) from the equation (3) of C, 



F=2 7 2 e 2 - - + 



[u/v" 3u 2 /v 2 + l/2e 2 4-l 3u 3 /v 2 +3u (u 2 +v 2 ) 2 /v 2 ~| 
— +- -+- -+ I 

r 2 r 3 r 4 r 5 J 



The curve (3) approximates to a planetary orbit, an ellipse with small eccentricity, 



Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 40: 265-266. (1930) 1931. 
*Isaac Newton (1642-1727). 
tProc. Ind. Acad. Sci., Vol. 39, p. 213. 
JZiwet, Theoretical Mechanics, p. 128. 



2GG Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

when v is a, small constant and u is large. The radius vector r remains nearly 
equal to u. If Ave write u/r = 1 +8, 5 2 = : 0, then F may be reduced to, 



F = 167 2 e 2 



[(l+ 3 /2S)u/vS l/2e 2 + l 3u 2u 2 +v2"l 
+~ — -+-+— \ 
r 2 8r 3 8r 4 8r 5 J 



The last two terms will be negligible in the present problem since r is large. The 
second may represent a relativity correction or other perturbation if e is properly 
chosen. We can select the arbitrary 7 so 167 2 e 2 = M, where M is the gravitational 
constant in Newton's law for the case of two attracting planets. This law states 
that F varies directly as the product of the masses. 

In the problem of this paper, then, (l+ 3 / 2 5)u/v 2 , is the product of the mass 
of the Sun and the mass of the asteroid, and since u is large and v small, this pro- 
duct is necessarily large accordingly. However, it would not be large if the asteroid 
were of the dimensions of a meteor, assuming usual units of measurement. Hence 
there is a lower limit to the mass of any asteroid in stable motion. 

Concerning any body smaller than this limiting size, in solitary motion 
upon a planetary ellipse of small eccentricity, clearly its motion is necessarily 
chaotic. 



An Audio-Frequency Laboratory Oscillator 



267 



AN AUDIO-FREQUENCY LABORATORY OSCILLATOR 



J. B. Hershman, Indiana State Teachers College 

The present paper is the result of a search for a laboratory oscillator having 
the following requirements: silence in operation, inexpensiveness, freedom from 
moving parts requiring adjustment, capability to deliver an alternating current 
to operate a bridge circuit without amplification, possibility of a comparatively 
pure tone with harmonics reduced to minimum, elimination of storage and dry 
cells as far as possible, utilization of equipment ordinarily found in an electrical 
measurements laboratory, flexibility in the production of any frequency from 
1 to 5,000 cycles per second. 

Many apparatus supply companies have available audio oscillators of various 
types from the simple buzzer and induction coil combinations to the beat fre- 
quency oscillator with several stages of amplification. None of these fit the above 
specifications. 

A vacuum tube as an oscillator would be ideal if a simple circuit of sufficient 
flexibility could be designed. Dr. Ramsey in his text "Experimental Radio" 
page 89, outlines an experiment in which an audio transformer is used as an in- 
ductance in a Hartley circuit to produce low frequency oscillations. Dr. Ramsey 



m 



'1 z. z 7 



G f 

~0 



itf 



-Q QQ& 




O 



G 



5- 



Fig. 1. 



makes the observation that the frequency of the circuit will be low, in most cases 
low enough to count. If the condenser in this circuit is omitted the oscillator 
still oscillates since the distributed capacity of the inductance is ordinarily large 
enough to produce oscillations in the audible range. The distributed capacity 
of the transformer coil thus becomes a capacity in parallel with the tuning con- 
denser. By connecting the tuning condenser in series with the grid inductance the 
distributed capacity of the coil lowers the apparent inductance of the coil, the 
frequency being controlled more completely by the tuning condenser. In such a 
circuit a grid leak must be used because the condenser in the grid isolates the grid. 
Figure 1 shows a simple but successful type of such an oscillator. 

For convenience a 227 type tube was used with the A. C. filament transformer 
Ti to supply the heat or current. The inductance T was the secondary coil of an 
input push-pull transformer. No condenser was incorporated in the construction 

Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 40: 267-269. (1930) 1931. 



268 



Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 



of the oscillator as it was desirable to use a variable laboratory air condenser C 
for the higher frequencies and a .05- — 1 ufd. Leeds and Northrup decade condenser 
for the lower frequencies. 

The oscillator described above finds application as a bridge driver and as a 
modulator to a radio frequency oscillator in radio measurements, where the fre- 
quencies need not be too accurately known. The calibration of this instrument 
will shift slightly as alternating line voltages vary. 



i<p— 



o .^v; 



AudioOscilhtor 




Fig. 2. 

Figure 2 shows a capacity bridge using telephones with the oscillator as a 
source of alternating current. Such a bridge driver is, in the experience of the 
author, the best inexpensive source for this type of circuit. The tone in the head- 
phones is clear, no external noise is caused in the room by the A. C. source, meas- 
urements may be made with frequencies at which the ear is most sensitive and the 
amount of auxiliary equipment is reduced to a minimum. 

A more exact type of oscillator is shown in Figure 3. By using direct current 
tubes and an amplifyer thus limiting the actual power drain from the oscillator 
circuit, the harmonic distortion is reduced and the actual load cannot influence the 
frequency of the oscillator. In Figure 3 an ordinary good quality transformer of 
recent manufacture is substitute for the push pull inductance of Figure 1. 
Either type coil may be used, but experimental results seem to favor the type of 
coil used in Figure 1. 




Any type of amplifyer may be used in conjunction with the circuit of Figure 
1, provided its input, impedance is practically infinite. 

In Figure 3 a volume control is incorporated between the second and third 
tube. Three tubes are used to get, sufficient power without over-loading the oscil- 
lator tube. A 210 type tube may be substituted for the 171 A tube by providing 



An Audio-Frequency Laboratory Oscillator 269 

for separate filament supply and a higher plate voltage. The constants of Figure 
3 are as follows: A battery— 6 volts, VTi— 201A, VT>— 112A, VT 3 — 171A, 
C(0— 1) ufd. Coupling condensers Ci, C 2 , C 3 — 1 ufd., B— 90 volts, R and Ri— 
200,000 ohms, R 2 — 50,000 ohms, R 3 — 200,000 ohm potentiometer, L— 30 Henry 
Choke, r rheostats suitable to tubes chosen. 

In conclusion the author claims no originality for the basic circuits described 
in this paper but wishes to suggest the possibilities of such circuits in electrical 
measurements and to pass on to others his solution to the problem of finding a 
simple efficient laboratory audio oscillator. 



The Load of a Power Tube 



271 



THE LOAD OF A POWER TUBE 



R. R. Ramsey, Indiana University 

I wish to call attention to an error in "radio" practice which has become 
common in the design of audio amplifiers. It is customary to make the load 
impedance of the power tube twice the inpedance of the tube, while it is theoreti- 
cally better, and is practically better except perhaps in the case of over load, to 
make the load impedance equal to that of the tube. 

It seems that this practice is due to a general misunderstanding of the funda- 
mental principles involved. This is a good example of the error that a practical 
man is liable to make unless he has more than a practical knowledge of his subject. 

The circuit in an amplifier may be considered to be a chain of circuits. Such 
a chain is illustrated in figure 1. In such a chain of circuits there are as a general 




Fig. 1. Chain of circuits. Each link contains either resistance, inductance, or capacitance. 
Usually each link has all three at the same time. The input and output impedance of each link 
should be the same. 

thing reflections from the ends of the sections. These electrical reflections are 
much the same as the reflections from the ends of a stretched rope as illustrated 
in figure 2. If the rope is infinite in length there is no reflection from the far end, 




Red 



Blue 



Yellow 



_ Jo inf'i! 'Ix-srJs _ 

matched impedance 



Fig. 2. 



Fig. 2. A, represents a stretched rope; a trough travels to the far end and is reflected as a 
crest. B, represents a heavy rope tied to a light rope; a trough travels to the junction and is re- 
flected as a trough; a trough is transmitted by the light rope. C, represents a light rope tied to a 
heavy rope; a trough is reflected as a crest; a trough is transmitted by the heavy rope. D, repre- 
sents several sections of rope of different color but of the same structure. There are no reflections 
since the input and output impedances are equal. 

Proc. Tnd. Acad. Sci. 40: 271-275. (1930) 1931. 



272 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

since the energy passes to infinity and is absorbed and there is none to be reflected, 
If the end of the rope could be fastened so it must move in some viscous material 
like heavy oil, perhaps, so that the end moves exactly like the corresponding point 
in a rope whose length is infinite, then the oil will absorb all the energy and there 
will be none to be reflected. 

In a chain of circuits it has been found that the condition for no reflections 
is that the input and output impedances be equal 1 . This also happens to be the 
condition for maximum output. An example of maximum output is the old prob- 
lem of connecting a number of cells to a given resistance in order to get the maxi- 
mum current or output. The solution of this problem is to connect the cells in 
such a manner as to make the internal resistance of the battery equal to the given 
external resistance. 

Since the condition of no reflections happens to be the same conditions as those 
for maximum output it seems that the ideas have become confused in the minds of 
engineers. Engineers seem to think that the goal to be obtained is maximum 
output while the real goal wished is an output without distortion. One of the 
sources of distortion is the reflected currents from the ends of the circuits. This 
will be understood from the analogy of the long rope. If one has a long stretched 
rope and strikes the rope two times per second there will be waves of frequency two 
running to the far end. Unless there are special precautions taken there will be 
waves of frequency two reflected back from the far end and these will be reflected 
again at the near end and be transmitted a second time in the forward direction. 
If one happens to transmit waves of frequency three to the far end immediately 
after a frequency two has been transmitted there will be reflected waves of fre- 
quency two moving with those of frequency three. These two frequencies will 
combine and form a complicated wave. In other words there will be distortion. 

In audio circuits we have all frequencies in the audible range from 30 cycles 
perhaps to 10,000 cycles. The frequencies are continually changing from one value 
to a second frequency. Due to reflections a pure tone of middle C, say will be dis- 
torted by the reflections of the note or notes which preceeded. Thus one of the 
conditions for no distortion is that there be no reflections, and this condition 
requires that the input and output impedances be equal. — The impedance of the 
loudspeaker must be equal to the impedance of the tube. 

In vacuum tube curcuits distortion can be introduced by other means, also. 
By the curvature of the characteristic curve of the tube and by the tube drawing 
grid current. In 1924 W. J. Brown 2 showed that the maximum output of a tube 
with no distortion due to curvature and grid current was obtained with the load 
impedance equal to twice the impedance of the tube. The same thing is shown later 
by Warner and Laughren 3 . The method of both papers are much the same. Brown 
used the mutual characteristic of the tube while Warner and Laughren used the 
plate characteristics. Figure 3 a is copied from Brown's paper while figure 3b 
is copied from Warner and Laughren. 

In these discussions the characteristic curves are supposed to be parallel 
straight lines except near the foot of the curves. In most tubes the grid draws no 
current except when the grid is positive. On this account the grid operates with 
a negative bias so adjusted that the grid potential swing is between the two limit- 
ing conditions. The grid bias is adjusted for position B, figure 3 a , and the grid 



tierce's Electrical Oscillations, p. 291. 
Physical Society of London. Proc. 36:21S. 1924. 
sProc. Inst. Pad. Engr. 14:735. 1926. 



The Load of a Power Tube 



27:; 



swing is limited by C and N in the same figure. In figure 3b the grid is adjusted 
to position O and the grid swing is limited by Q and b. 

In figure 3b when the grid swing is the maximum the plate current varies 



between A and Q, or between I raa x and I r 



while the plate potential varie 



from E max and E m i n , or between b and Q. The power is proportional to the 
product of the voltage change and the current change. This is proportional to the 
area of a rectangle whose area is twice that of the rectangle AQDN. 







Fig. 3a 



Fig. 3a. Mutual characteristic reproduced from W. J. Brown's paper. The portion of curves 
used is assumed to be a straight line. If the lower curved portion is used or if the tube draws grid 
current there will be distortion. 

Fig. 3b. Plate characteristic, reproduced from Warner and Laughren's paper. 



Since we are dealing with alternating potentials and alternating currents, the 
line ON represents the amplitude of the current and the line DQ, represents the 
amplitude of the plate potential, and it can be shown that the power is represented 
by one-eighth of the area of the rectangle whose sides are Qb and QA. 

The current and potential fluctuates about the normal or average position, O, 
on the line AOb. The tube is supposed to be connected to a resistance, R, in series 
with the plate circuit. The line AOb is the characteristic of the resistance, R. 
The equation of the line, AOB is E =Pd — IR. Where E, is the potential of the B, 
battery and I is the plate current. In Figure 3b Pd at the position O, is 275 volts, 
the B, battery has a potential of 500 volts, and the plate current, I, is about 4.8 
milliampers. The resistance, R, is therefore a little smaller than 45,000 ohms. 

The reciprocal of the slope of the line AOb is the resistance, R. The reciprocal 
of the slope of the characteristic, AM, is the resistance of the tube. MN/AN is the 
slope of the characteristic, AM and AQ/Qb is the slope of the line AOb. 

The output of the tube will be the greatest when the rectangle, AQDN, is the 
greatest. The rectangle, AQDN, is inscribed in the right angle triangle, I m i n DM. 
It can be shown from geometry that the area of the rectangle is the greatest when 
the corners A. Q. and N bisect the sides of the triangle. If the rectangle has maxi- 
mum area the line MN is equal to the line DN. Then the load resistance is twice 
the resistance of the tube. 

This is the condition for maximum output under the special conditions for 
no distortion due to grid current or due to the curvature of the characteristic. 
This however does not take reflections into account. Since the general conditions 



274 



Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 



for no distortion due to reflections happens to be the general conditions for maxi- 
mum load engineers have taken this special case of maximum output as the best 
condition for power tube load. 

When the grid potential of the tube becomes so great that the tube draws 
grid current or uses the curved portion of the characteristic, the tube is said to be 
over loaded. In figure 3 a the tube is over loaded when the grid swing becomes 
so great as to swing past the points C and N. Since the output per grid volt squared 




8 yoxxs x* 



FIGURE ¥ 



Fig. 4. Output curves for a 245 tube. The output per volt is greater when the load is equal 
to the resistance of the tube. With a load of 2Rp the output per volt is less but the maximum out- 
put is about 30 percent greater. 

With a load of Rp there is no distortion due to reflections, grid current, or from curvature of 
characteristic. 



is m 2 R/(R+R p ) 2 5 it can be shown that the output per grid volt squared is the 
greatest when the load, R, is equal to the Tube resistance R p . However, the tube 
can handle about 25 percent more grid swing with the load equal to 2R P without 
becoming "over loaded." Tt is due to this fact that the greatest output is obtained 
when the load is 2R P . 

Figure 4 shows the output of a UY 245 tube with average plate potential 
held at 180 volts. The upper curve is drawn to show the output when the load 



The Load of a Power Tube 275 

is equal to R p and the lower curve shows the output with a load of 2R P . With the 
load equal to R p the tube becomes overloaded at 18.5 volts. With a load of 2R P 
the tube is overloaded at 23.5 volts. 

Both of these curves are calculated assuming that there is no distortion due 
to grid current or due to curvature. Since the load in the upper curve is R p there 
is no distortion due to reflections. Since the lower curve is for a load of 2R p there 
is distortion due to reflections. It will be noted that as long as the grid potential 
is less than 18.5 volts the upper curve give the greater values. To get the same 
output with R = 2R p it is necessary to increase the potential to about 21 volts. 
When the larger load is used the tube becomes over loaded at 23.5 volts and gives 
25 percent more output than the smaller load at 18.5 volts. 

All arguments, either output or distortion, are in favor of the smaller load 
except in the region where the tube becomes overloaded. In that region we get 
perhaps 25 percent more output with the larger load. This 25 percent is undis- 
torted by grid current or by curvature, but it is distorted by reflections at all 
potentials. The smaller load gives undistorted output up to 18.5 volts. If we 
should allow the grid swing to increase bej^ond this we get distortion and at 23.5 
volts the output is perhaps 25 percent or 30 percent greater than that of R = 2R P . 



A Momentum Analysis of Proton and Electron Masses 277 



A MOMENTUM ANALYSIS OF PROTON AND 
ELECTRON MASSES 



E A. Smith and J. A. Vogelmann, Secaucus, New Jersey 

The as.ymmetry in the masses of the electron and the proton is one of the most 
provoking in the sphere of physical science. It is not necessary to treat in detail 
in this case the process of the union of an electron and proton to form radiation. 
We are at present only taking into account the whole mass concerned and where- 
ever it may be distributed. 

The new quantum theory in its present development indicates that relations 
exist between certain physical quantities which have previously been observed 
as independent. This has certain physical aspects which have led us to weigh these 
relations and as an example we mention Eddington's attempt to express the funda- 
mental charge e in terms of h and c. We will now consider another relation. 

Recently 1 the world line of an electron was assumed as composed of funda- 
mental units of length of magnitude h/nioc where mo is the electronic mass 
similarly the world line of the proton is made up of units of length h/M c and 
that is the study of these fundamental masses no shorter length associated with 
their world line will ever be revealed. 

The most convenient expression of this theory is by consideration of a 
principle of the least proper time which shows in association with the electron 
or proton no proper time less than h/m c 2 or (h/M c 2 ) will be observed. This 
appears different from the Bohr-Heisenberg uncertainty principle which admits 
that the position of an electron can be determined as accurately as possible but 
the momentum can be estimated to an order given by the equation AqAp-^h 
where Aq denotes the error in the determination of the position, and Ap that in 
momentum. It is understood that in atomic dimensions the general application 
of the principle leads to no opposition to the uncertainty principle. 

Recently Furth 2 arrived at the principle by using the uncertainty relation 
and modifying it on a basis of conjecture that the electron cannot be located 
exactly as desired. By following despotic assumptions he arrived at a value of the 
ratio Mo/mo. It is the determination of this ratio that we make the subject of 
this paper and our effort shall be to approach it in view of the principle of proper 
time. 

According to Furth the value h/m c is assumed to be the radius of the 
electron, but as the estimated figure is 2,000 times the accepted value, he is in- 
clined to believe that the principle can be applied to the neutral masses. There 
is no reason to consider h/m n c as the fixed electronic radius nor to limit it to 
neutral masses. The established principle of minimum proper time, however, 
shows that it appears true for charged or uncharged masses and there is no 
possibility that the fundamental length signifies more than a length along the 
world line. Under the circumstances Dr. Furth's results are nevertheless very 
interesting and furthermore we can easily remove his hypothesis. 

For example let t be the minimum proper time h/m c 2 . Now if it were 
possible for the mass m to be converted into radiation we could estimate the 
frequency of that radiation by the equation m () c 2 =hv and if the proper time is 



Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 40: 277-280. (1930) 1931. 



278 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

not less than to the radiation from this conversion of matter will have Vc as maxi- 
mum frequency. The proper time of course is the standard time in the system in 
which the electron is at rest, so that the frequency is capable of being mathe- 
matically estimated in the system. 

It may not be possible to consider this transformation in the case of one elec- 
tron, alone, since this would require the diminishing of the charge, but it may be 
assumed to occur in the case of an electron and a proton. We can consider the 
two bodies as a single one of mass (M — m ). The new quantum theory shows 
that it is necessary to consider phenomena possessing a double sided character. 
One side being that in which we mention particles and in the other we mention 
waves. So that we can consider the phenomena as that of a particle of mass 
(Mo— m ) and that of radiation of a certain wave-length. The principle of mini- 
mum proper time applied to this combination of electron and proton shows that the 
maximum frequency is Vo where, Vo= (M +m )c 2 /h or minimum wave-length 
is X where Xo = h/(M +m )c. Now the wave-length unit in radiation corres- 
ponds to the unit along the world line of the particle. If we ascertain what this 
unit could correspond to in the case just considered the supposition once arises 
that it must correspond to the distance between the centers of the electron and 
proton. Our method approaching this relative point is different from that of 
which Furth describes whereby this suggestion is due to him. In the theories of 
past decades the value of the radius of the electron r = ke 2 /m c 2 and for the proton 
Ro = ke 2 /M oc 2 . The value of k depends mostly upon the distribution of the charge 
where k = l A and k = 34 as given in the classical theory. If the charge is taken 
in the light of the new quantum theory it immediately becomes very difficult to 
consider any electron or proton as a sharply defined structure, therefore, we can 
only mention a radius as an equivalent radius. This of course Furth mentions 
with an arbitrary selection of equivalent radius where he finds k = 15 /i 3 . Fortu- 
nately we can still speak of a distance between the centers of the two bodies and 

e 2 
show for its value do = k — I - | as the dimensions of the charges are 



2 \m M / 

\Mo+m /c c 2 \m M / 



proportional to e 2 /c 2 X mass. Then we have I I = — I — —\ I or 



= M o/m o m + (I/m) +2 = hc/ke 2 . The appearance of hc/e 2 is important. 



In Eddington's calculation of e, the determination of the number of chemical 
elements by the application of the principle proper time we observe that it is a 
pure number having no dimensions. 

From the foregoing we cannot proceed further to examine whether the equa- 
tion discloses the experimental value for /j, unless we know k accurately. Now 
if wc follow the classical procedure and write k = % or ] i, ju is taken of the right 
order but the value is extremely small. The result appears interesting for we have 
an equation in ju which reduces the quantity of fundamental constants by one and 
the failure to obtain the true value is explained by k. By accepting Furth' s 
supposition the equivalent radius must be estimated on a basis that it is the radius 
of the sphere within which all the charge must be enclosed so that it produces the 
same moment as the charge in the actual distribution believed in the new quantum 



A Momentum Analysis of Proton and Electron Masses 270 

theory, where k = 15 / 32 and the value obtained for ju (1838.2) is then in complete 
agreement with the experimental value (1838,3). 

We know that one of the most peculiar problems in atomic physical science 
is the asymmetry with reference to mass in the case of electron and proton. 
As a matter of opinion among physicists a question arises as to the reason that the 
positive charge is associated with a mass extremely different from that associated 
with the negative charge. Theoretically the assumption of asymmetry appears 
very interesting to study. In attacking one side of the five-dimensional hypothesis 
we find a constant a which has the value ±e/m c. This theory seems to account 
for the occurrence of positive and negative charges, yet there is no way of suggesting 
that m o has more than one value. It would nevertheless be a major procedure in 
physics if we could possibly relate m and M in order to consider further attempts 
in this direction similar to that described above. 

Let us consider the problem from another view point, though the asymmetry 
is replaced by another and this change may offer a better point to study the sub- 
ject by a special kind of metric preferred in nature. In this procedure we shall 
follow the method adopted by Doctors Weyl and Eddington in their inclusion of 
electromagnetism and gravitation into a space-metric system. Our view in at- 
tacking this method is that it is not in electromagnetic phenomena that the metric 
is found but really in the quantum phenomena. However, if we assume that there 
is only one standard of measurement for the proton and another for the electron, 
we can readily perform without the introduction of a second mass, and retain 
one mass for both electron and proton. By doing this we introduce two scales 
of measurement and so unalter the number of constants. Evidently physicists 
prefer to introduce different masses directly instead of different scales, yet there 
is more in the change than this, because the metrical method has other advantages. 
The best method to adopt can be decided when we discover which is the most 
nearest to accuracy. It appears certain according to Einstein's theory of relativity 
that the space near a proton must be much more strongly curved than that near an 
electron and the metric of space may also be notably different in the two cases. 

The particular point may be clearly explained by a study of the world lines 
of the proton and electron. These may be accepted as made of the elements of 
lengths h/M c and h/m c. We are basing this on two scales, one more finely 
divided than the other. From our conclusion the view point under consideration 
is that this difference in magnitude is merely apparent. The length h/M c in the 
proton space appears to be equivalent physically to h/m c in the electron space. 
This then resembles a sort of compressed state of space in the proton relatively 
to that in the electron. The reason for the equivalence of these two lengths is that 
in a parallel displacement in the region of the proton from one end of the element 
h/M c to the other we have the same change in length per unit length as in the 
electron space from one end of the element h/m c to the other. 

If we render decision on the phenomena concerning electrons and protons 
from the same point of view and apply the same metrical considerations to each, 
we observe that a proton moves more slowly than an electron under similar con- 
ditions, and thereby estimate its acceleration at too low a value and at the same 
time attribute it to higher inertia. We therefore should consider the unit in the 
proton space not as of length h/M c but as h/m c because the unit of length 
signifies physically so much more in that space. While the constant a is ±e/m c, 
with the change of sipn we must change the metric. Another point is, if this view 
or method be correct, the proton space is a miniature of the electron space. We 



280 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

would very likely anticipate the radii of the two bodies to appear in the ratio 
of the units of the scales, that is inversely as their masses. From the foregoing it has 
been pointed out what is assumed about these bodies, for we have, 

e 2 e 2 

r = k and R = k . 

m c 2 M c r 

The above is offered as a suggestion of a new method in looking at one of the 
problems confronting us at present in our daily routines. 



REFERENCES 

1. Proc. R. S. A. 1928: 117, 630. 

2. Physik. Zeit., 30: 895. 1929. 

3. Furth, R., Zeit. f. Phys. 50, 5-6: 310-318. 1928. 



Cosmosolar Rays 



281 



COSMOSOLAR RAYS 



E. A. Smith and J. A. Vogelmann, Secaucus, New Jersey. 

The present report gives additional information on the newly discovered 
evidence obtained during 1929 and 1930 showing this powerful penetrating radia- 
tion to be of a shorter wave-length and harder than previously disclosed. A con- 
tinuation in the measurements of these high frequency COSMOSOLAR RAYS 
is the subject of the present discussion. The remarkable hardness of these rays 
has drawn the attention of foremost scientists who agree with us on the forces 
that are ejected from the sun and converted into radiation of various wave- 
lengths. The different wave-lengths have given us astounding values which are 
being gradually submitted to science and we hope that the importance attached 
to this phenomena will be appreciated and the truth respected so far as nature 
permits. 

This new evidence indicates that the Aurora Borealis is always present but 
weak in radiation when non-visible. The data from the brilliant Auroral displays 
of the five following sets of dates March 10-11-12; 15-16-17; April 16-17 and 
June 1-2-3, 1929 and May 4-5, 1930, will herein be mentioned. 

Our main purpose was determining whether, in the high altitudes on and 
around Mt. Everest, our ionization curve would divulge anything new from that 
found in America. This curve in the succeeding article will show extremely 
accurately measured values in America and the highest regions and lakes of the 
Himalayas. We are also including our high altitude sounding-balloon tests. 

Under Water Tests on Mt. Everest. The highest lake on Mt. Everest 
chosen as most suitable for under water observations was about 1,064 feet deep 
lying at an altitude of 23,257 feet, and 7,512 feet higher than lake Ngantsi-Tso. 
This high altitude fresh water lake divulged our shortest wave-length recently 
obtained. 

The zero readings of five electroscopes corresponded to depths of immersion 
of 1,064 feet, which were 59.6 for electroscope No. 1, 62.7 for electroscope No. 2, 
65.4 for electroscope No. 10, 63.1 for electroscope No. 11, and 64.3 for electro- 
scope No. 12. The accompanying table shows the results of our latest experiments. 



Location 



Mt. Everest Lake 



Altitude Feet 



23,257 



Ions Per ccm/sec. 



Depth Reached 
in Feet 



63.4—0.0012 



3.5—1,064 



On the above dates and up to the present time, other experiments were 
conducted in this high altitude lake on Mt. Everest. Here we obtained an average 
reading of 63.4 ions at a depth of 3.5 feet below the water's surface and at a depth 
of 1,064 feet the ionization reached 0.0012 ion. Observations in the Himalayan 
mountains, in America and in parts of Europe are continuously being made at all 
hours of the dav. 



Proo. Tnrl. Acad. Sci. 40: 281-2S6. (1030) 1931. 



282 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

The values given in the table were those obtained during the peak of the 
strong Auroral displays which appeared in 1929 and in 1930. The usual readings 
gradually increased from about 24 hours before the peak of the Auroral storms 
which remained for 42 minutes, and in the next 29 hours gradually diminished 
to the regular normal daily value of ionization. On all other days the normal 
daily ionization, in this high altitude lake reached a steady value of 35.2 ions. 
Here we found that the atmospheric absorption coefficient is equivalent in ab- 
sorbing power to about 17 feet of fresh water. The difference in ionization be- 
tween this high altitude lake and lake Ngantsi-Tso, elevation 15,745 feet was 39.1 
ions, while at sea-level in Bengal Bay near Calcutta, India, a reading of 4.2 ions 
per ccm/sec. was noted during the visible Aurora on each occasion. All readings 
taken in Saranac Lake, New York State elevation 5,000 feet, showed 12.7 ions 
while in the Hackensack River, Secaucus, New Jersey, an ionization of 2.3 ions 
per ccm/sec. was observed during all of the past Auroral displays. The ionization 
in America is lower than in the upper regions of the Himalayas. 

High Altitude Tests with Sounding Balloons. Since we have disclosed 
the ionization at sea-level and at an altitude of 23,257 feet in the high lake on 
Mt. Everest our high altitude balloon tests in the upper regions of the Himalayas 
and America will now be briefly described. Observations made with 3 sounding 
balloons each equipped with special self-recording electrometers furnished us 
with excellent reliable data. It was interesting to know how large a change of the 
ionization at high altitude corresponded to a small change in the value of wave 
length. This however, will be shown later in our ionization curve. Our sensitive 
instruments recorded a value of 987.2 ions at the highest elevation reached by the 
balloons, showing the wide contrast from the sea-level reading of 2.3 ions. 

The carefully arranged investigations were based on fair weather conditions 
during normal day Aurora radiation and when the Aurora Borealis appeared 
extremely brilliant. The very latest experimental data has repeatedly confirmed 
our previous findings. 

In 1921 we sent up 2 sounding balloons each equipped with small electro- 
meters to an elevation of 15^ miles above New Jersey. On May 14-15-16 of the 
same year a very brilliant and powerful Auroral display appeared from which 
important data were gathered. The electrometers exhibited a varying ionization 
in the upper atmosphere at different elevations. The data disclosed a more intense 
ionization during the visible Aurora Borealis than in normal daily radiation. This 
wide change in ionization attracted our attention and in order to study the different 
instrument readings we made many other balloon surveys. Our former electro- 
meters, in 1927, however, were replaced by new instruments having greater pre- 
cision. The data obtained from later balloon tests confirmed all of the former high 
altitude values. Other experimental investigations were carried out in the Adiron- 
dack mountains in New York State and in the past two years on the Himalayan 
mountains, India. 

All data gathered above New York and New Jersey continued to show a low 
varying ionization throughout normal daily radiation and during each visible 
Aurora. The high altitude readings obtained at 15V£ miles were 227 ions during 
visible Aurora storms. In normal daily observations the readings varied from 
27 to 112 ions. Our data taken in the Himalayan mountains is more uniform and 
steady which tends to show that high altitude ionization is more intense. 

Owing to rarefied air conditions on and above these mountains, some of our 
high altitude tests were carried out by suspending a special self-recording electro- 



Cosmosolar Rays 283 

meter from an aeroplane for the purpose of checking the instrument readings in 
the 3 sounding balloons. These balloons ascended to heights reaching about 17 
miles. The research associates had to use extreme precaution in their limited 
altitude flights in order to apprehend the sounding balloons, from which were 
suspended the delicate instruments to insure their safety upon descending to 
earth. The balloon-instrument readings taken during each visible Aurora showed 
an ionization of 474.2 for balloon No. 1; 473.1 for balloon No. 2; and 473.2 for 
balloon No. 3 at an altitude of 47,200 feet. These readings were carefully checked 
on many other balloon flights and all agreed. After the Auroral storms subsided 
and for all other daily observations the instrument readings diminished to 127 
ions for similar altitudes. This low steady value is the normal daity invisible 
Aurora radiation and is known to reach no lower ionization for this height 
unless there is a variation in sun-spot activity. With high sun-spot eruptions 
a great change in radiation occurs. This radiation which comes from the sun 
has recently been named Cosmosolar Rays and will be used in our future papers 
by this title. 

For altitudes of 87,120 feet an increase in ionization over the lower elevations 
has continuously been observed. At this high altitude our balloon-instruments 
recorded a higher ionization during the brilliant Auroral storms, which were 987 
ions for Balloon No. 1; 987.1 for balloon No. 2; and 987.4 for balloon No. 3. The 
latter instrument was occasionally adjusted to agree with various atmospheric 
pressures. 

All Auroral storms are accompanied by strong electromagnetical disturbances, 
which are definitely known to affect all commercial electrical transmission systems. 
The visible light from the Aurora Borealis is due to excitation of certain atmos- 
pheric gases by electrified corpuscles, which under gravitational forces enter the 
atmosphere from the sun. According to our pioneer electrodynamics these Cos- 
mosolar ejections move in spiral paths elastically along the aarth's magnetic 
field and continuously bombard us at all hours of the day and night. Very recent 
evidence indicates that this converted radiation is composed of high speed wave- 
particles acting similar to ultra-gamma and beta-rays, which appear as free elec- 
trons moving at high velocity, or alpha particles that are stripped nuclei of hydro- 
gen or helium atoms, or possibly a combination of one or more elements of higher 
atomic weight. According to our observations and acculmuated data these par- 
ticles are apparently transmitted under some peculiar wave influence of an elastic 
nature. It is rather difficult to interpret how the charged particles are ejected 
from the sun at such terrific speed unless certain commotions incident to wave 
action underlie the ejections. The assumption is that there is a unification of the 
two related phenomenon, (the charged particle and the wave), so that the cor- 
puscular and the wave theory of light evidently appear to be true. 

Average Life of Ion in Air. Intricate measurements were made at different 
altitudes for determining the average life of ions in the air over land and the sea 
and of the number of condensation nuclei. The instruments showed that when 
the wind was from N. NW., thus coming from land-free polar regions, the average 
life of mobile ions was from 150 to 400 seconds. This life is 3 to 6 times greater 
than for ions over land. For such polar air an extremely small value was found 
for the number of condensation nuclei, or 400 to 1,600 per ccm. while in the 
ridges on the Himalayas, values were always obtained of 4,000 and at certain 
times as high as 22,000 nuclei per ccm. When the wind was from S. SW., the 



284 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

average life of the ions was from 200 to 310 seconds, while from the E. NE., the 
life was 40 to 250 seconds. 

General Factors Affecting Absorption. Estimates show that about 
32 percent of the solar energy is wholly lost to the earth, leaving about 68 percent 
directly absorbed in approximately equal amounts by the earth and the atmos- 
phere. It follows that about 60 percent of the incident solar energy ultimately 
heats the atmosphere. For instance atmospheric absorption of radiation, whether 
solar or terrestrial, obviously is due mainly to water vapor, carbon dioxide and 
ozone. Since the approximate amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is 
always known and the quantities of water vapor and ozone at least often deter- 
minable, it frequently is possible, by the aid of laboratory information to know 
offhand the actual absorption in any portion of the spectrum due to all of these 
substances, either singly or jointly. 

In the presence of moisture at ordinary temperatures, ozone soon reverts 
to ordinary oxygen, the probability of why only traces of it are found in the lower 
atmosphere. In the stratosphere where there is but little moisture and where the 
usual temperature is about —55 degrees C, in mid-latitudes, and even lower in 
the tropics, it obviously is far more stable. Ultra-violet radiation on passing 
through cold dry oxygen converts much of it into ozone and exists in sufficient 
amounts in the upper air. The absence of the spectra of hydrogen and helium 
does not disprove the presence in minute amounts of these elements; in fact 
helium is always present. The result is that our knowledge of the atmosphere 
becomes rapidly more speculative with the increase of height beyond 30 kilo- 
meters, evidently most all compiled tables and diagrams representing it are there- 
fore correspondingly uncertain to facts. 

With varying latitudes, the amount of ozone is least near the equator and 
greater towards the magnetic poles, while the seasonable variation increases 
largely towards the poles. Solar radiation is not responsible for ozone formation, 
since the amount at the poles is greatest at the end of the long cold, dark winter 
season. Observations have been compared from spectrographs taken at the 
bottom and near the top of mountains which confirm our previous findings. A 
report on our findings will be published later. The observational results show the 
effect of the origin and composition of the atmosphere on its transparency for 
solar radiation. The effect of molecular scattering increases much more rapidly 
than that of absorption, as the water-vapor content increases, and the wave 
lengths transmitted obviously will have varying values. Thin air layers will 
weaken the long-wave more than the short-wave ultra-violet radiation, but for 
thicker layers the shorter waves are absorbed, and relatively more long-wave 
radiation is transmitted. The ultra-violet radiation is, however, considerably 
weaker in penetrating power than the ultra-gamma radiation. The ultra-violet 
are known to travel down from the sun directly, while the ultra-gamma rays 
follow the earth's magnetic field of force where they are converted at the mag- 
netic poles into a very high frequency penetrating radiation. These rays are ex- 
tremely far shorter and harder than ordinary radium rays. The effect of radium 
rays in the earth has been observed to reach an altitude of 2,400 feet in various 
parts of the world at which height they finally diminish to zero in value. This 
also bears out our contention that the sun contains vastly higher radiant- 
elements than found on earth. Another fact is that no primary gamma- 
radiation has been observed which can be attributed to polonium, iron or aluminum . 



Cosmosolar Rays 285 

Permanent Magnetic Field of the Sun and Earth. Our conception of 
the quantum of light is like a corpuscle and many investigations support the for- 
mer supposition that light is composed of waves. The former theory connecting 
frequency and energy, or in other words connecting the length of the waves with 
the momentum of the particle has recently been proven by Dr. L. de Broglie of the 
University of Paris. The importance of this fact can be realized that all energy, 
both potential and kinetic is really contained in the ether, and that it can only 
travel from one place to another by means of waves. Electrical energy is trans- 
mitted in that way, and there is so great a unity about all forms of energy that 
no other way can energy travel except in the form of etheric waves. The belief 
is that waves exist of all possible length which undergo transformation in passing 
through certain substances. The energy as observed in radioactivity does not 
really exist in the atoms, which are radioactive but is merely made manifest by 
the transformation of waves traversing these atoms. 

Of all astronomical bodies it is only the sun and the earth that have recently 
been observed to possess electromagnetic fields. The magnetism of the earth has 
been the subject of considerable study for several generations, and it may be 
mentioned that Dr. E. G. Hale of the Mt. Wilson Observatory about a quarter of 
a century ago detected the magnetical effects of the sun. All that was then known 
about the sun's magnetism came from this high observatory. The magnetism at 
that time acted indirectly upon certain recording instruments but recently that 
of the sun was finally obtained by specially designed instruments, which required 
years of perfection in order to measure the electromagnetical radiation distributed 
over the solar orbit. 

Formerly it was believed that this indirect influence depended upon the 
"Zeeman Effect," which the magnetic field exerts on atoms emitting or absorbing 
light. Since it is understood that certain spectral lines in the solar spectrum are 
broken up by an amount which indicates the magnetic intensity at the surface 
of the sun, it is possible to calculate the assumed maximum intensity of the sun's 
magnetic field near the earth. Now, however, this magnetic influence has re- 
cently been discovered to be of an electromagnetical order that can be measured 
by very precise instruments. The direct results recently found show that the sun 
acts similar to other solar systems which naturally must also possess electromag- 
netic fields. The importance thereof is, that, since our sun possesses these qualities, 
other distant suns must produce similar effects which are closely related with 
universal gravitation. Therefore up to the present time cosmical magnetic phe- 
nomena are strictly limited to our sun and the earth. Our specific investigations 
are now being carried out in order to digest some very peculiar observations which 
show a close relationship between spectral radiation and gravitation. 

According to recent and known determinations the polarity of the earth and 
the sun are similar with relation to their directions of rotation but do not coincide. 
The sun has not only a general electromagnetical field but also local magnetic 
storms associated with sun-spots where the intensity is extremely high. The sun- 
spots generally appear in pairs of opposite magnetic polarity and are strongly 
noticeable in every eleven-year cycle. Very precise measurements show that the 
magnetic field of the earth is due to the electric currents flowing inside and 
around its magnetic axis. These currents are kept in motion by a continual 
potential energy supplied from the sun. A number of sun-spot observations have 
indicated the permanent ^existence of a stream of matter or wave-particles 
in the sun. 



286 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

According to our verified conception of physics, the study of the nature of 
gravitation is beset with unusual difficulties due to the fact that it is an ever 
present phenomenon of a, strong influence. From the inception of our experimental 
investigations, we directed our efforts toward finding some evidence of the postu- 
lated ether waves aside of radiation itself. It now shows that such evidence has 
not alone proven the possible existence of an ether medium but, also has convinced 
us that postulated gravitation waves are not confined to one frequency, but to a 
wide range of frequencies as do the well known X-rays and the recently discovered 
powerful penetrating Cosmosolar Rays. 

During two recent solar eclipses, another highly important fact that was 
first observed and later confirmed is the coincident instrument readings. Intricate 
measurements made on these two occasions showed a slightly lower fluctuated 
reading on all of our instruments when the sun was totally eclipsed. During 
partial eclipse, no differences were recorded. During total eclipse, we observed 
a reduction of 4.2 ions per ccm/sec. from the usual normal daily readings taken at 
high altitudes. 

In considering the qualities of these high frequency Cosmosolar Rays at 
different places, we have found that the most reliable results were obtained in the 
upper regions of the Himalayan mountains. The much sought evidence obtained 
from our latest experiments has confirmed all of the former high altitude readings 
taken in Europe and America. The greatest depths explored in the rivers and 
lakes were 131 feet of sea-water and 1,064 feet of fresh water. Measurements 
made in deep ridges near and on Mt. Everest agreed and the readings were similar 
to those obtained near Lake Ngantsi-Tso for the same elevations. Our very 
latest evidence discloses the corresponding wave-lengths of this radiation that 
ranges from 0.00057 A. to 0.0000023 A. 

Conclusions. Our experimental results and final conclusions will be disclosed 
as soon as the entire details are obtained from new experiments now conducted in 
the high altitude fresh water lake on Mt. Everest, India, and in Saranac Lake on 
the Adirondack mountain, New York State. The latest experimental evidence 
discloses a shorter wave-length in the high frequency range of the Cosmosolar 
Radiation than was formerly mentioned. Our latest under water readings and 
the high altitude instrument values obtained with the balloons are the most 
rangeful derivations ever recorded during Auroral storms and in normal daily 
radiation. We have finally discovered that the Cosmosolar Rays vary for different 
altitudes and our experimental values reached their highest intensities on and above 
the Himalayan mountains. The depth of the lake on Mt. Everest where our 
shortest wave-length in the spectrum was obtained is greater than any other body 
of water explored by us. Other forthcoming papers will thoroughly revolutionize 
many branches of physics. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Dr. E. A. Smith, High Frequency Rays In the Aurora Borealis, Proc. Ind. 
Acad. Sci., 39, 1929. 

Dr. E. A. Smith, High Frequency Rays, Zeit. Ver. Deut. Ing., 74, Nr. 1., 
1930. 



Cosmosolar Rays 



287 



COSMOSOLAR RAYS 



E. A. Smith and J. A. Vogelmann, Secaucus, New Jersey 

New evidence is herewith submitted on our latest findings in under water 
experiments and high altitude balloon tests, obtained inclusively and since the 
last brilliant Aurora Borealis on May 4-5, 1930. 

An ionization-depth-curve showing the different readings obtained during 
the Aurora Borealis and in normal daily radiation has been prepared with this 



£L£V#T/0// 




•^^^///^w^ ^y^/y^/*-' " - tcMe 



/OA//Z/?T/OA/ nZFTH CURV£ 
Fig. 1. 



Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 40: 287-290. (1930) 1931. 



288 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

report. The values of ionization under water and in the atmosphere has been plot- 
ted to scale which agrees with our recent published reports. The absorption is 
also included as well as the high altitudes reached by the sounding balloons. The 
depths explored under water with our high precision electroscopes and other in- 
struments, and the high altitude balloon electrometer readings is shown for both 
normal and maximum radiation in India and America. Another curve is being 
plotted for a future report, which will set forth certain data in connection with 
solar distribution and radioactivity. 

In the present curve it will be seen by referring to the top of the sheet that the 
maximum ionization during visible Auroras was about 229 ions above New York, 
altitude 84,000 feet, while above New Jersey, altitude 82,000 feet, a value of 212 
ions seemed to be the limit. During normal daily Cosmosolar radiation our highest 
value obtained by self recording balloon-electrometers was 102 ions for an altitude 
of 80,012 feet above both States. The maximum ionization curve which shows 
the highest readings obtained during visible Auroras, has been extended at the 
right of the normal ionization curve to indicate the comparison between both 
extremes. When Auroras make their appearances, the normal ionization gradually 
builds up until it swings over into the position shown by the short maximum 
ionization curve. In Europe however, conditions are different for the production 
of ions, where the values are now known to be higher, especially more so in India. 

For the Himalayan mountains we have plotted a full line curve giving 
maximum ionization and a dotted curve for normal values, These two curves 
which are shown from below sea-level to the highest altitude reached by our 
sounding balloons, indicate the readings as observed by our under water electro- 
scopes and high altitude balloon-electrometers. The readings are spotted for 
different heights in order to show what ionization is contained in the atmosphere 
at different points. It may be mentioned that all the ions are not capable of being 
measured, since some pass by the instruments owing to their extreme hardness 
when coming through the atmosphere. Fortunately we have sufficient evidence 
to know that all space is filled with them in varying quantities. However, in 
referring back to the maximum ionization curve for India, a reading was obtained 
during one of the brilliant Auroras, which was recorded at 987.4 ions for the high 
altitude of 87,000 feet. At the same time readings were taken with specially de- 
signed under water lead sealed electroscopes in Lake Mipah elevation 23,257 feet, 
on Mt. Everest, where we obtained a value of 65.5 ions per ccm./sec. The read- 
ings obtained in the lower lakes have been given in previous published papers and 
were treated in detail. For normal daily Cosmosolar radiation a lower ionization 
was recorded, which showed 354.2 ions at an altitude of 90,850 feet above sea- 
level in India. Other recorded values are given for different altitudes on the normal 
daily curve. The greatest depths of water so far explored by our instruments was 
131 feet of salt sea water and 1,064 feet of fresh water. These depths and the high 
altitude test aided us in determining the shortest wave-length in the electro- 
magnetic spectrum. Other data that is highly valuable to science was also ob- 
tained and will be disclosed in a future paper. 

Results of New Tests in Greenwood Lake, N. Y. Another body of water 
explored on May 2-3-4-5-6-7, 1930 was Greenwood Lake, elevation 2,100 feet on 
the Catskill mountains, Athens, N. Y. In this lake which is 48 feet deep, and 
2,900 feet lower than Saranac Lake, we obtained instrumental values showing the 
difference in ionization that existed between Saranac Lake and sen-level. By a 



Cosmosolar Rays 289 

strange coincidence, an Aurora Borealis appeared brilliantly visible at midnight 
on May 4, while experiments were being conducted for normal Cosmosolar radia- 
tion. Our radiometers early that day showed that some atmospheric disturbance 
was about to take place, although we were prepared for the occasion. The result 
was that our two electroscopes were constantly under water, and readings taken 
showed different values as the instruments descended to the bottom of the lake. 
The zero readings of the two electroscopes corresponded to depths of immersion 
of 48 feet, which were 6.9 for electroscope No. 7 at one meter depth, and 7 ions 
for electroscope No. 8. At the bottom of the lake both instruments registered 
exactly 1.78 ions per ccm/sec. Readings taken a few days before and after the 
visible Aurora showed about 3.8 ions near the surface of the lake. All under water 
readings are taken at one meter depth instead of at the surface, due to the presence 
at the surface of local radiations from the mountains. While the absorption co- 
efficient of the hardest of the radioactive radiations is easy to compute, no such 
rays can affect the readings of our electroscopes at one meter depth. 

General Detailed Explanations. Furthermore, we know that some other 
powerful radioactive elements besides uranium and radium are contained in the 
sun's interior, which eject these ultra-gamma rays into the earth as our past 
experiments reveal. But they are broken up into short wave radiation only when 
they fall in line with the earth's magnetic field. 

Now, however, the indications are that the magnetic whirls of the sunspots 
act as a forcible directing field in guiding electrons from the sun. With the per- 
ceptible magnetic storms sweeping the earth upon the appearance of great sun- 
spot activity, frequent and brilliant displays of the Aurora Borealis cause great 
disturbances to all radio and commercial electrical systems. During minimum 
sun-spot eruptions, a lesser number of displays are visible. While the fact is 
known, from our long series of experimental investigations and which were re- 
cently disclosed, a continual scattering of high frequency rays into the earth, guided 
by magnetic lines of force, has convinced us that the Aurora is also present in- 
visibly. If such were not the case, our high precision instruments would not record 
the lower or normal daily values as obtained during the past 11 years. These 
daily Cosmosolar radiations are not as high as those measured during brilliant 
Auroral displays and which are indicated by the ionization curve. According to 
radiometric measurements, some very short waves travel at high velocity among 
the long waves independently of ultra-violet rays. More recent evidence shows 
that electrified particles shot out from the sun are influenced by an electromagnetic 
wave motion of an elastic nature. These particles follow the earth's magnetic 
field of force and distribute themselves at all hours over the earth in varying quan- 
tities. The resultant ionic concentration of these quantities have been plotted to 
scale as represented by the curve, which was prepared to suit the different condi- 
tions of observations. Records of high altitude balloon-electrometers and those 
obtained by heavy lead sealed electroscopes and other instruments under water, 
show a wide contrast between sea-level and altitudes reaching over 17 miles. 

Observed Emanations. The insignificant quantity of radium which has 
been produced enabled discoveries that have changed the aspect of physical 
science. There are certain periods in the history of science when a group of dis- 
coveries alter the whole trend of thought. 

The present change in physical science is noted where the alpha rays are 
slightly deflected by powerful magnetic forces and have but slight penetrative 



290 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

ability. They are shot off from radium with a velocity of 20,000 miles per second. 
The beta rays are strongly deflected in the opposite direction to the alpha rays 
by much weaker magnetic forces. Their velocity has been determined to be be- 
tween 185,000 and 186,000 miles per second. The gamma rays are not deflected 
by a magnet, and they penetrate many bodies which are opaque to ordinary light. 
The ultra-gamma rays travel at a velocity greater than alpha or ordinary gamma 
rays and are shot off from elements of higher atomic weight. When the radium 
breaks down into emanation, alpha particles are produced, and in the inter-atomic 
commotion that ensues the negative electrons are flung off and the tremor which 
spreads outwards through space produces the effect of the ordinary gamma rays. 
It is important to note that the average life of radium is 25,000 years, therefore, 
the average life of uranium would be 3.000,000 times as long or 7,500,000,000 
years. The rate of change is so slow that, though experiments have been going 
on for years, the change from uranium to radium has not yet been detected in the 
laboratory. 

Conclusions. The resultant absorption coefficient deduced from the 
measurable values, the wave-length of the hardest, i.e. shortest wave-length 
component of the Cosmosolar radiation; corresponds to something more powerful 
than would result from the transformation of a proton into radiation. The two 
most important sources of ion production are the radioactive substances and the 
ultra-gamma rays. The latter being a strongly penetrative radiation from the 
sun as lately proven. From data already available a rather remarkable agreement 
may be obtained between the atmospheric ion content values calculated from the 
known concentration of ion producing agencies and those values measured experi- 
mentally. The ionization at high altitudes is more intense than at sea-level, which 
has been indicated on the smooth ionization-depth curves for different locations. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 
E. A. Smith, Cosmosolar Rays, Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci., 10, 1930. 
E. A. Smith, High Frequency Rays in The Aurora Borealis, Proc. Ind. Acad. 
Sci. 39, 1929. 



Note on Photo-Electric Phenomena 291 



NOTE ON PHOTO-ELECTRIC PHENOMENA 



Harvey A. Zinszer, Kansas State Teachers College 

The purpose of this paper is to attempt a clear-cut differentiation of the 
various photo-electric or photo-sensitive phenomena. The reason for this effort 
is an apparent inconsistency on the part of sundry investigators and writers in the 
usage of terms common to this field. 

According to Allen 1 , the term -photo-electricity denotes a change in the state 
of electrification of a body produced by the action of light. This definition is 
quite in keeping with the original description of the effect by Hallwachs 2 . 

Allen 3 argues that in accordance with modern electrical theory we regard 
light as an electro-magnetic disturbance; and, a change in electrification as due to 
the addition or removal of negative electrons. From this standpoint, a photo- 
electric change is equivalent to the liberation of negative electrons under the 
influence of electro-magnetic waves. Such a process is, therefore, of fundamental 
importance, not only in those cases where a change of electrification is readily 
detected, but also in connection with many other phenomena where the observed 
effect is of a secondary character. He concludes that amongst the latter, we may 
include the change in the electrical resistance of a body due to illumination, 
fluorescence and phosphorescence, and all photo-chemical transformations. 

Starling 4 states that the Hallwachs 5 phenomenon is only one case of the libera- 
tion of electrons when light falls upon matter and that this photo-electric phenome- 
non has been shown to be connected with those of fluorescence and phosphores- 
cence, as well as with that of chemical changes occurring in the photographic 
plate. 

Thomson 6 , Crowthcr 7 , and Richtmyer 8 practically concur with the inter- 
pretations of the previously mentioned writers, but nowhere do any of these 
authors draw a sharp distinction between the modes of construction and the 
characteristic responses of those devices yielding the secondary effects quoted 
from Allen. 

The advantage of such distinctions appeals to the writer who on a previous 
occasion drew attention to them in a popular article 9 . A case in point illustrating 
the interchange of photo-electric terms and an apparent lack of convention in the 
matter is the following extract from Coblentz 10 : "The term photo-electric was 
ordinarily used interchangeably with actino-electric to designate a direct trans- 
formation of light (thermal radiation) into electric current. In this paper the term 
photo-electric is applied to the change in resistance which a substance exhibits 
when it is subjected to an externally impressed e. m. f. and exposed to thermal 
radiation." 

In order to expedite the discussion, it may be well to refer to original sources 
pertaining to the respective phenomena classified under the general term of 
photo-electricity. This will be done in a chronological order. 

The first of these so-called secondary effects is the thermo-electric or Seebeck 11 
Effect. Here a current flows in a circuit consisting of two different metals when 
a difference of temperature is maintained between their junctions, an example of 
which is the action of the thermopile when subjected to thermal radiation. 

Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 40: 291-293. (1930) 1931. 



292 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

Another is the photo-chemical or Becquerel 12 Effect in which certain sub- 
stances when used as the two poles of a voltameter containing an electrolyte show 
a difference of potential when one plate is in darkness and the other illuminated. 
An interesting example of this effect is contained in a report on "A Cuprous Oxide 
Photo-chemical Cell," by Case 13 . 

A third is the actino-electric effect attributed by Coblentz 14 to Hankel 15 who 
more than eighty years ago used this term to designate the e.m.f. generated in a 
crystal (for example quartz) when connected with an electrometer or galvanometer 
and exposed to sunlight, daylight or an electric arc. Incidentally, Allen 16 is in- 
clined to bestow this honor upon Kolzareff 17 who discovered the same effect in 
molybdenite considerably later. 

The fourth is the photo-resistant effect discovered by Smith 18 who being de- 
sirous of obtaining a suitably high resistance for use with submarine cables, 
instituted certain experiments on selenium in the course of which remarkable 
fluctuations of current were observed when the selenium was exposed to light. 
This effect is by no means confined to selenium but is shared by various other 
substances of which stibnite, molybdenite and cuprous oxide are representative. 

Finally, we arrive at the photo-electric effect proper, also known as the Hall- 
wachs 19 Effect defined in a previous quotation from Starling. Standard types of 
photo-electric cells such as are being used today in the talking pictures and in 
television are, with slight modifications, the Hughes 20 and the Kunz 21 cells. The 
theory and evolution of photo-electricity as a whole are to be found in all advanced 
texts on modern physics, especially in the classic texts of Hughes 22 and of Allen 23 . 

The writer concludes, therefore, that owing to the decidedly characteristic 
construction of those devices generally known as photo-electric cells, their peculiar 
disposition and response, it would be well for investigators and writers in this field 
to refer directly to what Allen 24 styles as the secondary effects and call a selenium 
cell a photo-resistant cell and its effect a photo-resistant effect; and, so with all the 
remaining secondary effects and their respective cells, notwithstanding that in the 
ultimate they are all photo-electric effects. 

REFERENCES 

1. H. Stanley Allen, "Photo-electricity," (second edition), p. 1, Longmans, 
Green and Co., London, 1925. 

2. W. Hallwachs, Wied. Ann., 33, p. 301, 1888. 

3. ibid., p. 2. 

4. Sidney G. Starling, "Electricity and Magnetism," (new impression), 
p. 580, Longmans, Green and Co., London, 1927. 

5. loc. cit. 

6. Sir J. J. Thomson and G. P. Thomson, "Conduction of Electricity through 
Gases," (third edition), Vol. L, Cambridge Press, 1928. 

7. J. A. Crowther, "Ions, Electrons, and Ionizing Radiations," (fifth edi- 
tion), Longmans, Green and Co., London. 1929. 

8. F. K. Richtmyer, "Introduction to Modern Physics," (third impression), 
McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1928. 

9. H. A. Zinszer, "The Story of the Electric Eye," The Aerend, K. S. T. C, 
Hays, Kansas, 1, p. 31, 1930. 

10. W. W. Coblentz, "Some New Thermo-electrical and Actino-electrieal 
Properties of Molybdenite," Bureau of Standards Scientific Paper No. 486, 19, 
p. 377, 1924. 



Note on Photo-Electric Phenomena 293 

11. T. J. Seebeck, Pogg. Ann, Bd VI., 1826. 

12. E. Becquerel, Diss., 1840, "Die chemischen unci electrischen Wirkungen 
unter Einfluss des Sonnenlichts," Ann. d. Phys. et d. Chem., 9, p. 268, 1843; 32, 
p. 176, 1851; 56, p. 99, 1859; La lumiere, Paris, 2, p. 121, 1865. 

13. T. W. Case, Trans. Ara'n. Electrochem. Soc, 31, p. 351, 1917. 

14. ibid., p. 377. 

15. W. G. Hankel, Abhandl. der Koenigl. Saechs Gesell. der Wiss., Bd. XX. ; 
Pogg. Ann., 62, p. 197, 1844; Wuellner's Exper. Phys., 3, p. 192, 1897. 

16. ibid., p. 96. 

17. S. Kolzareff, Proc. Russ. Phys. Ass'n., Meeting III., p. 46, Sept. 1922; 
Meeting IV., p. 11, Sept. 1924. 

18. Willoughby Smith, Jour. Soc. Telgh. Engrs., 2, p. 31, 1873. 

19. loc. cit. 

20. A. LI. Hughes, Phil. Mag., 25, p. 679, 1913. 

21. J. Kunz, Phys. Rev., 7, p. 62, 1916; Astrophys. Jour., 45, p. 69, 1927. 

22. A. LI. Hughes, "Photo-electricity," Cambridge Press, 1914; "Report 
on Photo-electricity," National Research Council, Washington, 2, pp. 83-169, 
1921. 

23. loc. cit. 

24. loc. cit. 



A List of the Birds Seen in Marion County 295 



A LIST OF THE BIRDS SEEN IN MARION COUNTY 



Frederick M. Baumgartner, Butler University 

This paper is limited to Marion County and includes the writer's observa- 
tions over a five-year period from 1926 to 1930 1 . Two hundred and fourteen (214) 
species are included and the extreme dates on all migratory forms are recorded. 
The most intensive work has been limited to the spring migration and fall records 
are somewhat incomplete. 

Marion County is rather favorably situated in respect to the summer and 
winter ranges of a large number of birds. It lies on the northern boundary of the 
nesting range of many species and, likewise, in the winter, numerous northern 
dwelling forms range down into central Indiana. The county contains 400 square 
miles of land, about one-half of which is included in the city of Indianapolis. 
Cultivated fields, woodlands, and meadows comprise the rest of its territory with 
the exception of a few small towns. 

Marion County is liberally endowed with streams and ponds and these form 
natural waterways for the numerous waterfowl which migrate through central 
Indiana. The chief stream is the West Fork of White River which flows in a 
south-westerly direction through the central part of the county. Big and Little 
Eagle Creek run down the west side of the county emptying into White River in 
south Indianapolis, while Fall Creek drains the north-eastern part of the county 
above its entrance into White River below Riverside Park. There are numerous 
small streams in the county which attract land birds, but are seldom visited by 
waterfowl. 

Bacon's Swamp in northeastern Indianapolis has been a splendid spot for 
both water and landbirds in the past, but a recent real estate project in that sec- 
tion has enveloped it and it is doomed to disappear as a bird refuge unless the 
land is bought up and set aside for that purpose. This swamp is the largest body 
of still water in the county. There are no lakes of any consequence with the excep- 
tion of Indian Lake lying north-east of Fort Benjamin Harrison. It may be a good 
place for ducks, but the writer has never done field work in that region. 

The fact that Indianapolis covers about one-half of the entire area has nat- 
urally affected the bird life of the county. The protection against hunting which 
the city offers to game birds is offset by the fact that certain forms are driven to the 
surrounding rural districts because their natural habitats are destroyed. 

It may be worth-while to mention a few of the choice bird habitats in the 
county. A favorite territory lies along White River from May wood (just south 
of Indianapolis) to the southern border of the county. There are numerous river 
ponds in this region and they afford excellent feeding grounds for migrating 
ducks. White River, near the north county line, is also an excellent place for water- 
fowl. Within Indianapolis, Riverside Park offers protection to both land and water 
forms. White River is also good in the region of the Warfleigh Bridge. 

Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 40: 295-306. (1930) 1931. 

•The writer wishes to express his sincere appreciation to Miss Rousseau McClellan of Short- 
ridge High School for awakening his interest in birds, and to Mr. Sidney R. Esten of the Indiana 
Department of Conservation for helpful suggestions in the writing of this paper. 



296 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of science 

For nesting birds, especially warblers, the Boy Scout Reservation is probably 
the best locality in the county. Here are found heavily wooded hills and dense 
overgrown ravines made by small brooks which empty into Fall Creek. This 
habitat offers excellent nesting sites for Louisiana water-thrushes, oven-birds, 
and Kentucky warblers and these birds are seldom found elsewhere in the summer. 
The Scout Camp is also an excellent place for migrating land birds of all kinds, 
and its nearest rival is the Butler University campus. There, warblers are found 
in profusion in early May and September and often fifteen to twenty different 
species can be identified in a single day. 

The various species and the status of each in the county, according to the 
author's observations will now be considered. 

The nomenclature for the most part follows the "Handbook Of Birds Of 
Eastern North America," by Frank M. Chapman, revised edition, 1912. 

^Indicates that the nomenclature follows recent changes as illustrated by 
"Birds of Massachusetts And Other New England States," by Edward Howe 
Forbush, Vols. I-III, 1925-1929. 

Explanation of abbreviations: 
P.R. — Permanent Resident. 
S.R. — Summer Resident. 
W.R.— Winter Resident. 
T.V.— Transient Visitor. 
W. V.— Winter Visitor. 

1. (3) Colymbus auritus Linn. Horned Grebe. Rare T.V., April 2-15; 
Sept. 27, 1930 (1 seen). 

2. (4) Colymbus nigricollis californicus (Heerm.). Eared Grebe. Occa- 
sional T.V., April 9, 1927. Two seen with a Horned Grebe. 

3. (6) Podilynibus podiceps (Linn.). Pied-billed Grebe. Common T.V., 
Feb. 15-April 27; Sept. 20-Nov. 8. 

4. (7) Gama immer (Brunn.). Loon. V. Rare T.V., May 12, 1928 (1 seen). 

5. (51) Larus argentatus Pont. Herring Gull. Uncommon T.V., in spring, 
Feb. 8-April 7; no fall records. 

6. (54) Larus delawarensis Ord. Ring-billed Gull. V. Rare T.V., March 
19, 1927 (1 seen); Feb. 4, 1929 (2 seen); Dec. 17, 1928 (1 seen). 

7. (70) Sterna hirundo Linn. Common Tern. V. Rare T.V., Sept. 23, 
1930 (1 seen). 

8*. (77) Chlidonias nigra surinamensis (Gmel.). Black Tern. V. Rare 
T.V., May 23, 1927 (common); Sept. 27, 1930 (1 seen). 

9*. (120) Phalacrocorax auritus auritus (Less.). Double-crested Cor- 
morant. V. Rare T.V., April 17, 1927 (1 seen); April 2, 1928 (1 seen); Sept, 27, 
1930 (29 in one flock). 

10*. (129) Mergus americanus Cass. Merganser. Common T.V., may 
winter, Feb. 3-May 1; Oct, 26-Dec. 22. 

11*. (130) Mergus senator Linn. Red-breasted Merganser. Uncommon 
T.V. in spring, Feb. 11-April 28; no fall records. Common in 1928. 

12. (131) Lophodytes cuadlatus (Linn.). Hooded Merganser. V. Rare 
T.V., March 23-May 4; Nov. 23, 1930 (2 males seen). 

13 *. (132) Anas platyrhynrha Linn. Mallard . V. Common T.V., may winter, 
Feb. 3-May 12; Sept, 27-Dec. 17. 



A List of the Birds Seen in Marion County 297 

14. (133) Anas rupnpes Brewst. Black Duck. Common T.V., may winter, 
Feb, 3-May 5; Nov. 3-Dec. 17. 

15. (135) Chaulelasmus streperus (Linn.). Gadwell. Occasional T.V., 
March 27, 1927 (1 male); Oct. 18, 1930 (a pair). 

16. (137) Mareca americana (Gmel.). Baldpate. F. Common T.V., in 
spring; Feb. 22-April 28; Oct. 18, 1930 (1 male). 

17. (139) Nettion carolinense (Gmel.). Green-winged Teal. Uncommon 
TV., Feb. 17-April 21; Oct. 18-Nov. 8. 

18. (140) Querquedula discors (Linn.). Blue-winged Teal. V. Common 
T.V., March 29-May 17; Sept. 27-Oct. 18. 

19. (142) Spatula clypeata (Linn.). Shoveller. F. Common T.V. in spring, 
March 8-May 5; no fall records. 

20*. (143) Dafila acuta tzitzihoa (Vieill.) . American Pintail. Common T.V. , 
Feb. 3- April 1; Oct. 18-Dec. 17. 

21. (144) Aix sponsa (Linn.). Wood Duck. Rare S.R., Common T.V., 
March 10-Oct. 26. Saw two females with young on June 2, 1928. 

22. (146) Mania americana (Eyt.). Redhead. V. Rare T.V., March 10- 
April 23; no fall records. 

23*. (147) Marila valisineria (Wils.). Canvas-back. V. Rare T.V., Feb. 
12-March 27. More common in 1926. 

24*. (148) Marila marila (Linn.). Scaup Duck. V. Rare T.V., Feb. 13, 
1926 (1 male); Feb. 27, 1927 (a pair). 

25. (149) Marila affinis (Eyt.). Lesser Scaup Duck. Abundant T.V., 
Jan. 4-May 22; Oct. 18-Nov. 23. The most common duck within the limits of 
Indianapolis. 

26. (150) Marilla collaris (Donov.). Ring-necked Duck. F. Common 
T.V., in spring, Feb. 27-April 17; no fall records. 

27*. (151) Glaucionetta clangula americana (Bonap.). Golden-eye. Un- 
common T.V., in spring, Feb. 3-May 4; no fall records. 

28*. (153) Charitonetta albeola (Linn.). Buffle-head. V. Rare T.V., March 
8-April 14; no fall records. 

29*. (154) Clangula hyemalis (Linn.). Old-squaw. Rare T.V., Feb. 3- 
March 16; no fall records. 

30. (167) Erismatura jamaicensis (Gmel.). Ruddy Duck. V. Rare T.V., 
March 6-April 5; Nov. 23, 1929, (1 male). 

31. (172) Branta canadensis canadensis (Linn.). Canada Goose. F. 
Common T.V., in fall, March 2, 1929 (1 seen on White River); Oct. 23-Nov. 8. 

32*. (190) Botaurus lenitiginosus (Montag.) Bittern. Rare S.R., F. Com- 
mon T.V., March 31—. 

33. (191) Ixobrychus exilis (Gmel.). Least Bittern. V. Rare T.V., May 
14, 1927 (3 seen at Bacon's swamp.) 

34. (194) Ardea herodias herodias Linn. Great Blue Heron. F. Common 
S.R., Common T.V., March 27-Dec. 3. 

35*. (200) Florida caerulea (Linn.). Little Blue Heron. Occasional T.V., 
April 10, 1926 (1 seen). 

36*. (201) Butorides virescens virescens (Linn.). Green Heron. Common 
S.R., Abundant T.V., April 14-Oct. 2. 

37. (202) Nycticorax nycticorax naevius (Bodd.). Black-crowned Night 
Heron. F. Common S. R., March 24-Oct. 4. 



298 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

38. (208) Rallus elegans Aud. King Rail. F. Common T.V., in spring, 
April 22-May 12; July 23, 1930 (a S.R?). 

30. (212) Rallus virginianus Linn. Virginia Rail. V. Rare T.V., May 2, 
192G (1 seen); April 22, 1927 (1 seen). Both records at Bacon's Swamp. 

40. (214) Porzana Carolina (Linn.). Sora. F. Common T.V., April 21- 
May 18; Sept. 27, 1930 (2 seen). Common at Bacon's Swamp in the spring. 

41. (221) Fulica americana Gmel. Coot. Common T.V., March 19-Jime 2; 
Nov. 1-11. Rare in fall of 1930. 

42*. (228) Rubicola minor (Gmel.). Woodcock. Rare S.R., Uncommon 
T.V., May 6-Nov. 3. 

43. (230) Gallinago delicata (Ord.). Wilson's Snipe. Common T.V., 
March 24-May 3; Sept. 20-Nov. 8. 

44. (239) Prisobia maculata (Vieill.). Pectoral Sandpiper. Common T.V., 
in spring, March 16-May 15; Oct. 18-26. 

45. (240) Pisobia fuscicollis (Vieill.). White-rumped Sandpiper. Occas- 
ional T.V., April 10, 1926 (6 seen). 

46. (242) Piscobia minutilla (Vieill.). Least Sandpiper. F. Common T. V., 
in spring May 11-22; Sept., 1927, (1 record). 

47. (243a) Pelidna alpina sakhalina (Vieill.). Red-backed Sandpiper. 
Occasional T.V., May 22, 1926 (4 seen). 

48. (246) Ereunetes pusillus (Linn.). Semipalmated Sandpiper. F. Com- 
mon T. V., in spring, April 24-May 22; Sept., 1927 (one record). 

49*. (248) Crocethia alba (Pall.). Sanderling. Occasional T.V., May 9, 
1926 (5 seen). 

50. (254) Totanus melanoleucus (Gmel.). Greater Yellow-legs. F. Com- 
mon T.V. in Spring, April 7-May 1; Oct. 18, 1930 (1 seen). 

51. (255) Totanus flavipes (Gmel.). Yellow-legs. Common T.V. in spring, 
March 15-May 15; no fall records. 

52*. (256) Tringa solitaria solitaria Wils. Solitary Sandpiper. Common 
T.V., April 5-May 17; July 8.—. 

53. (258) Catoptrophorus semipalmatus semipalmatus (Gmel.). Willet. 
Occasional T.V. , April 24, 1926 (1 seen). 

54. (261) Bartramia longicauda (Bechst). Upland PloVer. Occasional 
T.V., April 2, 1927 (20-25 seen in one flock). 

55. (262) Tryngites subruficollis (Vieill.). Buff-breasted Sandpiper. Oc- 
casional T.V., May 22, 1926 (1 seen). 

56. (263) Actitis macularia (Linn.). Spotted Sandpiper. Common S.R., 
V. Common T.V., April 5-Oct. 18. 

57*. (270) Squatarola squatarola cynosurae Thayer and Bangs. American 
Black-bellied Plover. Occasional T.V., April 24, 1926 (30 seen in one flock). 

58*. (272) Pluvialis dominica dominica (Mull). Golden Plover. V. Rare 
T.V,, March 27-April 24; no fall records. 

59*. (273) Oxyechus vociferus (Linn.). Killdeer. Common S.R., Abundant 
T.V., Feb. 5-Nov. 8. 

60*. (274) Charadrius semipalmatus Bonap. Semipalmated Plover. 
Uncommon T.V. in spring, May 9-22; no fall records. 

61. (289) Colinus virginianus virginianus (Linn.). Bob-white. Uncommon 
P.R., Apparently decreasing in number in the rural districts. 

62. (316) Zenaidura macroura carolinensis (Linn.). Mourning Dove. 
V. Common S.R. A few flocks of 20-40 birds winter regularly. 



A List of the Birds Seen in Marion County 299 

03. (325) Cathartes aura septentrionalis Wied. Turkey Vulture. V. Com- 
mon S.R., Feb. 2-Nov. 8. 

64. (331) Circus hudsonius (Linn.). Marsh Hawk. Uncommon P.R., Com- 
mon. T.V. 

65. (332) Accipiter relax (Wils.). Sharp-shinned Hawk. Rare P.R,, 
Uncommon T.V. 

66. (333) Accipiier cooperi (Bonap.). Cooper's Hawk. Rare T.V., may 
nest, Jan. 11-May 15. Sept. 27-Dec. 17. 

67. (334) Astur atricapillus atricapillus (Wils.). Goshawk. Occasional 
W.R. A pair wintered below Maywood in 1925-1926. Last seen on April 10, 1923 

68. (337) Buteo borealis borealis (Gmel.) . Red-tailed Hawk. F. Common. 
S.R., Uncommon W.R. 

69. (339) Buteo lineatus lineatus (Gmel.) . Red-shouldered Hawk. F. Com- 
mon S.R., Uncommon W.R. 

70*. (343) Buteo platypter us (Vieill.). Broad- winged Hawk. V. Rare S.R., 
Uncommon T.V., Feb. 7-Oct. 26. 

71. (347a) Archibuteo lagopus sancti-johannis (Gmel.). Rough-legged 
Hawk. V. Rare T.V., Feb. 2-April 24; Nov. 8, 1930 (1 seen). 

72*. (360) Cerchneis sparveria sparoeria (Linn.). Sparrow Hawk. Common 
P.R. 

73. (364) Pandion haliaetue carolinensis (Gmel.). Osprey. V. Rare S.R., 
Uncommon T.V., April 10-Oct. 4. 

74*. (365) Tytoalba pratincola (Bonap.). Barn Owl. Rare P.R. (5 records). 

75. (366) Asio wilsonianus (Less.). Long-eared Owl. V. Rare P.R., 
May 15, 1927 (a pair with four young). 

76. (367) Asio flammeus (Pont.). Short-eared Owl. V Rare P.R., Un- 
common T.V., June 4, 1927 (3 young seen). 

77. (368) Strix varia varia Barton. Barred Owl. Common P.R. 

78. (373) Otus asio asio (Linn.). Screech Owl. Common P.R. 

79. (375) Bubo virginianus virginianus (Gmel.). Great Horned Owl. 
V. Rare P.R. (3 records). 

80. (387) Coccyzus americanus americanus (Linn.). Yellow-billed Cuckoo. 
Common S.R., May 10-Sept. 27. 

81. (388) Coccyzus erythrophthalmus (Wils.). Black-billed Cuckoo. Com- 
mon T.V., May 8-June 4; —Sept, 27. 

82*. (390) Ceryle alcyon alcyon (Linn.). Belted Kingfisher. V. Common 
S.R, Rare W.R. 

83. (393) Dryobates villosus villosus (Linn.). Hairy Woodpecker. Com- 
mon P.R. 

84. (394) Dryobates pubescent medianus (Swains.). Down}' Woodpecker. 
Abundant P.R. 

85. (402) Sphyrapicus varius varius (Linn.). Yellow-bellied Sapsucker. 
F. Common T.V. in spring, Feb. 20-30; Oct. 12, 1930 (3 seen). 

86. (406) Melanerpes erythrocephalus (Linn.). Red-headed Woodpecker. 
Abundant S. R., Occasional W.R. (1927), April 21-Sept. 30. 

87. (409) Centurus carolinus (Linn.). Red-bellied Woodpecker. F. Com- 
mon P.R. Rare in Indianapolis. 

88. (412a) Colaptes auratus luteus Bangs. Northern Flicker. V. Common 
S.R., Uncommon W.R. 

89. (417) Antrostomus vociferus vociferus (Wils.). Whip-poor-will. Rare 
S.R., May 7—. 



300 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

90. (420) Chordeiles virginianus virginianus (Gmel.). Nighthawk. Com- 
mon S.R., May 2-Oct. 13. 

91. (423) Chaetura pelagica (Linn.). Chimney Swift. Common S.R., 
April 12-Oct, 13. 

92. (428) Archilochus colubris (Linn.). Ruby-throated Hummingbird. 
Common S.R., May 1-Sept. 20. 

93. (444) Tyrannus tyrannus (Linn.). Kingbird. Common S.R., April 
17-August 18. 

94. (452) Myiarchus crinitus (Linn.). Crested Flycatcher. Common S.R., 
April 23—. 

95. (456) Sayornis phoebe (Lath.). Phoebe. Common S. R., March 13- 
Oct. 11. 

90. (459) Nuttattornis borealis (Swains.). Olive-sided Flycatcher. Occa- 
sional T.V., May 26, 1929 (1 seen). 

97. (461) Myiochanes virens (Linn.). Wood Pewee. Common S.R., 
May 10-Sept. 27. 

98*. (463) Empidonax fiaviventris (W.M. and S.F. Baird). Yellow- 
bellied Flycatcher. V. Rare T.V., May 6-18; no fall records. 

99. (465) Empidonax virescens (Vieill.). Acadian Flycatcher. F. Common 
S.R., May 10-Sept. 27. 

100. (466) Empidonax trailli trailli (Aud.) . Traill's Flycatcher. F. Common 
S.R., May 18—. 

101*. (467) Empidonax minimus (W.M. and S.F. Baird). Least Flycatcher. 
F. Common T.V., April 17-May 15; —Sept. 27. 

102. (474b) Otocoris alpestris praticola Hensh. Prairie Horned Lark. F. 
Common T.V., Jan. 19-May 5; Oct. 1-Dec. 11. May be a very rare P.R. 

103. (477) Cyanocitta cristata cristata (Linn.). Blue Jay. Common S.R., 
Uncommon W.R. 

104. (488) Corvus brachyrhynchos brachyrhynchos Brehm. Crow. Abundant 
P.R. 

105. (493) Sturnus vulgaris (Linn.). Starling. Common S.R., Uncommon 
W.R. My first record in the county for the Starling is Jan. 31, 1927. Since then 
they have been rapidly increasing in number. Starlings nest in Flicker holes in 
the big Sycamore trees along White River south of Indianapolis. They migrate 
through in immense flocks in early March and early October. When migrating 
the Starling commonly flocks with Grackles, Red winged Blackbirds, Cowbirds, 
Rusty Blackbirds and even with Crows. 

106. (494) Dolichonyx oryzivorus (Linn.). Bobolink. F. Common S.R., 
April 30-Sept. 16. 

107. (495) Molothrus ater ater (Bodd.). Cowbird. V. Common S.R., 
March 1-Oct. 18. 

108. (498) Agelaius phoeniceus phoeniceus (Linn.). Red-winged Blackbird. 
V. Common S.R., Jan. 20-Nov. 23. A few winter occasionally. 

109. (501) Sturnella magna magna (Linn.). Meadowlark. V. Common S.R., 
Rare W.R. 

110. (506) Icterus spurius (Linn.). Orchard Oriole. V. Rare S.R., F. Common 
T.V., May 3—. 

111. (507) Icterus galbula (Linn.). Baltimore Oriole. Common S.R., 
April 23—. 



A List of the Birds Seen in Marion County 301 

112. (509) Euphagus carolinus (Mull.). Rusty Blackbird. F. Common T.V., 
Feb. 11-April 10; Oct. 18-29. 

113. (511b) Quiscalus quiscula aeneus Ridgw. Bronzed Crackle. Abun- 
dant S.R., Rare W.R. Fairly common in winter of 1928. 

114. (517) Carpodacus purpureas purpureus (Gmel.). Purple Finch. Un- 
common T.V., Feb. 4-May 10; Sept. 20-Oct. 26. 

115. (529) Astragalinus tristis tristis (Linn.). Goldfinch. Common S.R., 
Uncommon W.R. 

116*. (533) Spinus pinus (Wils.). Pine Siskin. V. Rare T.V., may winter, 
Jan. 12-April 29; Oct. 27. 1930 (1 seen). 

117. ( ) Passer domesticus domesticus (Linn.). House Sparrow. Abun- 
dant P.R. 

118. (540) Pooecetes gramineus gramineus (Gmel.). Vesper Sparrow. Com- 
mon S.R., March 19-Oct. 4. 

119. (542a) Passer cuius sandwichensis savanna (Wils.). Savannah Sparrow 
V. Rare T.V., April 28-May 4. Sept. 27, 1930 (7 seen). 

120. (546) Ammodramus savannarum australis Mayn. Grasshopper Spar- 
row. Common S.R., April 8 — . 

121. (549.1) Passerherbulus nelsoni nelsoni (Allen). Nelson's Sparrow. 
Occasional T.V., Sept. 27, 1930 (1 seen). 

122. (552) Chondestes grammacus grammacus (Say). Lark Sparrow. 
V. Rare T.V., April 26, 1930 (1 seen). 

123. (554) Zonotrichia leucophrys leucophrys (ForstJ. White-crowned 
Sparrow. F. Common T.V., May 1-15; Oct. 4-18. 

124. (558) Zonotrichia albicollis (Gmel.). White-throated Sparrow. V. 
Common T.V., March 30-May 26; Sept. 27-Nov. 18. 

125. (559) Spizella monticola monticola (Gmel.). Tree Sparrow. Common 
W.R., Nov. 8-April 16. 

126. (560) Spizella passerina passerina (Bech.). Chipping Sparrow. F. 
Common S.R., March 24-Oct. 26. 

127. (563) Spizella pusilla pusilla (Wils.). Field Sparrow. Abundant S.R., 
March 1-Sept. 27. 

128. (567) J unco hyemalis hyemalis (Linn.). Slate-colored Junco. V. Com- 
mon W.R., Oct. 4-May 4. 

129. (581) Melospiza melodia melodia (Wils.). Song Sparrow. Abundant 
P.R. 

130. (583) Melospiza lincolni lincolni (Aud.). Lincoln's Sparrow. Rare T.V. 
in spring, April 10-May 18; no fall records. 

131. (584) Melospiza georgiana (Lath.). Swamp Sparrow. Common T.V., 
March 17-May 11; Sept. 27-Oct. 18. 

132. (585) Passerella iliaca iliaca (Merr.). Fox Sparrow. Common T.V., 
Feb. 3- April 15; Oct. 26-Nov. 9. 

133. (587) Pipilo erythrophthalmus erythrophthalmus (Linn.). Towhee. 
Common S.R., Feb. 3-Nov. 9. A pair wintered in 1928-1929. 

134. (593) Cardinalis cardinalis cardinalis (Linn.). Cardinal. V. Common 
P.R. 

135*. (595) Hedymeles ludovicianus (Linn.). Rose-breasted Grosbeak. 
Common T.V., May 4-19; Sept. 20-Oct, 4. 

136. (598) Passerina cyanea (Linn.). Indigo Bunting. Abundant S.R., 
May 1-Oct. 4. 



302 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

137. (604) Spiza americana (Gmel.). Dickcissel. Common S.R., May 3 — . 

138. (608) Piranga erythromelas Vieill. Scarlet Tanager. Rare S.R., 
F. Common T.V., April 30-Sept. 27. Nests at the Boy Scout Reservation. 

139. (611) Progne subis subis (Linn.). Purple Martin. Common S.R., 
April 10-Aug. 14. 

140. (612) Petrochelidon lunifrons lunifrons (Say). Cliff Swallow. V. Rare 
T.V., May 9-15; no fall records. 

141*. (613) Hirundo erythrogastra Bodd. Barn Swallow. Common S.R., 
April 9-Oct. 18. 

142. (614) Tridoprocne bicolor (Vieill). Tree Swallow. Uncommon T.V. 
in spring, April 21-May 17; Oct. 18, 1930 (4 seen). 

143. (616) Ripariariparia (Linn.). Bank Swallow. V. Rare S.R., F. Common 
T.V., April 9—. 

144. (617) Stelgidopteryx serripennis (Aud.). Rough- winged Swallow. V. 
Common S.R., April 19 — . More common than the Bank Swallow. 

145. (618) Bombycilla garrula (Linn.). Bohemian Waxwing. Occasional 
T.V., May 21, 1926 (1 seen); May 29, 1927 (2 seen). 

146. (619) Bombycilla cedrorum Vieill. Cedar Waxwing. F. Common 
S.R., Irregular W.V. Sometimes entirely absent in winter. 

147. (622e) Lanius ludovicianus migrans Palmer. Migrant Shrike. Un- 
common S.R,, F. Common T.V., March 20—. 

148. (624) Vireosylva olivacea (Linn.). Red-eyed Vireo. V. Common S.R., 
April 28-Sept. 27. 

149. (626) Vireosylva philadelphica Cass. Philadelphia Vireo. V. Rare 
T.V., May 1-25; Sept. 17-27. 

150. (627) Vireosylva gilva gilva (Vieill.). Warbling Vireo. Common S.R. , 
April 21-Sept. 27. 

151*. (628) Lanivireo flavifrons (Vieill.). Yellow-throated Vireo. V. Rare 
T.V., April 23-May 7; no fall records. 

152. (629) Laninreo solitarius solitarius (Wils.). Blue-headed Vireo. 
Uncommon T.V.. April 29-May 20; Sept. 20-Oct. 11. 

153. (631) Vireo griseus griseus (Bodd.). White-eyed Vireo. Uncommon 
S.R., F. Common T.V., April 26—. 

154. (636) Mniotilla varia (Linn.). Black and White Warbler. V. Rare S.R., 
Common T.V., April 21-Sept. 27. 

155. (637) Prot onotaria citrea (Bodd.). Prothonotary Warbler. Rare S.R. , 
April 7—. 

156. (639) Helmitheros vermivorus (Gmel.). Worm-eating Warbler. Rare 
T.V., may nest, May 8-14; July 11-Sept. 16. 

157. (641) Vermivora pinus (Linn.). Blue-winged Warbler. Hare S.R., 
April 19-Oct. 14, 

158. (642) Vermivora chrysoptera (Linn.). Golden-winged Warbler. Rare 
T.V., May 1-26; no fall records. 

159*. (645) Vermivora rujica.pilla ruficapiUa (Wils.). Nashville Warbler., 
Common T.V., April 21-May 20; Sept. 27-Oct, 14. 

160. (646) Vermivora celatd celata (Say). Orange-crowned Warbler. 
Occasional T.V., May 15, 1927 (2 seen); May 20, 1930 (2 seen). 

161. (647) Vermivora peregrina (Wils.). Tennessee Warbler. Common T.V. , 
May 4-20; Sept, 16-Oct. 14. 



A List of the Birds Seen in Marion County 303 

162*. (648a) Compsothlypis americana pusilla (Wils.). Northern Parula 
Warbler. V. Rare T.V., May 7, 1927 (3 seen); May 19, 1930 (1 seen); Sept, 20, 
1930 (1 seen). 

163. (650) Dendroica, tigrina (Gmel.). Cape May Warbler. F. Common 
T.V., May 3-21; Sept. 19-Oct. 4. 

164. (652) Dendroica aestiva aestiva (Gmel.). Yellow Warbler. F. Common 
S.R., V. Common T.V., April 23—. 

165. (654) Dendroica caerulescens caerulescens (Gmel.). Black-throated 
Blue Warbler. Rare T.V., May 5-20; Sept. 16-27. 

166*. (655) Dendroica coronata coronata (Linn.). Myrtle Warbler. Abun- 
dant T.V., April 5-May 22; Sept. 27-Oct. 30. 

167. (657) Dendroica magnolia (Wils.). Magnolia Warbler. V. Common 
T.V., May 3-22; Sept. 16-Oct. 4. 

168. (658) Dendroica cerulea (Wils.). Cerulean Warbler. Rare S.R., May 
1 — . Nests at the Boy Scout Reservation. 

169*. (659) Dendroica, pennsylvanica (Linn.). Chestnut-sided Warbler. 
Common T.V., May 1-19; Sept. 20-Oct. 7. 

170. (660) Dendroica castanca (Wils.). Bay-breasted Warbler. V. Common 
T.V., May 5-20; Sept. 15-Oct. 11. Abundant in fall of 1930. 

171. (661) Dendroica striata (Forst.). Black-poll Warbler. Common T.V., 
May 4-25; Sept. 20-Oct. 9. 

172. (662) Dendroica fusca (Mull.). Blackburnian Warbler. F. Common 
T.V., in spring, April 29-May 20; no fall records. 

173. (663a) Dendroica dominica albilora Ridgw. Sycamore Warbler. F. 
Common S.R., April 5 — . 

174. (667) Dendroica virens (Gmel.). Black-throated Green Warbler. 
V. Common T.V., April 25-May 20; Sept. 16-Oct. 14. 

175*. (671) Dendroica vigorsi (Aud.). Pine Warbler. V. Rare T.V., April 
27, 1926 (uncommon); May 11, 1927 (1 seen); Sept. 20, 1930 (1 seen). 

176. (672) Dendroica palmarurn pamlarum (Gmel.). Palm Warbler. V. 
Common T.V., April 23-May 17; Oct, 18-26. 

177. (673) Dendroica discolor (Vieill.). Prairie Warbler. V. Rare T.V., 
April 27-30, 1926 (1 seen); May 12, 1928 (1 seen). 

178. (674) Seiurus aurocapillus (Linn.). Oven-bird. Rare S.R., V. Common 
T.V., April 30-Oct. 11. 

179. (675) Seiurus noveboracensis noveboracensis (Gmel.). Water-Thrush. 
F. Common T.V., April 21-May 15; Sept. 16-27. 

180. (676) Seiurus motacilla (Vieill). Louisiana Water-Thrush. V. Rare 
S.R., Uncommon T.V., April 2—. 

181. (677) Oporornis formosus (Wils.). Kentucky Warbler. Rare S.R., 
F. Common T.V., May 1—. 

182. (678) Oporornis agilis (Wils.). Connecticut Warbler. V. Rare T.V., 
May 10-20 (3 records); no fall records. 

183. (679) Oporornis Philadelphia (Wils.). Mourning Warbler. Rare T.V., 
May 12-25; no fall records. 

184. (681) Geothlypis trichas trichas (Linn.). Maryland Yellow-throat, V. 
Common S.R., Abundant T.V., April 17-Sept. 27. 

185. (683) I cteria virens virens (Linn.). Yellow-breasted Chat. F. Common 
S.R., Common T.V., May 1—. 

186. (685) Wilsonia pusilla pusilla (Wils.). Wilson's Warbler. F. Common 
T.V., May 10-20; Sept. 20, 1930 (2 seen). 



304 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

187*. (686) Wilsonia canadensis (Linn.). Canada Warbler. F. Common 
T.V., May 10-21; Sept. 27, 1930 (1 seen). 

188, (687) Seiophaga ruticilla (Linn.). Redstart, F. Common S.R., V. Corn- 
mom T. V., April 28-Sept. 27. 

189*. (697) Anthus rubescem (Tunstall). Pipit. V. Common T.V., April 
10-May 1; Oct. 18-27. 

190. (703) Mimas polyglottos polyglottos (Linn.). Mockingbird. V. Rare 
S.R., May 3—. 

191. (704) Dumetella carolinensis (Linn.). Catbird. V. Common S.R.. April 
21 -Sept. 27. 

192. (705) Toxostoma rufum (Linn.). Brown Thrasher. Common S.R., 
March 31-Sept, 27. 

193. (718) Thryothorus ludovicianus ludoricianus (Lath.). Carolina Wren. 
Common P.R. 

194. (719) Thryomanes bewicki bewicki (And.). Bewick's Wren. V. Rare 
S.R., Common T.V., March 18—. 

195*. (721) Troglodytes aedon aedon Vieill. House Wren. Abundant S.R., 
April 5-Oet, 4. 

196. (722) Nannus hiemalis hiemalis (Vieill.). Winter Wren. Uncommon 
W.R., Oct. 11-April 18. 

197*. (724) Cistothorus stellaris (Naumann). Short-billed Marsh Wren. 
Local S.R., V. Rare T.V., April 3-Sept. 27. The Short-billed Marsh Wrens nest 
in a meadow several miles south of Maywood. Four or five pairs nested there in 
the summer of 1930. They appear to be very rare elsewhere in the county. 

198. (725) Telmatodytes palustris palustris (Wils.). Long-billed Marsh 
Wren. Rare S.R., May 11-Sept, 27. 

199*. (726) Certhea familiaris americana Bonap. Brown Creeper. Com- 
mon W.R., Oct. 26-April 23. 

200. (727) Sitta carolinensis carolinensis Lath. White-breasted Nuthatch. 
Uncommon S.R., Common W.R., 

201. (728) Sitta canadensis Linn. Red-breasted Nuthatch. V. Rare T.V., 
March 6-May 24; V. Rare W.V., Dec. 24, 1929 (1 seen). 

202. (731) Baeolophus bicolor (Linn.). Tufted Titmouse. Abundant P.R. 

203. (735) Penthestes atricapillus atricapillus (Linn.). Chickadee. Occas- 
ional W.V. 

204. (736) Penthestes carolinensis carolinensis (Aud.). Carolina Chickadee. 
Abundant P.R. 

205. (748) Regulus satrapa satrapa Licht. Golden-crowned Kinglet. 
Uncommon W.R., Common T.V., Oct. 11-April 21. 

206. (749) Regulus calendula calendula (Linn.). Ruby-crowned Kinglet. 
Common T.V., March 30-May 12; Oct. 4-18. 

207. (751) Polioptila caerulea caerulea (Linn.). Blue-gray Gnatcatcher. 
F. Common S.R., Common T.V., April 5 — . 

208. (755) Hylocichla mustelina (Gmel.). Wood Thrush. Common S.R., 
April 19-Sept. 27. 

209. (756) Hylocichla fuscescens fuscescens (Steph.). Veery. V. Rare 
T.V., April 21-May 15; Sept, 27, 1930 (2 seen). 

210. (757) Hylocichla aliciae aliciae (Baird). Gray-cheeked Thrush. Un- 
common T.V. in spring, May 1-25; no fall records. 



A List of the Birds Seen in Marion County 305 

211. (758a) Hylocichla ustulata swainsoni (Tschudi). Olive-backed Thrush. 
V. Common T.V,, April 22-May 27; Sept, 20-27. 

212. (759b) )Hylocichla guttata pallasi (Cab.)- Hermit Thrush, Common 
T.V., March 6-May 1; Oct. 17-18, 1930 (common). 

213. (761) Planesticus rriigratorius migratorius (Linn.). Robin. Abundant 
S.R., Occasional W.R., Jan. 30-Nov. 8. 

214. (766) Sialia sialis sialis (linn.). Bluebird. Common S.R., Feb. 2- 
Nov. 8. 

UNUSUAL BIRDS SEEN IN JOHNSTON COUNTY 

These birds were seen along White River a few miles south of the Marion 
County line. They were recorded so close to the county and are of such a rare 
occurrence that the author deems it worth while to mention them. 

1. (43) Larus leucoptcrus Faber. Iceland Gull. Occasional T.V., April 
2, 1927 (1 seen). 

2. (47) Larus marinus Linn. Great Black-backed Gull. Occasional T.V. , 
April 2, 1927 (1 seen). The Great Black-backed Gull is probably the outstanding 
bird in the entire list from the point of view of rareness. It was seen with seven 
Herring Gulls and one Iceland Gull. They were on the ground in a plowed field 
and excellent comparisons in regard to size and color were obtained. The Great 
Black-backed Gull was an immature bird and had a band of buff spots across its 
breast. Its larger size and heavier build were very conspicuous. 

3. (300) Bonasa umbellus umbellus (Linn.). Ruffed Grouse. Occasional T.V. , 
Oct, 11, 1930 (1 seen). 

It seems necessary to explain the significance of the terms which are used in 
regard to frequency. In general, it is obvious that most waterfowl and certain 
land birds demand habitats near large streams and ponds and will seldom be 
found elsewhere. This fact must be taken into consideration in determining the 
frequency of such species. The terminology used in this paper is based on a per- 
centage system. However, such a system should not be rigidly adhered to, and 
only field trips covering a region where the habitat is of such a nature that the bird 
would be likely to occur, were considered. Furthermore the writer has limited 
himself to those field trips which lasted at least half a day and covered several 
miles of good bird territory. 

In view of these facts the following scale has been drawn up on a percentage 
basis : 

Abundant 90-100 

V. Common 80-90 

Common 60-SO 

F. Common 30-60 

Uncommon 10-30 

Rare 5-10 

V. Rare less than 5. 

'"Occasional" is difficult to classify on a percentage basis. It has been inter- 
preted to mean that the region in which the bird has been seen lies on the border 
of its range and consequently such species may not be recorded over a period of 
several years. 



30G Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Chapman, Frank M. Handbook of Birds of Eastern North America, revised 
ed. 1912. 

Butler, A. W. The Birds of Indiana, Indiana Geol. Nat. Res. Rep. 22:515- 
1187. 1897. 

Wollen, W. W. How Birds Common to Indiana Migrate Each Spring, 
Indianapolis News, March 21, 1914. 

Howie, H. L. The Bird Census of the Boy Scout Reservation. Ind. Audubon 
Bull: 1921, (fall,) 20-22. 

Forbush, E. H. Birds of Massachusetts and Other New England States. 
State Dept. of Agri., Boston, Mass. Vols. I-III, 1925, 1929. 

Baumgartner, Frederick M. Ducks in Marion County. Indiana Audubon 
Bull: 1930 (spring) 39-43. 



Insects of Indiana for 1930 



307 



INSECTS OF INDIANA FOR 1930* 
J. J. Davis, Purdue University 2 

The unusual weather conditions last winter and during the past summer, which 
have had such an important bearing on the insect population, have been unprece- 
dented in the experience of the writer. The severe cold of last January resulted 
in a high mortality of exposed insects such as scale insects. On the other hand there 
was a lessened mortality of those insects normally hibernating on or near the 
ground and protected by a blanket of snow. Thus a higher percentage of codling 
moth larvae survived the winter because most of the larvae which normally sur- 
vive the winter are those on or near the soil surface and these were protected by 
the covering of snow. On the other hand stone fruits were appreciably weakened 
by the cold weather of the past winter and because of this weakened condition 
the shot hole borer (Scolytus rugulosus) found it possible to gain a good foothold 
and was responsible for considerable damage. The severe cold of January also 

Table I. Comparative Monthly Weather Data for Indiana, 1930. 





Month 


Temperature 


Precipitation 


Number of Days 




State 

Mean 

°F. 


Departure 

from 

Normal 

°F. 


State 
Average 
Inches 


Departure 

from 

Normal 

Inches 


Clear 


Partly 
Cloudy 


Cloudy 






28.6 
25.4 


- 3.2 


3.05 
6.36 


+ 3.31 


10 
10 


7 
5 


14 




1930 


16 








February. . . . 




29.6 
40.6 


+ 11.0 


2.54 
2.49 


- 0.05 


9 
10 


7 

8 


12 


1930 


10 






40.7 
39.4 


- 1.3 


3.85 

1.82 


- 2.04 


10 
14 


8 

7 


13 




1930 


10 








April 


Normal 

1930 


52.0 
54.0 


+ 2.0 


3.49 
2.55 


- 0.94 


11 

14 


9 

8 


16 

8 








May 


Normal 

1930 


62.2 
63.6 


+ 1.4 


4.01 
1.79 


- 2.22 


12 
15 


10 

8 


9 

8 








June 


Normal 

1930 


71.6 
71 .0 


- 0.6 


3.83 
2.60 


- 1 . 23 


13 
15 


7 
11 


7 
4 








July 


Normal 

1930 


75.3 

77.4 


+ 2.1 


3.40 

1.78 


- 1.62 


15 
21 


11 

8 


5 
2 


August 


Normal 

1930 


73.3 
74.4 


+ 1.1 


3.31 

2.07 


- 1.24 


15 
15 


10 
1 1 


6 

5 


September. . . 


Normal 

1930 


67.0 

6S.4 


+ 1.4 


3.12 
3.62 


+ 0.50 


15 
15 


8 

8 


7 

7 


October 




54.5 

52.8 


- 1.7 


2.69 
1.54 


- 1.15 


15 
16 


7 
7 


9 




1930 


s 


November. . . 


Normal 

1930 


42.2 
43.2 


+ 1.0 


3.09 
1 .98 


-1.11 


12 
13 


7 
4 


11 
13 



Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 40: 307-320. (1930) 1931. 

'This is the sixth annual report on insects of Indiana, intended as an annual summary, and 
especially for use of future workers in the prediction of insect troubles. 

'-The writer is indebted to the following for records and information contained in this report : 
F. H. Lathrop, C. M. Packard, W. P. Yetter, Jr., R. F. Sazama, R, H. Painter, W. B. Noble, G. G. 
Ainshe, Curtis Benton, F. E. Sheaffer, H. K. Ripey, G. A. Ficht, G. E. Marshall and L. F. Steiner. 



308 



Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 



killed the fruit buds which eliminated the favorable host material for the late 
broods of the Oriental fruit worm and this condition was doubtless responsible 
for the scarcity of fruit worms late in the season although they had been abundant 
earlier in the season. Similarly the severe drought and heat affected different in- 
sects in various ways. These conditions destroyed many of the Hessian fly 
"flaxseeds" and greatly hindered the increase and spread of the European corn 
borer, although favoring the development and increase of such insects as the 
codling moth and chinch bug. 

From January to September inclusive, there was an excess of 13.9°F. while 
the rainfall deficiency for the same period was 5.54 inches. 



Temp 



e rat ure 

Jan. Fe.h, Mem 



/ Ufr Sebt Oct 




Fig. 1. Departures from normal temperat 
based on data in Climatological Data, issued 



ml precipitation in Indiana for the y> 
dy by the U. S. Weather Bureau 



Insects of Indiana for 1930 309 



Cereal and Forage Insects 



The common stalk borer (Papaipema nitela Gn.) was again common through- 
out the state. The first report was received May 19 and all larvae received dur- 
ing May and June were small. General field infestations rather than border in- 
festations were more common than in recent years, which was probably due to 
grassy growths in the fields last fall when the moths were laying eggs. The pest 
was most conspicuous and destructive during June and July although continuing 
through August and into September. The first pupa was received September 2 
and all material received after that date were in the pupal stage. Corn was the 
usual host and damage ranged from slight to 20 to 30 per cent of the crop. Other 
hosts reported included Delphinium, Iris, dahlia, golden glow, regal lily, 
Madonna lily, hollyhock, sweet william, pansy, oats, potatoes, tomatoes, and 
burdock. Localities included all sections of the state as follows : Anderson, Boone- 
ville, Brookville, Brazil, Cannelton, Chalmers, Chandler, Danville, Decatur, 
Dugger, Eaton, Elwood, Etna Green, Evansville, Fowler, Frankfort, Freeland- 
ville, Gary, Greencastle, Hammond, Idaville, Jeffersonville, Lafayette, LaPorte, 
Liberty, Lowell, Macy, Montpelier, Nappanee, Nashville, Newport, Otterbein, 
Oxford, Paoli, Plymouth, Princeton, Radnor, Rushville, St. Joe, Salem, Shelby- 
ville, South Bend, Spencer, Stewartsville, Sunman, Tipton, Valparaiso, Willian s- 
port and Winamac. 

The European corn borer (Pyrausta nubilalis Hbn.) entered Indiana in 1926, 
under conditions unusually favorable for its spread and increase. Since that year, 
and until 1930, the insect has spread at a normal rate and increased in abundarce 
each year in the previously infested territory. However, in 1930, the spread was 
not great, nor the increase in older infested territory as much as would be normally 
anticipated. This was due entirely to the hot, dry weather conditions at critical 
stages in the life of the insect which shortened the life of the moths, prevented them 
from laying their maximum numbers of eggs, and lessened their flight, and later, 
the extreme conditions caused a high mortality of the larvae which had become 
established in the upper parts of the stalks. In spite of these adverse conditions 
the borer spread to 18 new townships and into three new counties and increased 
approximately 25 per cent in the older infested areas. 

White grubs (Lachnosterna spp.) were destructively abundant in the north- 
western quarter of the state, as anticipated. There is every indication of a con- 
tinual spread southward. Considerable damage was reported from the following 
counties: Benton, Jasper, Clinton, St. Joseph, Elkhart, Newton, Lake, Adams, 
Warren, LaPorte, Jay and Fountain,. The majority of inquiries referred to injury 
to corn although injury was also reported to oats, blue grass, pasture, golf greens, 
lawns, potato, timothy and strawberry. The drought conditions intensified 
injury in some cases. See also under Flower Garden Insects. 

Northern corn rootworm adults (Diabrotica longicornis Say) reported as 
destructive to corn at Richmond August 23. 

Corn seed maggot (Hylemyia cilicrura Rond.) damaged corn in the following 
counties: Shelby (May 10), Union (May 13), Howard (Kokomo) (May 23), 
Jasper (June 3); also soybeans in LaPorte County (June 3) and lima beans in 
Franklin County (June 3). 

Billbugs (Sphenophorus callosa Oliv. and S. zeae Walsh) were seriously 
injurious to corn in Carroll County (May 1), Wayne County (May 8), and Dear- 
born County (May 17). Those from Wayne and Carroll were S. zeae and those 
from Dearborn, where they were attacking corn in the bottom lands, were S- 



310 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

callosa. During June old injury was received from Hillsdale and Kempt on, reveal- 
ing damage earlier in the year, probably in May. 

Web worms (Cr ambus sp.) were very abundant and destructive to corn over 
large areas in Floyd, Grant, Miami, Randolph, Tippecanoe, Union and Wayne 
counties May 11-17. Additional reports were received during the last of May and 
first half of June from Rushville, Middletown and Kempton. 

Cutworms were rather general throughout the state. Specific records, re- 
ceived during the period April 29-May 26, as follows: Attacking corn at Muncie, 
Marion, Liberty, Lafayette and South Bend; garden plots at Indianapolis and 
Culver; and cabbage, tomato and carrots at Ft. Wayne and Remington. 

Wireworms damaged corn at Delphi May 13 and reported very abundant in 
plowed ground at Indianapolis May 14 and Liberty Mills, May 20. Damaged 
corn at Kempton May 24. Damaged potatoes and cabbage at Muncie July 7. 

Millipeds were reported attacking and damaging corn in Wayne County 
May 21. The record appears authentic although details were not received. 

Corn root aphid (Aphis maidi-radicis Forbes) damaged corn in Jasper County 
June 7; also during June it was reported generally abundant in Spencer County, 
one specific report referring to a 40-acre field which was plowed up and replanted; 
what was also the same species reported damaging melons at Morocco June 16. 

Southern corn leaf beetle (Myochrous denticollis Say) was sent in from near 
Patriot (Switzerland County) where it destroyed 90 per cent or more of the corn 
in a large field. The beetles appeared and destroyed the corn between May 1 and 
6, as many as 11 beetles per hill being found. The field had been in alfalfa and 
blue grass and had not been plowed for two years. It was plowed in February and 
planted early. The beetles fed mostly on the stem below ground. 

Clover white grubs (Colaspis brunnea Fab.) damaged corn at Danville ac- 
cording to a report received June 16. 

Corn earworm (Heliothus obsoletus Fab.) was more abundant than at any 
time since 1927. Reports of earworms attacking green tassels of corn came in 
from Nashville, Mt. Vernon, Booneville and Brookville during June 28-July 1. 
Later in the season (September and October) it became very conspicuous and de- 
structive to both field and sweet corn throughout the state. At Mitchel a third 
grown larva was observed eating into an apple (Sept. 27). Early in October they 
were damaging recently dug sweet potatoes at Vincinnes, attacking the tubers as 
they set in baskets in the field. Serious losses to tomatoes were reported for Boone- 
ville, Mt. Vernon and Scottsburg October 13. 

Grasshoppers were reported unusually abundant in early August in Vander- 
burgh and Posey counties; also at Monterey. Injury seemed to be largely to corn 
and clover according to G. G. Ainslie. Melanophus differentialis Thos. was ap- 
parently the predominating species although in some localities M. femur-rubrum 
DeG. was very abundant. 

Fall army worm (Laphygma frugiperda S. & A.) made its appearance in 
conspicuous and destructive numbers in southern Indiana for the first time in 
several years. Definite reports were received from Tell City (Oct. 10), Cannelton 
(Oct. 11) and Corydon (Oct. 14). In all cases serious damage to rye, wheat, and 
barley were reported and in some cases the entire crops were destroyed. 

Hessian fly (Phytophaga destructor Say) conditions are summarized by C. M. 
Packard, as follows: "Hessian fly infestations last spring were, in general, too 
light to affect yields, due to the lingering effects of the 1929 drouth and the not 
particularly favorable spring weather for fly increase. Occasional stubble fields 



Insects of Indiana for 1930 311 

of the 1930 crop, especially in southern Indiana, contained sufficient fly to makt 
considerable infestation possible in nearby fall sowings but the prolonged summer 
drouth was unfavorable to fly activity, growth of volunteer wheat, and early 
sowing, and fall infestations were therefore generally very light. The main fly 
emergence occurred about Sept. 24 to Oct. 4 throughout the state as a result of 
the general rains of Sept. 12 to 16. A portion of the flies remained unchanged in 
the stubble, however, and drouthy conditions in October were unfavorable to the 
establishment of this main fall brood, or further pupation and emergence of adults. 
During August and early September sufficient rain occurred in a few northern 
localities to cause the growth of volunteer wheat, much early sowing, and some 
fly emergence in early September. As a result considerable infestation of early 
sown and volunteer wheat is present in these localities." 

The green-bug or spring grain aphid (Toxoptera graminum Rond.) was re- 
ported as responsible for the "utter failure of oats in Spencer County." We did 
not see specimens. 

The joint worm (Harmolita tritici Fitch) was abundant at New Carlisle as 
evidenced by an abundance of stem galls in threshed wheat. 

Clover bud worm (Phytonomus nigrirostris Fab.) was abundant and destruc- 
tive to red clover in the vicinity of Lafayette, early in June. 

Clover leaf weevil {Hyper a punctata Fab.) damaged new clover field at 
Kempton, Apr. 24 and from Apr. 29-May 8 was conspicuously common through- 
out central Indiana, specific reports of damage to alfalfa and clover coming from 
Muncie, Windfall, Kokomo, and Lafayette. 



Vegetable Insects 

Cabbage worm (Pontia rapae L.). During the past four years there has 
been a noticeable increase in cabbage acreage, due to increased demand for cabbage 
by kraut factories. There has also been an increasing demand for information 
on the control of the cabbage worm. Reports of abundance were received from 
French Lick, Jasper, Lafayette, Monterey, Peru, Sheridan and Warsaw, most of 
the inquiries coming in during July, in most cases the worms being reported as 
a very serious pest. 

Cabbage aphid (Aphis hrassicae L.) was abundant and destructive to cabbage 
at Bourbon, New Carlisle, Pendleton, and Thorntown. Reports were received 
from May 18 to July 21. 

Cabbage curculio (Ceutorhynchus rapae Gyll.) damaged 75 percent of cabbage 
plants in a commercial seed bed at Vincennes, May 24, according to F. H. Lathrop. 

Harlequin cabbage bug (Murgantia histrionica Hahn.) was reported destruc- 
tively abundant to cabbage at Princetown, Aug. 11. 

Cabbage snake (Gordius parasite) was reported occurring in a head of cabbage 
at Brookville, October 15. 

Radish or cabbage maggot (Hylemyia hrassicae Bouche) was reported de- 
structive to radish at Muncie, Russiaville and Sheridan and to cabbage at Crom- 
well. All reports came in between May 12 and 19. 

Turnip aphid (Aphis pseudobrassicae Davis) is an increasing pest each year. 
One correspondent who has 20 or more acres of turnips in Marion County advises 
that hardly a turnip or Sutton radish was raised in his vicinity in the fall of 1929 
because of these aphids. During 1930 definite reports of damage to turnips came 
from Indianapolis, Jasonville, Vincennes, and Warsaw. 



312 Proceedings op Indiana Academy of Science 

Striped cucumber beetle (Diabrotica vittata Fab.) continues as an annual 
pest of melon and cucumber. Reports during the winter indicated serious damage 
in 1929 (not previously reported) at Rensselaer, Bristol, Williamsport and Goshen. 
At the two latter places the roots and lower stalks were damaged by the larvae. 
During 1930 reports of damage were received from Aurora, Bedford, Bristol, 
Bremen, Elwood, Evansville, Huntington, Lafayette, Ladoga, Michigantown, 
Sunman, Terre Haute, Thorntown, Warsaw, and Wheatfield. The first report 
came from southern Indiana May 14 and continued until July 28. 

Melon aphid (Aphis gossypii Glov.) damaged melons at Bedford, Fowler, 
Lafayette, Huntington, Veedersburg and Warsaw during July and early August. 

Striped flea-beetles (Systena taeniata Say) damaged early tomatoes and to- 
mato seedlings at Greencastle and Lafayette early in May. They also damaged 
tomatoes at Bloomfield and Crawfordsville early in June. Beans and corn were 
also damaged at Crawfordsville. Undentified species injured potato at Warsaw, 
corn and egg plant at Columbia and tomato at Greenville. 

Crickets (Gryllidae) were destructive to tomato fruits at Matthews August 
29. 

Green tomato worms (Phlegothontius sp.) were reported damaging potatoes 
at Leesburg (July 31) and at Monterey and Union Mills (Aug. 6 and 11). 

Spotted cucumber beetle (Diabrotica 12-punctata Oliv.) was a pest of canning 
beans at Greenfield June 26 and damaged flowers, tomatoes and other garden 
crops at Renssalaer Aug. 14 and to corn at Ligonier Aug. 15. Larvae, supposedly 
of this species, injured beans at Frankfort in July. During late May and early 
June this species was more than usually abundant on cucumbers at Warsaw. 

Potato tuber moth (Phthorimaea operculella Zell.) heavily infested potatoes 
received Aug. 26 from Ft. Wayne. The wholesale house which disposed of the 
potatoes advised us that they had been purchased from a dealer in Delaware and 
that the potatoes originated in Virginia. They added, "We have a customer in 
our city who purchased homegrown potaotes near New Haven, Indiana, that had 
the same infestation." We were unable to trace the reported Indiana infestation. 

Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decimlineata Say) was more abundant 
than for several years. They were especially noticeable attacking both potatoes 
and eggplant, according to reports, at Bedford, Lafayette, Monterey and Warsaw. 

Potato leaf -hopper (Empoasca fabae Harr.) was normally abundant and de- 
structive at Elkhart, Fowler, Lafayette and Warsaw. 

Variegated cutworm (Peridroma margaritosa Haw.) damaged foliage of 
tomato and flowers of calla and carnations in a greenhouse at Decatur, Mar. 31. 

Tarnished plant bug (Lygus pratensis L.) caused considerable damage to 
potato at Columbia City, early in June. 

Wireworms (Elateridae) damaged potato and cabbage at Muncie during 
June. Reports of damage to potatoes were also received from South Whitley 

Blister beetles (Epicauta spp.) were apparently more abundant than for 
several years. The first report was received June 27 and reports continued to 
come in until Aug. 2. The first report of unusual abundance was received from 
Scottsburgh July 17, where tomatoes were being damaged by E. vittata Fab. 
Other reports were as follows: Epicauta spp. damaging clematis at Red Key, 
potatoes at Atlanta, Lafayette and Austin; E. vittata damaging tomatoes at 
Shelbyville, potatoes at Lafayette, Gosport, Greencastle, Lebanon, Indianapolis, 
and Dillsboro; E. cinerea Forst. damaged flowers at Liberty, and tomato and 
other garden vegetables at Spencer; E. marginata Fab. attacking potato, cabbage, 



Insects of Indiana for 1930 



313 



tomato and corn at Lafayette, Williamsport, Crawfordsville, Frankfort, Green- 
castle, Lebanon and Indianapolis; E. pennsylvanica De G. on potato, tomato, 
cabbage, dahlia and other garden plots at Greencastle, Lafayette, Lebanon, 
Indianapolis, Spencer, Ellettsville and Morgantown. 

Strawberry leaf -roller (Ancylis comptana Frohl.) was more abundant than 
usual in 1930, reports of abundance and injury coming from Greencastle, Lafay- 
ette, Mill Creek and Terre Haute from May 14 to June 26. 

Strawberry root worm (Paria canella Fab.) adults were conspicuous eating 
strawberry foliage at Tipton (May 14) and Danville (June 4). 

White grubs (Lachnosterna spp.) damaged strawberries at Hudson according 
to a report received July 10. 

Strawberry Crown borer (Tyloderma fragariaeHH.) (fig. 2) was very destruc- 
tive to strawberries at New Albany, according to F. E. Sheaffer. This insect 
is an annually increasing pest in the strawberry areas near New Albany. 





Fig. 2. Typical injury by the strawberry crown borer. Note larvae and pupae in the exca- 
vated areas in the crowns of the plant. 



Asparagus beetles (Criocerus sp.) were abundant and destructive at Hanna, 
Indianapolis, Plymouth, and Rossville. 

Mint flea beetle (Longitarsus waterhousei Kutsch) is a new pest in Indiana 
and is a threatening pest of the mint industry. Reports of damage came from 
Cromwell, Millersburg, Topeka and Warsaw. 

Mexican bean beetle (Epilachna corrupta Muls.) made its appearance early 
in June and was reported destructive from the following localities: Bedford, 
Crawfordsville, French Lick, Indianapolis-, Plainfield, Paoli, Princeton, Spencer 
and Sunman. 

Red spider (Tetranychus telarius L.) ruined a commercial crop of beans at 
Indianapolis in late July, and damaged melons at Orestes. This same pest was 



314 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

destructive to elder at Frankfort, juniper at Elkhart, and to red maple at Sullivan 
during the same period. 

Squash vine borer (Melittia satyriniformis Hbn.) was destructive to squash 
at Battle Ground, Decatur, Lafayette, Leiter's Ford, and Warsaw, during the 
period May 11 to Aug. 10, also to cucumber at Indianapolis July 1. 

Onion maggot (Hylemyia antiqua Meig.). For the second consecutive 
season this insect was not a major onion pest. Reports of its destructiveness 
were received the last of May and first of June from Corunna, Cromwell, Roll, 
Sheridan and Waterloo. H. K. Riley who is making a special study of this 
insect in the vicinity of Warsaw, gives the following notes: "On the whole onion 
maggot injury has been light. Considerable injury was done in a few fields be- 
tween June 1 and 20. Maggots collected May 28, pupariated June 1 and adults 
began emerging June 20." 

Onion thrips (Thrips tabaci Lind.) were abundant in a few localities in northern 
Indiana during June and July. 

Garden slugs (Limax sp.) damaged cabbage and tomato at Sheridan during 
May and general garden plants at Muncie and Angola. 

The mole cricket (Gryllotalpa borealis Burm.) destroyed most of the potatoes 
in a garden at New Chicago, eating holes in the tubers, according to a report re- 
ceived Dec. 8. This insect is not uncommon in some of the southern states, 
damaging underground tubers, especially potatoes, but is rarely a pest in Indiana. 

Unidentified plant lice (Aphididae) were reported abundant on various 
garden plants, especially radish, turnip and lettuce from a number of points in 
the northern half of the state. 

Fruit Insects 

Codling moth (Carpocapsa pomonella L.) was unusually prevalent and de- 
structive in the southern half of Indiana during 1930, more so than any season 
since 1926. Larvae wintering in places subject to the low temperatures of January 
showed a mortality of 60 per cent or more, but on the ground, where they were 
protected with a covering of snow the mortality was probably less than normal. 
The hot, dry summer weather was ideal for maximum reproduction and number 
of generations, there being three full generations for the season. At Bedford 
the peak of moth emergence from overwintering larvae was May 23 according to 
Marshall. The larvae of the first brood were leaving the fruit June 10 at Bedford 
although according to Sazama they were leaving fruit June 4 or 5 at Vincennes. 
The peak of moth emergence at Bedford for the first brood was July 31, of the 
second brood Sept. 2 and the third brood larvae were hatching Sept. 10. The 
overlapping of generations and favorable weather conditions permitted egg laying 
and entry of larvae into fruit until the latter part of October. 

Woolly apple aphid (Eriosoma lanigerwn Haus.) was normally abundant 
throughout the state. 

Apple aphids (apparently both Aphis avenae and A. pomi) were hatching at 
Mitchell, March 10, according to L. F. Steiner. Apparently hatching started the 
8th or 9th. Apple buds were not showing green at the time and for a week there- 
after many of the recently hatched young starved to death. During the season 
reports of abundance were received from scattered places. In general they were 
not serious pests the past season. 

Egg punctures of the buffalo tree hopper (Ceresa bvbalus Fab.) were abundant 
on a young pear tree at Waterloo in April. 



Insects of Indiana for 1930 



31! 



An undetermined apple leaf-tier was reported seriously damaging a young 
apple orchard at Winamac May 14, 

The lesser apple worm (Laspeyresia prunivora Walsh) was conspicuous in 
storage apples at Martinsville, during March. 

An apple leaf -hopper (Typhlocyha pomaria McA., DeLong det.) was reported 
by G. E. Marshall as very abundant on apples at Bedford, June 1. Other leaf- 
hoppers (T. obliqua Say and others) were abundant during late September and 
October at Mitchell and Bedford when they caused considerable whitening of 
leaves and excrement spotting of fruit. F. H. Lathrop reports T. obliqua as 
exceedingly abundant at Vincennes and states under date of September 26 that 
it has been increasing since midsummer. 

San Jose scale (Aspidiotus pemiciosus Comst.). In spite of the high winter 
mortality, which was 90 per cent at Mitchell, according to counts made by L. F. 
Steiner February 19, this insect increased to threatening numbers in some orchards. 
According to R. F. Sazama the first crawlers were first noticed about June 1, 
approximately 10 days earlier than normal. Reports of abundance on peach and 
apple were reported from several scattered localities in the state. 




Fig. 3. Section of apple showing injury by the apple maggot, an important apple pest in the 
north tier of counties. Note larva in right half. 



Scurfy scale (Chionaspis furfura Fitch) was reported abundant on apple at 
LaPorte in March. 

Oriental fruit worm (Laspeyresia molesta Busck) was hindered in its increas- 
ing menace by the absence of peach fruit throughout the state. Contrary to an- 
ticipations it did not go over to apple in appreciable numbers, possibly due to 
difficulty in continuing in abundance on peach twigs until apples became suscep- 
tible to attack. There was a high winter mortality where the larval cocoons were 
exposed in locations above the snow line, in fact Steiner's studies showed almost 
a 100 per cent mortality. 

Steiner found that 40 per cent of the overwintering worms on the ground had 
pupated by March 19 at Bedford and Vincennes, and two days later 75 per cent 



316 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

on the ground and 60 per cent of the live worms on the trunk of the trees had pu- 
pated, The season was unusually early although the cold weather the last week 
in March checked the development of both plants and insects. During May the 
number of infested peach twigs was comparable to 1929. The flight of second 
brood moths began the week of June 1 to 7 at Vincennes, according to Sazama. 
During August the infestations dropped appreciably and it was difficult to find 
infested twigs except in young succulent orchards and no serious infestations de- 
veloped in apples. 

Peach tree borer (Aegeria exitiosa Say) was abundant in many localities, 
reports being received from Elkhart, Indianapolis, Ligonier, LaPorte, Martins- 
ville, Michigan City, Tell City, Walkertown, and Warren. 

Lesser peach tree borer (Synanthedon pictipes G. and R.) was reported very 
abundant on young peach trees at Angola, early last spring. 

Peach-leaf blister mite (Eriophyes pyri Pag.) was destructive to pear at La- 
doga, April 28. 

Cherry slug (Eriocampoides limacina Retz.) reported abundant on cherry 
at Indianapolis June 11 and Aurora June 17. In general, however, not con- 
spicuously destructive. 

Plum curculio (Conotrachelus nenuphar Herbst) was normally abundant on 
apple in sections of southern Indiana. It was also reported serious on plum at 
Plymouth. 

Shot-hole borer (Scolytus rugulosus Ratz.) began to show up in unusual abund- 
ance on peach at Mitchell and other points in southern Indiana the last of April. 
This abundance was due to the weakened condition of the trees resulting from 
severe cold weather in January and in some cases also to severe San Jose scale 
infestations. Reports of abundance of this insect were received almost continu- 
ously during May and June. Reports also showed damage to cherry at Ligonier 
and Warren, to plum at Noblesville and to stone fruits in general at Indianapolis 
and Ft. Wayne. 

Grape aphid (Illinoia viticola Shim.) was common on grape at Lafayette and 
Crawfordsville during June. 

Grape root worm (Fidia viticida Walsh) was destructive to grape at Warsaw 
in 1929 according to an early spring report. 

Grape curculio (fGraponius inaequalis Say) was destructive to grapes at 
Spencer in 1929 according to an early spring report. 

Rose chafer (Macrodactylus subspinosus Fab.) has been abundant and de- 
structive to grape and other crops at Chesterton for past three years according 
to a report received in March. 

Gooseberry aphid (Aphis houghtonensis Troop) was destructive to gooseberry 
at Hope, Indianapolis and South Whitley in 1929, according to reports and speci- 
mens of injury received in February and March. 

Shade Tree and Shrub Insects 

Norway maple aphid (Periphyllus lyropicta Kess.) was reported abundant on 
Norway maple at Bedford, Danville, Flora and Orleans, the last of June. 

Woolly elm aphid (Erioso?na lanigerum Haus.) abundant on elm at Anderson 
the last of June. 

Spiraea aphid (Aphis spiraecola Patch) reported abundant at Clayton early 
in May. It was normally common in most sections of the state. 



Insects of Indiana for 1930 317 

Elm cockscomb gall (Colopha ulmicola Fitch) was reported during June and 
July as common at Elwood, Fowler, Indianapolis, Liberty, Morgantown and 
Orleans, 

Cottony maple scale (Pulvinaria vitis L.) continues to be the outstanding 
scale pest of shade trees. Reports during the season were received from Anderson, 
Bluffton, Cicero, Columbia City, Flora, Fowler, Hartford City, Indianapolis, 
Knightstown, Lafayette, Linton, Lizton, Marion, Morristown, Muncie, Nobles- 
ville, Pittsboro, Portland, Saratoga and Warren. Eggs were hatching at Lafayette, 
June 19. 

Pine leaf scale (Chionaspis pinifoliae Fitch) was unusually abundant on pine 
at Portland. 

Elm scurfy scale (Chionaspis americana Johns.) reported abundant on young 
elms at Portland in June. 

Oyster Shell Scale (Lepidosaphes ulmi L.) abundant on ash and lilac at La- 
Grange, South Bend and Valparaiso. 

Tulip tree scale (Tourney 'etta liriodendri Gmel.) abundant on tulip trees at 
Shoals in July. 

Bagworm (Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis Haw.) was reported abundant 
during the winter on apple, cherry, plum and evergreens at Brookville, Lyons, 
Pershing, Rockville and Worthington, with reports of injury in 1929. During 
1930 reports of abundance were reported from Aurora, Brookville, Burns City, 
Jasper and Sullivan, where apple, red maple, gum, boxelder, and evergreens, 
including cedar, were attacked. 

Carpenter worm (Prionoxystus robiniae Peck) damaged white oak at Tyner 
according to a report received the last of April. 

Mottled willow and poplar borer (Cryptorhynchus lapathi L.) was destructive 
to willow at Bluffton and St. Joe during June. 

Elm borer (Saperda tridentata Oliv.) was sent in from Spencer, November 17, 
with the report that a number of elm trees in that city were dying and all were 
infested with this borer. 

Flat-headed borer (Chrysobothris femorata Oliv.) damaged maple, especially 
hard maple at Hartford City, Jeffersonville, Martinsville, and in Randolph 
County. Apple was also damaged in Randolph County and at New Richmond. 

Red spider (Tetranychus telarius L.) was destructive to evergreens at Elwood, 
Indianapolis, New Albany, and Wabash, to blue spruce at Evansville, to arbor 
vitae at Greenwood, phlox at Michigan City, and beans at Greencastle. The first 
reports were received May 28 and continued until July 17. 

Maple bladder gall mite (Phyllocoptes quadripes Shim.) was abundant on 
soft maple at Greenfield, Logansport, and Peru. 

Flower Garden and Ornamental Greenhouse Insects 

Rose slugs (Caliroa aethiops Fab.) were common on rose at Bremen, Lafayette, 
and Morgantown during June. 

Iris borer (Macronoctua onusta Grt.) was very destructive to iris at Lafayette 
during June, becoming first conspicuous early in the month. 

Rose root worm (Paria canella Fab.) was abundant and destructive to 
greenhouse roses at Vincennes, according to a report received Oct. 14. 

Common stalk borer (Papaipema nitela Gn.) was common on flowering plants 
throughout the state. For complete records see under cereal and forage crop 
insects 



318 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

The rose beetle or chafer (Macrodactylus subspinosus Fab.) was conspicuous 
in many sections of the state. The following specific records were received: 
Damaging grapes, peonies, spiraea and crab-apple at Terre Haute, May 31; roso, 
apple, asparagus and other fruits and vegetables at Hobart, June 11 ; corn, rose and 
plum foliage and fruit at Pierceton, June 17; grape, rose and peony at Macy, 
June 17; garden plants at Brimfield, June 14; killing chickens at Monterey, June 
12; and attacking grapes and other fruits and responsible for death of over 100 
chicks at Plymouth, June 19. 

Thrips (species unknown) damaged various house plants at Angola during 
March. 

Mealy bugs (Pseudococcus spp.) were destructive to house plants at Crown 
Point, Monticello and Valparaiso, and to chrysanthemum and other greenhouse 
plants at Churubusco, Evansville, New Albany, Richmond, and Valparaiso 
during October and November. 

Root aphids (Prociphilus erigeronensis Thos.) damaged aster, dahlia and other 
flowering plants at Greenfield, Lafayette and Vincennes. 

Golden glow aphid (Macrosiphum rudbeckiae Fitch) destructive to golden 
glow at Morgantown the last of June. 

The variegated cutworm (Peridroma magaritosa Haw.) damaged foliage of 
tomato and flowers of calla and carnation in a greenhouse at Decatur the last of 
March. 

White grubs (Lachnosterna spp.) were very serious pests in commercial plant- 
ings of gladioli at Goshen, according to F. E. Sheaffer. 

Oyster shell scale (Lepidosaphes ulmi L.) generally abundant on lilac, ash, 
willow, and peony throughout northern half of state. 

Ivy scale (Chrysomphalus aonidium L.) abundant on Boston ivy at LaPorte. 

Fern scale (Sassietia hemisphaerica Targ.) a pest of house sword fern at Ko- 
komo. 

Oleander scale (Aspidiotus hederae Vail.) was destructive to indoor English 
ivy at Laporte. 

Fungus gnat maggots (Sciara sp.) reported injuring potted plants at Albion, 
during the past winter. 

Red spider (Tetranychus telarius L.) injured house plants at Angola the past 
winter and reports indicate damage to quince at Shelbyville and evergreens at 
Hobart in 1929, but no definite reports of serious injury were received in 1930. 

Cyclamen mite (Tarsonemus pallidas Banks) was destructive to greenhouse 
plants at Brownstown, Hobart and Portland. At the latter place cyclamen and 
mistletoe chrysanthemum were chiefly injured. 

Bulb mite (Rhizoglyphus hyadnihi Boisd.) damaged lily bulbs at South Bend. 

Sowbugs (Isopoda) damaged hotbed seedlings at Bedford last spring. 

Pests of Stored Products 

Bean weevils (principally Mylabris obtectus Say) are generally distributed 
throughout the state and commonly destructive as evidenced by the many in- 
quiries received. These have come from Alexandria, Bloomington, Columbus, 
Forest, Franklin, Galveston, Indianapolis, LaCrosse, Lafayette, New Carlisle, 
Sharpsville, Spencer, Swanington, Tipton, Van Buren, Wilkinson, Wolcottville, 
and Yorktown. In most cases, household beans were infested, although one report 
at LaCrosse referred to soy beans. 

The cadelle (Tenebroides mauritanicus L.) damaged corn in storage at Rich- 
mond and wheat at Crawfordsville. 



Insects op Indiana for 1930 319 

Angoumois grain moth (Sitotroga cerealella Oliv.) damaged exhibit grain at 
Lowell, and popcorn at Argos. 

Indian meal moth (Plodia inter punctella Hbn.) abundant in sacked corn at 
Kentland. 

Meal worm larvae (Tenebrio sp.) common in timothy seed at Portland. 

Common granary weevil (Sitophilus granaria L.) destroyed seed corn at 
Anderson and wheat at Fowler. 

Saw-toothed grain beetle (Oryzaephilus surinamensis L.) abundant in flour 
at Raub. 

Reports of wheat infestations (grain beetles and weevils) reported from 
Anderson, Greencastle, Fowler, Mitchell, Bridgeport, Greentown, Lafayette and 
LaGrange. 

Clover and timothy seed were infested with an unknown beetle at New Point. 
Farinaceous foods infested at Indianapolis. 

Mediterranean flour moth (Epheslia kuehniella Zell.) infested hominy and 
other feeds at Lebanon and Madison. 

Household and Miscellaneous Pests 

One of the black flies (Simnlidae) reported very abundant and troublesome 
to poultry at Cromwell the last of April. 

Sheep tick (Melophagus ovinus L.) common at Alexandria in May. 

Poultry lice (Mallophaga) conspicuously abundant at Williamsport early in 
May. 

Common poultry mite (Dermanyssus gallinae DeG.) reported during January 
as abundant at Bunker Hill. 

A cerambycid larva (determined by Craighead as Eburia I^-geminata Say.) 
was received from Wheatland May 9, with the information that it had issued from 
a one inch wooden bottom of a chair that had been in the possession of the corres- 
pondent for 33 years. The wood was supposed to be mahogany but perhaps only 
a hardwood with mahogany finish. Craighead advises us that the adult is attracted 
to light and is often caught inside houses and furthermore it may lay eggs on wood 
in the absence of bark so that the above record is not proof that the insect can 
live for the length of time indicated, in the larva stage. 

Termites (Reticulitermes flavipes Roll.) were abundant in many sections of the 
state, serious infestations to buildings being reported from the following localities : 
Anderson, Crawfordsville, Evansville, Gas City, Greensburg, Indianapolis, 
Ladoga, Lafayette, Linden, Logansport, Martinsville, Richmond, Russelville, 
Shelbyville, Tell City, Terre Haute and Williamsport. Winged migrants were 
abundant during April. 

Powder post beetles (Lyctus sp.) damaged old hickory furniture at several 
places in the state during May and woodwork at Pierceton. 

The ash timber beetle (Leperisinus aculeatus Say, Snyder det.) received from 
Columbus, Sept. 23, where it was reported attacking cut ash logs to be used in the 
manufacture of implement handles. 

White grubs (Cyclocephala immaculata Oliv.) damaged golf greens at Indian- 
apolis during late September and October. ((See under Cereal and Forage Insects 
for records of Lachnosterna grub injury to lawns and golf greens.) 

Bedbugs (Cimex lectularius L.) reported common at Bruceville, Lafayette, 
Mishawaka, Rockport, Van Buren and Winchester. 

Mosquitoes reported very abundant at Indianapolis the last week in July. 



320 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

Flies (species unknown) were reported unusually troublesome in poultry 
houses at Ligonier and North Manchester the last week in July. 

Silverfish (Lepisma saeeharina L.) reported abundant and infesting a medical 
clinic at Garrett in April. 

Larder beetle (Dermestes lardarius L.) was reported seriously attacking cured 
meats at Shelby ville, April 11 and later in the season (Sept. 13) was very de- 
structive to home-cured hams at Huntington. 

Buffalo beetle (Anthrenus scrophulariae L.) was reported from Bloomington, 
Hammond and South Bend. 

Carpet beetle (Attagenus piceus Oliv.) was destructive to woolens, rugs and 
mohair furniture at Indianapolis, Fort Wayne and Mishawaka. 

Clothes moths (Tinea pellionella L.) reported from Indianapolis, Lafayette, 
LaGrange, LaPorte, Mitchell, Monon, and Newcastle. In most cases the infes- 
tation referred to mohair furniture. 

Ants (Formicidae) are responsible for numerous inquiries from every section 
of the state every year, most of the complaints coming in the first half of the year. 
In some cases they are reported as house pests and in others as pests of lawns or 
golf greens. Localities reporting unusual numbers of ants are as follows: Ander- 
son, Bloomington, Churubusco, Elwood, Evansville, Frankfort, Gary, Hunting- 
ton, Kokomo, Indianapolis, Lafayette, Logansport, Lowell, Michigan City, 
Mishawaka, Michigantown, Rockville, Seymour, South Bend and Warsaw. 

Crickets (Gryllidae) were troublesome in a home at Lafayette the last of 
August. 

Slugs (?Li?nax sp.) were annoying in a basement at Washington during June. 

Cockroaches (Blattidae) were common as usual, reports of abundance being 
received from Attica, Batesville, Knightstown, Crawfordsville, Frankfort, 
Indianapolis, Lafayette, Mt. Vernon, Muncie, Newburgh and Princeton. 

Fleas (Ctenocephalus cards Curt.) reported in homes and farm buildings at 
Anderson, Brook, Decatur, Fort Wayne, Greensburg, Huntington, Lafayette, 
Ligonier, Monrovia, Needham, Pennville, and Whiteland. 

Sowbugs (Lsopoda) were reported very annoying in a home at Muncie during 
late fall. 



Four Rare Species of Birds in Indiana in 1930 321 



FOUR RARE SPECIES OF BIRDS IN INDIANA IN 1930 



Sidney R. Esten, Conservation Department 

During the summer of 1930 four species of birds once common but now rare 
were noted in the state. 

The little blue heron, according to Robert Ridgeway, bred formerly in Knox 
and Gibson Counties. The american egret, according to Ridgeway was a common 
breeding species in the Lower Wabash and was also reported by several observers 
breeding in a number of Northern Indiana counties and especially in the Kankakee 
valley. The wood ibis, Ridgeway believed, formerly bred in the Lower Wabash. 
The sandhill crane, according to Brayton, was formerly a breeding species in the 
marshes of northern Indiana. Of late years, records of these four species in the 
state have been irregular as to occurrence and rare. 

From August 1 to August 20, two sandhill cranes were often seen on the 
Wabash River and at the Newport Bridge, sometimes being seen on the Parke 
County side and sometimes on the Vermillion County side. They were reported 
by Mr. Bert Murray of Russelville. 

A flock of sixteen wood ibis was found on Hovey Lake this summer from the 
middle of July until the first week in September. They were first reported to me 
by Mr. George Robinson, caretaker at the lake, who had one in captivity for sev- 
eral days. Mr. Lawrence Hicks and Mr. R. H. McCormick of Ohio University 
visited Hovey Lake on September 2 and took several pictures, copies of which, 
with a lantern slide, Mr. Hicks sent me. 

The white "phase" of the little blue herons occurred in the state "in thou- 
sands" as several of the many reports stated. I have only one record of two adult 
little blue herons. I saw these two at Cayuga Lake in Vermillion County on 
August 20 together with 75 immature little blues, twelve American egrets, several 
big blues, a number of little greens and a number of black-crowned night herons. 
The lake, of about forty acres, was almost dry, with only several small shallow 
pond-like areas on the sun-dried lake bottom. In these the herons were feeding. 
The records of little blue herons in the white ''phase" extend from July 13, when 
they were first seen near Crawfordsville, to September 10, when they were last 
reported at Hedley's Lake near Lafayette on September 10. Throughout the state 
over one hundred people have reported then from thirty counties and without 
doubt they have been in some numbers in every county of the state, during 
August, at least. The largest flocks reported were at Shakamak State Park, where 
several hundred were seen about August 1 by John Diggs and at Cayuga Lake in 
Vermillion County where I saw 75 on August 20. Reports along the lower Wabash 
and lower White River state that flocks varied from twenty to fifty birds. In most 
places they were in small flocks of from six to twenty. (Note Figure 1.) 

The American egret was first recorded July 17 from Winamac and the last 
report was from Tippecanoe County on September 14. One report stated that a 
"pair of large white herons with six children (little white herons) were often seen 
on Webster Lake." Later reports verified these as being six little blues in white 
plumage and two American egrets. Egrets were reported this summer from nine- 
teen counties of the state. (Note Figure 2.) 

Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 40: 321-322. (1930) 1931. 



322 



Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 



No records of the snowy egret were secured during the summer, although 
it is possible that among the great number of the white "phase" of the little blue 
herons seen a few might have been snowy egrets. 

The occurrence of the little blue heron and the american egret is easily ex- 
plained. The little blue herons in the white "phase" and the american egrets 
often wander northward after the breeding season in the south, but the north- 
ward migration this last summer was one of the greatest of recent years and was 
caused without a doubt by the exceptional, nation-wide drought of July and 
August. Other states of the Middle West have also reported a large migration 
into their states this summer of the same two species. 




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Fig. 1 Fig. 2 

Fig. 1. Shaded portions show counties in which the white phase or immature little blue 
herons were seen during summer of 1930 (July 13 to Sept. 10). 

Fig. 2. Shaded portions show counties in which the American egrets were seen during the 
summer of 1930 (July 17 to Sept, 10). 



Birds of Greene and Noble Counties 323 



BIRDS OF GREENE AND NOBLE COUNTIES 

(From William Van Gorder Notes) 



Sidney R. Esten, Department of Conservation 

William Bramwell Van Gorder, born February 3, 1855, in Noble County, 
was a member of the Indiana Academy of Science from 1894 to 1911. He taught 
in the schools of Avilla and Rome City. For many years he was superintendent 
of schools, first in Albion, next at Knightstown, then at Worthington and during 
the later years of his life again at Albion. He died at Albion, April 7, 1927. 

He was a botanist, geologist and ornithologist, the most noteworthy of his 
publications is "The Flora of Noble County," published in the Eighteenth Report 
of the Indiana Department of Geology and Natural Resources in 1893, pages 
33-71. Later he published "The Geology of Green County" in the Fortieth Report 
of the Indiana Department of Geology and Natural Resources in 1915, pages 
240-266. Throughout his life his interest in birds was great and he kept records 
of them in both Greene and Noble Counties for many years. 

After his death his daughter sent me his bird notes and from these the follow- 
ing list was compiled. Among his notes were many pages of manuscript upon 
"Birds of Northern Indiana" which was never completed. Also among his bird 
notes were the weights of many species of birds which he had taken and carefully 
recorded. 

The list is arranged in accordance with the American Ornithologist Union 
check list, with the check list number first, followed by the common name and 
scientific name. The following abbreviations are used : Unc for Uncommon ; C for 
Common; M for Migrant; S for Summer; R after M or S for Resident; R before 
S or M for Rare; Ab for Abundant; F for Frequent; P for Permanent; V for Very. 
When identifications were made from specimens, the word 'specimen" is used 
when the specimen was saved, mounted or not mounted (as the notes often did 
not show this). The nomenclature used is that of the A. OUT. 1910 check list. 

7. Loon, Gavia immer (Brunn.). Noble Co., July, 1890, nested on Bear 
Lake. Last nesting record June 11, 1893. Green Co., March 31, 1911 (Specimen), 
April 25, 1915 (Specimen), May 6, 1908. 

51. Herring Gull, Larus argentatus P. Noble Co., two seen March 11, 1917; 
ten seen May 14, 1920. Greene Co., Feb. to April. Feb. 1, 1908, Feb. 27, 1912 (40- 
50 in flock); March 14, 1912 (many on White River); April 11, 1912; April 11, 
1913; Nov. 11 and 12, 1911 (Specimen). 

77. Black Tern, Hydrochelidon nigra surinamensis (Gmel.). Greene Co., 
May 8, 1915 (12 seen. 2 specimens). 

120. Double-crested Cormorant, Phalacrocorax auritus auritus (Swairs.) 
Noble Co., Oct. 10, 1916 (six seen. 1 specimen). 

125. Amercan white pelican, Pelecanus erythrohyncos Gmel. Greene Co., 
(Bloomfield). Reported by A. W. Butler, March 25, 1892. 

129. American Merganser, Mergus americanus (L.) . Noble Co., March 4, 1894, 
(4-5 shot); Feb. 27, 1895; March 10, 1895 (10 seen). Greene Co., CM in March. 

130. Red-breasteel Merganser, Mergus serrator (L.). Greene Co., UncM in 
Feb. and March. 



Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 40: 323-333. (1930) 1931. 



324 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

131. Hooded Merganser, Lophodytes cucullatus (L.) Noble Co., March 15, 
1895 (Specimen); March 25, 1895 (Specimen). Greene Co., RM., few seen in 
March. 

132. Mallard, Anas platyrhynchos L. Noble Co., Feb. 23, 1918 (6 seen); 
Feb. 27, 1895 (1 seen); March 15, 1895 (10 seen); March 19, 1895 (4 seen); March 
25, 26, 1895 (1 seen each day); fall Oct. 5 to Oct. 16, C by Oct. 14; Oct. 5, 1893 
(3 specimens). Greene Co., spring migration, March to April. Fall migration, 
Aug. 11, 1912; Oct. 13, 1910; Oct. 31, 1913 (Specimen); Nov. 14, 1917 (Specimen); 
Dec. 6, 1913. Several seen during summer of 1914. In 1907-1908 a flock stayed 
all winter on White River above Worthington. 

133. Black Duck, Anas rubripes Brewst. Greene Co., Oct. 29, 1910; Nov. 
4, 1913 (23 seen). 

135. Gadwall, Chaulelasmus streperus (L.). Noble Co., March 19, 1895 
(a few shot). 

137. Baldpate, Mareca americana (Gmel.). Noble Co., March 15, 1895. 
Green Co., migration in Feb. and March. March 14, 1911 (Specimen). 

139. Green-winged Teal, Nettion carolinense (Gmel.). Noble Co., Feb. 11, 
1917 (flock of 75-100); March 25, 1895 (1 seen). Greene Co., spring migration, 
March; fall migration, Oct. to Nov. Oct. 31, 1913 (Specimen). 

140. Blue-winged Teal, Querquedula discors (L.). Noble Co., March 25, 
1895 (1 seen); Greene Co., R.M. and possible S.R. April 4 to April 20. Fall, Sept. 
22, 1907 (3 specimens) ; July 19, 1912 (seen in marshes on Eel River) ; April 4, 1911. 

142. Shoveller, Spatula clypeata (L.). Greene Co., March 14, 1911 (2 speci- 
mens); April 4, 1911 (2 specimens); April 8, 1912 (1 specimen). 

143. Pintail, Dafila ocuta (L.). Greene Co., CM. in spring, not as common 
in fall. Feb. 15, 1909 (1 specimen); Feb. 17, 1909; last spring date, March 12, 
1911; fall, Oct, 26, 1910. 

144. Wood Duck, Aix sponsa (L.). Greene Co. From 1905 to 1915, 12 
records by hunters. Dates of arrival March 16 to April 20. On March 16, 1911 
(2 specimens). On June, 1910, nest and seven young found. 

146. Red-head, Marila americana (Eyt. Noble Co., March 19, 1895 
(8 seen); Oct. 16, 1893 (first seen in county). Greene Co., March, 1906, (Speci- 
men); March 14, 1911 (Specimen). 

147. Canvas-back, Marila valisineria (Wils.). Greene Co., March 4, 1909, 
(2 specimens); March, 1910 (Specimen). 

148. American Scaup Duck, Marila marila (L.). Noble Co., March 18, 
1895 (several seen). Greene Co., several records in March; March 14, 1911 
(Specimen). 

149. Lesser Scaup Duck, Marila affinis (Eyt,). Noble Co., March 21, 1895 
(5 seen). Greene Co., CM. March 14 to 25 

150. Ring-necked Duck, Marila collaris (Donov.). Greene Co., Feb. 17, 
1912; March 11, 1911 (specimen); March 13, 1912 (100 seen); March 25, 1909 
(5 seen. Specimen). 

151. American golden-eye, Clangida clangida americana Bonap. Noble Co., 
March 18, 1895 (2 seen). Greene Co., several specimens taken in April, 1915. 

153. Bufne-head, Charitonetta albeola (L.). Greene Co., a number shot by 
hunters each March 1908 to 1915. 

172. Canada Geese, Branta canadensis canadensis (L.). Noble Co., Feb. 28, 
1894 (70 seen); Oct, 11 to Oct, 24; Oct, 19, 1925 (150 seen); Oct. 24, 1916 (200 
seen). Greene Co., Spring, Feb. to April. Fall, Oct. 12 to Nov. 12. Oct. 19, 1908 



Birds of Greene and Noble Counties 325 

(3 specimens); Nov. 12, 1913 (1 specimen. During winters '03-'04, '04-'05, 
'05-'06, '06-'07, '07-'08, '08-'09 geese wintered on White River near Worthington. 
On Jan. 30, '08 a flock of 125 were present. On Feb. 26, 1909 the geese left for 
north and a flock of 150 came in from south. During the winter of '04-'05 a flock 
of 400 wintered. 

172a. Hutchins geese, Branta canadensis hutchinsi (Rich.). Greene Co., only 
1 record. Nov. 28, 1903 (7 seen). 

173a. Brant, Branta bernicla glaucognastra (Brehm). Greene Co., only 1 
record, Jan. 23, 1916. 

180. Whistling Swan, Olor columbianus (Ord.). Noble Co., March 30, 1894 
(7 seen. 1 specimen). Greene Co., March, 1913 (1 specimen); March, 1910 
(2 specimens from flock of 70 taken from Bee Hunters Swamp) (now drained). 

181. Trumpeter Swan, Olor buccinator (Rich.). Greene Co., three seen flying 
over, Sept. 22, 1913, at Lyons. 

188. Wood Ibis, Mycteria americana L. Greene Co., one killed June 27, 
1910 at Marco. Several returned in June 1911 and remained until Sept. 1911. 

190. American Bittern, Botaurus lentiginosis (Montag.). Noble Co., 2 seen 
in July, 1891. Greene Co., April 4 to May 9 (spring arrivals) Sept. 12 to Nov. 23 
(fall leaving). April 7, 1911 (specimen); Nov. 14, 1913 (specimen); Nov. 20, Nov. 
23, 1913 (specimen). 

194. Great Blue Heron, Ardea herodias herodias L. Noble Co., C.S.R., 
March 29, first seen. Green Co., C.S.R., latest fall date, Nov. 8, 1914. 

201 . Little Green Heron, Butorides virescens virescens (L.) . Noble Co., C.S.R., 
April to Sept., latest fall date, Sept. 17, 1917. Greene Co., C.S.R., April to Sept. 

202. Black-crowned Night Heron, Nycticorax nycticoras naevius (Bodd.). 
Greene Co., April 11, 1907 (1 specimen); April 8, 1909 two seen; April 10, 1909 
(specimen); Sept. 22, 1914 (specimen). 

206. Sandhill Crane, Grus mexicana (Mull). Noble Co., July 12, 1893. Not 
previously seen since 1850. Greene Co., none seen, formerly frequently seen. 

208. King Rail, Rcillu? elegans (Aud.). Greene Co., April 5, 1906 (specimen) ; 
April 10. 1908 (specimen); April 23, 1910 (specimen). During May 1907, young 
seen near Worthington. 

212. Virginia Rail, Rallus virginianus L. Greene Co., CM. and occasicnal 
S.R. Specimens May 3-6, 1911 — night migrants. Often seen in June. 

214. Sora Rail, Porzana Carolina (L.). Greene Co., April 9 to May 3; Sept. 
5 to Oct. 30. Specimens taken April 9, 1915, April 27, 1916, April 24, 1911, May 3, 
1911. 

216. Black Rail, Creciscus jamaicencis (Gmel.). Noble Co., April 8, 1894 
(specimen). Greene Co., R.M., May 10, 1915 (specimen). 

219. Florida Gallinule, Galluinla galeata galeata (Licht.). Greene Co., R.M. 
Seen April 27. 1913; May 6, 1905; one found dead in May, 1914. 

221. Coot, Fulica americana (Gmel.). Noble Co., March 12-13, 1917. 
Greene Co., hundreds seen in Bee Hunters Marsh, Lyons, April 6, 1912 (speci- 
mens). March 30, 1911, April 3, April 10, 1909. Fall migration Oct. 

228. Woodcock, Philohela minot (Gmel.). Greene Co., CM. decreasing. 
Often breeds. Spring March 8 to May 3. Fall, Sept. 16 to Nov. 18. On July 8, 
1915, adults with young seen. Young also seen in 1914. 

230. Wilson's Snipe, Gallinago delicata (Ord.). Noble Co., April 1 to April 
26; Oct. 14 to Nov. 1; April 26, 1895 (6 shot). Greene Co., CM. middle of March 
to May 3. Fall, most numerous in Nov. Specimens May 3, 1911; April 26, 1912. 



326 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

239. Pectoral Sandpiper, Pisobia maculata (Vieill.). Greene Co., Very CM. 
in spring, Feb. 19 to May 6. Not common in fall. More common in April, May. 
Often seen in flocks of over 100. Many specimens secured. 

254. Yellow-legs, Totanus melanoleucus (Gmel.). Greene Co. Becoming 
more rare each year. Last of March to middle of April. On April 20, '09, 32 birds 
killed by one person. 

255. Lesser Yellow-legs, Totanus flavipus (Gmel.). Greene Co., F.M. April 
to May and Nov. to Dec. Specimens taken April 24, 1911, May 3, 1911 and Dec. 
20, 1910. 

256. Solitary Sandpiper, Helodromas solitarius solitarius (Wils.). Greene Co. 
CM. last of April to May 17. 

261. Bartramian Sandpiper or Upland Plover, Bartramia longicauda 
(Bechst.). Greene Co. CM. and R.S.R. April 2 to latest date in fall, Aug. 29, 1915. 
Seen during June, 1904, 1908, 1909, 1910, 1915 and on July 17, 1924. While no 
nests were found they were seen so many times during the above summers that 
am satisfied they nested in the county. 

263. Spotted Sandpiper, Actitus macularia (L.). Noble Co., April 29 to 
Oct. 17. F.S.R, Greene Co., April to Sept., C.S.R. 

273. Killdeer, Oxyechus vociferus vociferus (L.). Noble Co., C.S.R. , Feb. 21 
to Nov. 17. Greene Co., C.S.R., Feb. 12 to Dec. 6 (specimens taken). 

289. Quail, Colinus virginianus virginianus (L.). Noble Co., C.P.R. Greene 
Co., C.P.R. Not as common as formerly. 

300. Ruffed Grouse, Bonasa umbellus umbellus (L.). Greene Co. Once C.P.T. 
In 1924 becoming very rare. 

305. Prairie Chicken, Tympanuchus americanus americanus (Reich.). 
Noble Co., 1 specimen, Oct. 23, 1916. Greene Co. Once common. In 1924 consid- 
ered very rare. April 9, 1908 (1 seen); Dec. 6, 1913 (20 seen). In fall of 1914 a 
covey of 50 lived on 1 farm; April 20, 1915 (1 seen). 

310a. Wild Turkey, Meleagris gallopavo sihestris (Vieill.). Greene Co. Once 
common. Now extinct, average weight of female 12 lbs., male 16 lbs. 

315. Passenger Pigeon, Ectopistes migratorius (L.). Noble and Greene Go's., 
once common, now extinct. 

316. Mournng Dove, Zenaidura macroura carolinensis (L.). Noble Co. 
C.S.R., March 2 to Oct. 16. During winters of 1920-1921 (seen— 2); 1925-1926 
several seen. Greene Co., C.S.R. Often stay all winter. Nests found March 8, '08 
(eggs); March 22, '09 (eggs); April 9, '09 (young). 

325. Turkey Vulture, Cathartes aura septentrionalis (Wied.) Noble. Co. 
Nest found in July, 1902, young able to fly Aug. 10. Nested in same place in 1903. 
Greene Co., C.S.R., Feb. 25 to Nov. 27. On Oct. 26 1911, 500 were seen flying 
over Lyons. One seen Oct. 31, 1915 and on Dec. 25, 1900. 

326. Black Vulture, Catharista urubu urubu (Vieill.). Noble Co. Seen March 
10, 1917; March 14, 1920; March 15, 1921; March 12, 1922; Sept. 27, 1917; Oct. 
6, 1922; Nov. 6, 1920. Greene Co. Often seen in summer. During winters of '07-'08 
and '09-' 10 several stayed. No winter records since that time. 

327. Swallow-tailed kite, Elarcoides forficatus (L.). Greene Co. One record — 
specimen secured at Lyons May 5, 1903. Now in the state museum. 

331. Marsh Hawk, Cirus hudsonius (L.). Greene Co. Erratic P.R., not com- 
mon. Specimen secured in fall of 1909. None seen from 1910-1914; several seen 
in 1909-10. Nested in county in 1897. 



Birds of Greene and Noble Counties 327 

332. Sharp-shinned hawk, Accipiter velox (Wils.). Greene Co. Rare visitor 
in winter. 1 shot Nov. 2, 1908. 

333. Cooper's hawk, Accipiter cooperi (Bonap.). Greene Co. Rare P.R. 
2 killed May 6, 1907. 

337. Red-tailed hawk, Buteo borealis borealis (Gmel.). Greene Co., C.P.R. 
One nest used each year for seven years. 

339. Red-shouldered hawk, Buteo lineatus lineatus (Gmel.). Noble Co. R.P.R. 
Greene Co., F.P.R. 

343. Broad-winged hawk, Buteo platypterus platypterus (Vieill.). Greene 
Co. R.P.R. Seen occasionally all year. 

347a. Rough-legged hawk, Archibuteo lagopus sanctihohannis (Gmel.). 
Greene Co. R.W. visitor. 1 shot Dec. 4, 1911. Specimens secured March 8, 1912; 
Jan. 7 and April 4, 1913. 

349. Golden Eagle, Aquila chrysaetos (L.). Greene Co. Rare. One shot Oct. 
18, 1908 and kept in captivity until April 10, 1909. Very tame, often came back. 

352. Bald Eagle, Haiaectus leucocephalus leucocephalus (L.). Noble Co. 
2 killed Shafer Lake, May, 1895. Greene Co. Rare to frequent winter visitor. 
Reported several times each year in winter. On Sept. 22, 1907, a melanistic 
(black phase) bald eagle was seen. (Probably immature — S. R. Esten). 

357. Pigeon hawk, Falco columbarius columbarius (L.). Greene Co. 1 seen 
March 7, 1909. During winter of 1913-14 one lived in the tower of the high school 
building at Lyons where it lived on pigeons. One seen Dec. 15, 1909 chasing an 
English sparrow. 

360. Sparrow hawk, Falco sparverius sparverius (L.) . Greene Co. Very C.P.R. 
(a number of specimens taken). 

364. American Osprey, Pandion haliaetus carolinsensis (Gmel.). Greene 
Co. Irregular migrant seen Sept. 7, 26, 1907 and in April, 1915. 

365. Barn Owl, Aluco pratincola (Bonap.). Greene Co. R.P.R. (a number of 
specimens secured.). 

366. Long-eared owl, Asio wilsonianus (Less.). Greene Co. 1 record only, 
June, 1904. 

367. Short-eared owl, Asio flammeus (Pont.). Greene Co. Rare winter visi- 
tor, specimens secured Jan. 3, Jan. 4, Jan. 6, 1911; Feb. 4, 1913 and Dec. 13, 1913. 

368. Barred Owl, Strix varia varia Barton. Greene Co. F.P.R. 

373. Screech Owl, Otus asio asio (L.). Greene Co. Ab. P.R. Eggs found in 
April, a number of specimens taken. 

375. Great horned Owl, Bubo virginianus virginianus (Gmel.). Greene Co. 
F.P.R., several specimens taken. 

376. Snowy Owl, Nyctra nyctea (L.). Greene Co. only 1 noted but no date 
given. 

382. Carolina paraquet, Conuropsis carolinensis (L.). Greene Co. a few 
seen in 1845 to 1848. Last seen in 1849. 

387. Yellow-billed Cuckoo, Coccyzus americanus americanus (L.). Noble 
Co. C.S.R. from April to Sept. 29. Greene Co., C.S.R. from April to Sept, 5. 

388. Black-billed Cuckoo, Coccyzus erythrophthalmus (Wils.). Noble Co. 
Not C.S.R. May 22, 1890. Greene Co.F.S.R. from April to Sept. 9. 

390. Belted Kingfisher, Ceryle alcyon (L.). Noble Co. summer resident from 
March 25 to Oct. 14. Greene Co. Summer resident, often though not as common 
as a winter resident also. Seen during winters of '08-'09, '10-'ll, and 11-12. 



328 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

393. Hairy Woodpecker, Dryobates villosus villosus (L.) Noble Co. an un- 
common permanent resident. Greene Co. a frequent but not C.P.R. 

394c. Downey Woodpecker, Dryobates pubescens medianus (Swains.). Noble 
Co. C.P.R. Greene Co. C.P.R. 

402. Yellow-bellied Sapsucker, Sphyrapicus varius varius (L.). Noble Co. 
CM. April 4 to April 24 and Nov. Greene Co. CM. April and Oct.-Nov. 

405. Pileated Woodpecker, Phloeotomus pileatus pileatus (L.). Greene Co. 
Mr. Van Gorder states as follows in 1915: "Common before 1860, now extinct in 
Greene Co. and nearly so in state." — It can be stated in 1930 that this species in 
the state is increasing and is seen at intervals in Greene Co. (S. R. Esten.). 

406. Red-headed Woodpecker, Melanerpes erythrocephulus (L.). Noble Co., 
C.S.R. Greene Co., C.S.R., often seen during winter. 

409. Red-bellied Woodpecker, Centaurus carolinus (L.). Greene Co. 
A.F.P.R. 

412. Flicker, Colaptes auratus auratus (L.). Noble Co. C.S.R., one seen Jan. 
6, 1917. Greene Co., A.C.R., less common in winter than in summer. 

417. Whip-poor-will, Antrostmnus vociferus vociferus (Wils.). Greene Co. 
R.S.R. from April 13 to Aug. 17. 

420. Night-hawk, Chordeiles virginianus virginianus (Gmel.). Noble Co. 
Common migrant especially in fall- — does not breed. Aug. 14 to Sept. 19. Greene 
Co. Migrant, rare in spring, common in fall, April 19 to June 1. Aug. 11 to Oct. 7. 
Sometimes breeds, not common as a summer resident. 

423. Chimney Swift, Chaetura pelagica (L.). Noble Co., C.S.R. April 18 to 
Oct. 9. More common in migrations during April and Sept. Greene Co., C.S.R. 
April 14 to Oct, 11. 

428. Ruby-throated humming bird, Archilochus colubris (L.). Noble Co., 
C.S.R. from May 1 to Oct, 19. Greene C, C.S.R. from May 2 to Oct. 20 (2 
specimens). 

444. Kingbird, Tyrannus tyrannus (L.). Noble Co., C.S.R, April 29 to Aug. 
28. Greene Co., C.S.R. April 18 to Sept. 1. 

452. Crested Flycatcher, Mijiarckus crinitus. Noble Co., C.S.R., April 29 
to Sept. 5. Greene Co., C.S.R,, April 27 to Sept. 8. 

456. Phoebe, Sayornis phoebe (Lath.). Noble Co. Frequent though not 
C.S.R. March 10 to Sept. 23. Greene Co. Frequent though not C.S.R, March 
6 to Oct. 3 (2 specimens). 

461. Wood Pewee, Myiochanes virens (L.). Noble Co. C.S.R. March 14 to 
Oct, 14. Greene Co., C.S.R. May 1 to Oct, 19. 

463. Yellow-belly Flvcatcher, Empidonax flaviventris (Baird.). Noble Co., 
Oct. 1, 1916 and Oct. 17. 1918. Greene Co., May 14-15, 1914. 

465. Acadian Flycatcher, Empidonax virescens (Vieill.). Greene Co. Com- 
mon migrant and less common S.R. 

466. Traills Flycatcher, Empidonax trailli trailli (And.). Greene Co. Rare 
S.R., several nests found. 

467. Least Flycatcher, Empidonax minimus W. M. and S. F. Baird. Greene 
Co., R.S.R,, April 25, 1915 (2 seen). 

474. Horned Lark, Otocoris alpestris alpestris (L.). Noble Co., winter resident 
not common Nov. 12 to March 3. Greene Co. Rare winter resident, 1 shot Feb. 
9, 1910 at Lyons, and identified by A. W. Butler. 

474b. Prairie Horned Lark, Otocoris alpestris praticola (Hensh.). Noble Co. 
Permanent resident not common, more common in winter. Greene Co. Per- 
manent resident not common, nests and young found. 



Birds of Greene and Noble Counties 329 

477. Blue Jay, Cyanocitta cristata cristata (L.). Noble Co., C.P.R. Greene 
Co., C.P.R. 

488. Crow, Corvus brachyrhynchos brachyrhynchos (Brehm.). Noble Co., 
C.P.R. Greene Co., C.P.R. Two large roosts north of Lyons. 

494. Bobolink, Dolichonyx oryzivorus (L.). Noble Co., CM. Less C.S.R. 
April 28 to Aug. 29. Greene Co., CM. April 30 to May 15, Sept. 14-16. 

495. Cowbircl, Molothrus ater ater (Bodd.). Noble Co., C.S.R. Feb. 14 to 
Nov. 21. Greene Co,, C.S.R., Feb. 1C to Nov. 29. 

498. Red-wing Blackbird, Agelaius phoeniceus phoeniceus (L.). Noble Co., 
March 2 to Nov. 7. Greene Co., March 1 to Nov. 19. 

501. Meadow Lark, Sturnella magna magna (L.). Noble Co., C.S.R. from 
Feb. 17 to Nov. 20. Sometimes a few winter. Greene Co., C.S.R. and usually a 
less C.W.R. 1 singing Jan. 5, 1915. (specimen). 

501.1. Western Meadow Lark, Sturnella neglecta (And.). Greene Co., April 
7, 1924, 1 seen and heard singing. 

506. Orchard oriole, Icterus spurius (L.). Greene Co., S.R., not common. 
April 25 first date (specimen). 

507. Baltimore oriole, Icterus galbula (L.). Noble Co., C.S.R., April 25 to 
Sept. 5. Greene Co., C.S.R., April 15 to Sept. 10. Heard singing Aug. 31, 1910. 

509. Rusty blackbird, Euphagus carolinus (Mull.). Noble Co., C.S. Nov. 21, 
1918 (1 s?en). Greene Co. Migrant not C. March and Nov. Often seen in small 
flocks with grackles. Nov. 8, 1914. 100 were seen. 

511b. Bronze grackle, Quisculus quiscula aeneus Ridgw. Noble Co., Ab. 
S.R. Sometimes seen in winter, Feb. 18 to Nov. 21. Greene Co., Ab. S.R. Often 
small flocks seen throughout winter. Common by March 10. Main flocks leave by 
Dec. 1. 

528. Redpoll, Acanthis linaria linaria (L.). Noble Co., Feb. 10, 1917 (2 seen). 

529. Goldfinch, Astragalinus tristis tristis (L.). Noble Co., C.S.R. possible 
W.R. March 5 to Oct. 4. On Sept. 20, 1918 seen with yellow plumage; by Oct. 28, 
1911 had entire winter plumage of green. Greene Co., C. permanent resident ap- 
pears in yellow plumage in May. 

English sparrow, Passer domesticus do?7iesticus (L.) Noble and Greene Co's. 
Ab.P.R, 

533. Pine sisken, Spinus pinus pinus (Wils.). Greene Co. During one week 
in Nov. 1914 a flock of about 200 were often seen near Worthington. 

534. Snow bunting, Plect>'ophenax nivalis nivalis (L.). Noble Co. 60-75 were 
seen Feb. 5, 1917. Flock of 300 seen Feb. 10, 1917. 

536. Lapland longspur, Colcarius lapponicus lapponicus (L.). Noble Co., 
Flock of 300 seen Jan. 25-26, 1916. 

540. Vesper sparrow, Pooecetes gramineus gramineus (Gmel.). Noble Co., 
S.R. from Feb. 17 to Oct, 20. 

546. Grasshopper sparrow, Ammodramus savannarum australis (Mayn.). 
Greene Co. Seen May 3, 1914 and July 6, 1915. 

552. Lark sparrow. Chondestes grammacus grammacus (Say.). Noble Co. 
2 seen July 5, 1907. Greene Co. Rare migrant and rare S.R. May to July often 
seen. 

554. White-crowned sparrow, Zonotrichia leucophrys leucophrys (Forst.). 
Noble Co., CM. May and Oct, Greene Co., CM. May and Oct. 2 stayed all win- 
ter '08-'09 

558. White-throated sparrow, Zonotrichia albicollis (Gmel.). Noble Co., 
CM. April, Oct, Greene Co., CM. March 23 to May 19, October. 



330 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

559. Tree sparrow, Spizella monticola monticola (Gmel.). Noble Co., C.W.R' 
Oct. 8 to April 6. Greene Co., C.W.R., Oct. 10 to March 15. 

560. Chipping sparrow, Spizella passerina passerina (Bech.). Noble Co., 
C.S.R., March 24 to fall (no fall dates). Greene Co., C.S.R., March 19 to fall 
(no fall dates). 

563. Field sparrow, Spizella pusilla pusilla (Wils.). Noble Co., C.S.R., 
March 24 to Oct. 17. Greene Co., C.S.R., March 11 to Oct. 23. (Specimens). 

567. Slate-colored junco, J unco hyemalis hyemalis (L.). Noble Co., C.W.R. 
from Sept. 26 to May 1. Greene Co., C.W.R. from Oct. 3 to April 19. 

581. Song sparrow, Melospiza melodia melodia (Wils.). Noble Co., P.R. not 
very common. Greene Co., C.P.R, 

585. Fox sparrow, Passerclla iliaca iliaca (Men.). Greene Co., CM. Oct. 17 
to Dec. 6. (Specimen). 

587. Townee, Pipilo erythrophthalmus erythrophthalmus (L.). Noble Co., 
C.S.R. March 5 to Nov. 1. Greene Co., C.S.R. often a W.R. Seen Jan. 5, 12, 1914. 

593. Cardinal, Cardincdis cardincdis cardinalis (L.). Noble Co., Rare P.R. 
Greene Co., C.P.R, 

595. Rose-breasted grosbeak, Zamelodia ludoviciana (L.). Noble Co., often 
a S.R. Not common. Nests often found. Greene Co.. R.M. only 1 record, Oct. 3, 
1908. 

598. Indigo bunting, Passerina cyanea (L.). Noble Co., C.S.R. May 2 to 
Aug. 20. Ab. migrant. Greene Co., C.S.R. April 29 to Aug. 22. Ab. migrant. 

604. Dickcissel, Spiza americana (Gmel.). Greene Co. C.S.R. April 23 to 
Aug. 19. 

608. Scarlet tanager, Piranga erythromelas (Vieill.). Noble Co. C.S.R. May 
to Aug Greene Co. R.S.R. but CM. May and Aug. 

610. Summer Tanager, Piranga rubra rubra (L.). Greene Co. C.S.R. May 
3 to Sept. 13. 

611. Purple martin, Progne subis subis (L.). Noble Co. C.S.R. April 3 to 
Sept. 12. (During Aug. 1918 a flock of 600 stayed at Albion. Sept, 12, 1924, 500 
were seen). Greene Co. C.S.R, March 24 to Sept. 8. 

612. Cliff swallow, Petrochelidon lunifrons lunifrons (Say). Noble Co., for- 
merly frequent S.R. arriving April 26. In 1923, 12 nests near Albion — birds 
driven away by English sparrows. In 1924 three nests in Green township. None 
since. Greene C V. Rare M. May 3, 1911 fifty seen. June 16, 1910 few seen. Sept. 
5, 1910 4 seen. (The only records.) 

613. Barn swallows, Hirundo erythrogaster (Bodd.). Noble Co. C.S.R, April 
1 to Sept, 5. Greene Co. C.S.R. April 15 to Aug. 13. 

614. Tree swallow, Iridoprocne bicolor (Vieill.). Greene Co. Rare M. May 
3, 1911. 

616. Bank swallow, Riparia riparia (L.). Greene Co. C.S.R, April 9 to 
Sept. 18. In one bank on White River near Worthington 101 occupied nesting 
holes found. 

617. Rough-winged swallow, Stelgidopteryx serripennis (Aud.). Greene Co. 
S.R. not as common as bank swallow. May 3 to Sept. 

619. Cedar waxwing, Bombycilla cedrorum (Vieill.). Noble Co. Irregular 
visitor from April 14 to Sept, 9. Greene Co. Irregular visitor especially in May 
and June. 

622e. Migrant shrike, Lanius ludovicianus migrans (Palmer.). Noble Co. 
S.R. March 29 fall. Greene Co. C.S.R. March 19 to late fall. 



Birds of Greene and Noble Counties 331 

624. Red-eyed vireo, Vireosylva olivacea (L.). Noble Co. CM. and sometimes 
a S.R. April 25 to Sept. 19. 

628. Yellow-throated vireo, Lynivireo flavifron (Vieill.). Greene Co. M. 
April to Aug. 

629. Blue-beaded vireo, Lanivireo solitarius solitarius (Wils.). Noble Co. 
Sept. 10, 1916. Greene Co. only 1 record, specimen from Lyons Oct. 1912. 

631. White-eyed vireo, Vireo griseus griseus (Bodd.). Greene Co. 2 records, 
Oct. 1, 1907 and Oct, 3, 1913. 

636. Black and white warbler, Mniotilta varia (L.). Noble Co. M. Aug. 10 
to Sept, 9. Greene Co. CM. April 12 to April 23; Sept, 14 to Sept. 27. 

639. Worm-eating warbler, Helmitheros vermivoms (Gmel.). Noble Co. Rare 
S.R. nest with 3 eggs July 4, 1904. By Juty 112 eggs had hatched. 

642. Golden- winged warbler, Vermivora chrysoptera (L.). Greene Co. com- 
mon on Sept. 27, 1913. 

645. Nashville warbler, Vermivora rubricapilla rubricapilla (Wils.). Greene 
Co. 1 record May 4, 1909. Specimen sent to A.W. Butler. 

647. Tennessee warbler, Vermivora peregrina (Wils.). Noble Co. migrant, 
more common in fall, Aug. 30 to Oct. 1. Greene Co. R.M. seldom seen in spring. 
Sept, 17 to Oct, 21. 

650. Cape May warbler, Dcndroica tigrina (Gmel.). Noble Co. Rare and 
irregular migrant Aug. 28 to Oct. 14. Greene Co. Rare and irregular migrant Sept. 
23 to Nov 4. 

652. Yellow warbler, Dendroica aestiva aestiva (Gmel.). Noble Co. S.R. 
April 27 to Sept. 1. Greene Co. S.R, April 27 to Sept, 5. 

654. Black-throated blue warbler, Dendroica caerulescens caeridescens 
(Gmel.). Greene Co. R.M. April 29 to May 7 and Sept. 

655 Myrtle warbler, Dendroica coronata (L.). Noble Co. CM. May and 
Sept. Greene Co. CM. April 28 to May 4. Sept. 1 to Oct. 31 specimen. 

657. Magnolia warbler, Dendroica magnolia (Wils.). Noble Co. CM. Sept. 
23 to Oct. 7, specimen. Greene Co. CM. May 13 to May 23. 

658. Cerulean warbler, Dendroica cerulea (Wils.). Greene Co. R.S.R. May 
to Sept, 

659. Chestnut-sided warbler, Dendroica pennsylvanica (L.). Noble Co. Sept. 
23, Oct. 7, 1893. Greene Co. R.M. May 13, 1914. 

660. Bay-breasted warbler, Dendroica castanea (Wils.). Greene Co. migrant, 
not common March 19-21 ; Sept. 20 to Oct, 18. 

661. Black-poll warbler, Dendroica striata (Forst.). Greene Co. R.M. May 
18, 1914. 

667. Black-throated green warbler, Dendroica virens (Gmel.). Noble Co. 
Sept. 23 and Oct. 8, 1916. Greene Co. CM. April-May. Sept. 13 to Oct. 16, speci- 
men. 

672. Palm warbler, Dendroica palmarum palmarum (Gmel.). Noble Co. 
Sept. 17 and 30, 1916; Sept. 30, 1922- Greene Co. April 30 to May 11; Oct. 11 to 
24. 

673. Prairie warbler, Dendroica discolor (Vieill.). Greene Co. R.M. May 10, 
1915. 

674. Ovenbird, Seiurus aurocapillus (L.). Greene Co. CS.R. April 27 to 
Sept. 28, specimen. 

675. Water-thrush, Seiurus noveboracensis noveboracensis (Gmel.). Greene 
Co. R.S.R. 



332 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

675a. Grinnel's water thrush, Seiurus noveboracensis notabilis (Ridgw.). 
Greene Co. May 1, 1907, Worthington, specimen sent to A. W. Butler. 

677. Kentucky warbler, Oporornis formosus (Wils.). Greene Co. May 7, 
1913; May 15, 1914; May 18, 1911. 

679. Mourning warbler, Oporornis Philadelphia (Wils.). Greene Co. May 17, 
1911. 

681. Maryland yellow throat, Goethlypis trichas trichas (L.). Greene Co. 
C.S.R. April 15 to Oct. 2. 

683. Yellow-breasted chat, Icteria virens virens (L.). Noble Co. R.S.R. nest 
found June 23, 1904; young on July 10; another pair seen in July, 1904. 

685* Wilson's warbler, Wilsonia pusilla pusilla (Wils.). Greene Co. R.M. 
May 14, 1914; May 21, 1907. 

686. Canadian warbler, Wilsonia canadensis (L.). Greene Co. May 23, 1907; 
May 13, 1914; May 14 to 25, 1914. 

687. Redstart, Setophaga ruticilla (L.). Greene Co. M. May, Sept. 13 to 28. 
697. Titlark or pipit, Anthus rubescens (Tunstall). Greene Co. seen in March 

on several occasions. 

703. Mocking bird, Mimus polyglottos polyglotios (L.). Greene Co. P.R. 
specimen. 

704. Catbird, Dumetella carolinensis (L.). Noble Co. S.R. not common, 
May 2 to Sept. 23. Greene Co. C. S.R. April 24 to Oct. 7. 

705. Brown thrasher, Toxostoma rugum (L.). Noble Co. S.R. not common, 
April 2 to Sept. 30. Greene Co. C.S.R. March 18 to Oct. 5. 

718. Carolina wren, Thryothorus ludovicianus ludovicianus (Lath.). Noble 
Co. R.P.R. Greene Co, R.P.R. 

719. Bewick wren, Thryomanes bewicki bewicki (Aud.). Noble Co. R.S.R. 
March 24 to fall. 

721. House wren, Troglodytes aedon aedon (Vieill). Noble Co. C.S.R. April 
20 to Oct. 8. Greene Co. C.S.R. April 19 to Oct. 10. 

722. Winter wren, N annus hiemalis hiemalis (Vieill.). Noble Co. R.W.R. 
Sept. 29 to Oct. 9, specimen. Greene Co. W.R. not common. Oct. 20 to Jan. 5. 

725. Long-billed marsh wren, Telmatodytes paulstris palustris (Wils.). 
Greene Co. R.M. March 1909; April 23, 1908. 

726. Brown Creeper, Certhia familiaris americana (Bonap.). Noble Co. M« 
not common often W.R. From Sept. 23 to Oct. 28 often through to April 8 to 26- 
Greene Co. M. rarely a W.V. Sept. 28 to Oct. 19 and from March 26 to April 18, 
specimen. 

727. White-breasted nuthatch, Sitta carolinensis carolinensis (Lath.). 
Noble Co. R.P.R. Greene Co. P.R. 

728. Red-breasted nuthatch, Sitta canadensis (L.). Noble Co. R.M. and 
R.W.R. Sept. 10 to Oct. 25. Greene Co. R.M. and R.W.R. Oct. 18 to 21; April 
30 to May 3. 

731. Tufted titmouse, Baeolophus bicolor (L.). Noble Co. rather C.P.R. 
Greene Co. C.P.R. 

736. Carolina chickadee, Penthestes carolinensis carolinensis (Aud.). Greene 
Co. C.S.R. and R.W.R. Nests found April. Specimen. 

748. Golden-crowned kinglet, Regulus satrapa starapa (Licht.). Noble Co. 
M. March 25 to April 16; Oct. 1 to Nov. 11. Greene Co. M. March 29 to April 7; 
Sept. 2, 5, to Oct. 16. 



Birds of Greene and Noble Counties 333 

749. Ruby-crowned kinglet, Regulus calendula calendula (L.). Noble Co. M. 
March 31 to April 27; Oct. 3 to Nov, 1. Greene Co. R.M. April 3 to 6; Sept. 29 to 
Oct. 20. 

755. Wood thrush, Hylocichla mustelina (Gmel.). Greene Co. S.R. April 23 
to Sept. 28. 

756. Wilson's thrush, Hylocichla fuscescens fuscescens (Steph.). Greene Co. 
Migrant, not common. April 28 to May 17. 

757. Gray-cheeked thrush, Hylocichla aliciae aliciae (Baird). Noble Co. M. 
May 18 to May 26. Greene Co. April 24 to May 28; Sept. 13 to Sept. 25. 

758a. Olive-backed thrush, Hijlocicha ustulata sawinsoni (Tschudi.). 
Noble Co. M. not C. Sept. 22 to Oct. 4. Greene Co. M. not C. May 1 and 2. 

759b. Hermit thrush, Hylocichla guttata pallasi (Cab.). Noble Co. M. some- 
times fairly C. March 31 to May 14; Sept. 28 to Oct. 19. Greene CM. Not C. 
April 4 to April 24 and Oct. 

766. Bluebird, Sialia sialis sialis (L.). Noble Co. C.S.R. Feb. 6 to Nov. 7. 
Rarely a W.R. Greene C. C.S.R. Feb. 1 to Nov. 10 often a W.R. 

761. Robin, Planesticus migratorius 'migratorius, (L.). Ab.M., C.S.R. often 
a W.R. Noble C. Abundant in M. from Feb. 16 through March and from Aug. to 
Oct, Greene Co. Ab.M. C.S.R. W.R. abundant in M. Feb. 10 through March and 
from Aug. to Oct. 

The total number of birds listed above is 202 of which 110 were recorded 
from Noble Count v and 196 from Greene Count v. 



Some Observations on the European Corn Borer 335 



SOME OBSERVATIONS ON THE SEASONAL HISTORY OF 

THE EUROPEAN CORN BORER, PYRAUSTA 

NUBILALIS HBN., IN INDIANA 



G. A. Ficht, Purdue University Agricultural Experiment Station 

A knowledge of the seasonal history of the European corn borer in the in- 
fested area of Indiana is important because of its relation to control studies and 
practices. The dates upon which the various states in the life cycle of the insect 
occur in the field form the basis of the time element which is so important in form- 
ulating clean-up recommendations, in scouting and quarantine activities and 
control investigations. For this reason a review of the seasonal development of the 
insect for the past two seasons may be of value. 

Pupation. Pupation data were taken on individuals which had been col- 
lected in various localities within that part of the State which became infested 
in 1926. These collections were made a few weeks previous to the expected time 
of the beginning of pupation and the borers placed in portions of corn stalks. 
These stalk sections were put on the soil surface amid growing grain and grass, 
thus providing a condition equivalent to what might be considered the normal 
environment of the greater portion of the spring population of this area. These 
data were supplemented by miscellaneous observations in natural locations. 

The average time of the beginning, peak and conclusion of pupation 
for the 1929 and 1930 seasons was May 27, June 17 and July 1, respectively. 
There was no significant difference in the time of the appearance of the 
first pupa or maximum pupation during the two seasons, these developments 
occurring only one day later in 1929 than in 1930. The period during which 
pupae were present in the field was six days shorter in the latter season due 
to a hastening of the development as a result of the higher temperatures which 
prevailed during the greater part of the pupation period. The last observed over- 
wintering larvae pupated on July 4 in 1929 and on June 29 in 1930. 

The maximum time which individuals spent in the pupal stage was 25 days 
and the minimum time was 11 days. Those borers which pupated early in the 
period spent a longer time as pupae than those which pupated later in the season. 
The average length of the pupal stage over the two-year period was 16 days 

Adult Emergence. Observations on the rate of emergence of moths were 
made under identical conditions and with the same material as the observations 
on pupation. The mean dates of the first appearance of moths, the time of maxi- 
mum emergence and the appearance of the last moths for the two seasons were 
June 19, July 5 and July 13 respectively. The mean temperature during this 
period in 1929 was 70.10 degrees F., and in 1930, 73.28 degrees F. This difference 
in temperature was probably responsible for a somewhat shorter period during 
which moths were issuing in the latter season. Although the peak of adult emer- 
gence occurred three days earlier in 1929 than in 1930 all of the moths had issued 
four days earlier in 1930. The accumulation of temperature in the 1930 emer- 
gence period occurred for the most part after maximum emergence had been 
reached. 



Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 40: 335-338. (1930) 1931. 



336 



Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 



The precipitation during June and July of 1930 was less than one third of 
that of 1929, being 2.08 and 6.23 inches respectively for the two years. This was 
responsible for a condition which was of considerable importance as regards the 
spread and accumulation of the insect. The direct effect of these abnormal 
drought conditions together with maximum daily temperatures which on some 
days exceeded 100 degrees F., was a hastened emergence and a shortened life of 



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20 30 9 19 29 9 19 29 8 IS 28 5 

MAY JUNE JULY AUGUST 

Fig. 1 
Fig. 1. Graph of the comparative development of the European corn borer. Dotted line — 
1929, solid line — 1930. A — mean temperatures, B — disappearance of over-wintering larvae, 
C — pupation, D — adult emergence, E — oviposition, F — appearance of full-grown larvae. 



the adults. This shortened life of the adult and the resulting retardation in moth 
activity was vividly illustrated by the much curtailed dispersion of the insect into 
new territory adjacent to the infested area of 1929. 

A male moth was observed in the field on the date of the first appearance of 
pupal cases in the routine counts on June IS and both males and females were 



Some Observations on the European Corn Borer 337 

encountered throughout and for eight days following the period of emergence in 
1929. The last observed adult was taken on July 24. This condition did not exist 
in 1930. Although moths were observed throughout the entire emergence period 
none were encountered after the date that the last pupae had emerged in the rou- 
tine experiments on July 11. Individuals which were kept in a mosquito netting 
cage for observation died almost immediately after issuing. In no case did indi- 
viduals live for as long as four days. 

The sexes of the adults as determined by examinations of the pupal cases 
were about equal. During the two-year period, 49.25 percent of those individuals 
observed were females and 50.75 percent were males. Males predominated in 
numbers during the early part of the emergence period and females were more 
numerous later in the season. 

Oviposition. Observations on egg deposition were made in early planted 
fields of corn which were chosen for these studies because of their outstanding 
height and vigor. A thousand plants were observed at four day intervals in these 
fields during each season. 

The mean dates of the beginning, peak and conclusion of egg deposition 
during the two seasons were June 25, July 7 and July 18, respectively. The un- 
favorable climatic conditions existing during the oviposition period rendered the 
1930 season unfavorable for the borer. This was reflected in the early part of the 
period by the curtailed egg- laying due to low night temperatures. Between 
June 25 and June 29 minimum temperatures dropped as low as 49 degrees F. 
This condition, together with the period of high temperatures which followed 
when the thermometer rose above 100 degrees F., and the lack of sufficient mois- 
ture to sustain the moths, was responsible for a short oviposition period during 
which much fewer than the normal quota of eggs was deposited. All of the eggs 
observed were fertile. 

Larval Development and Survival. The past season was particularly un- 
favorable for the establishment and survival of larvae. In a common variety of 
dent corn, upon which 500 eggs had been placed about the time of maximum ovi- 
position, a total of 8.00 percent of the eggs reached the full-grown larval stage in 
1930 as compared to 12.21 percent in 1929. These figures do not represent the 
natural rate of survival since it was shown that a lower survival figure was ob- 
tained by the use of artificial methods of infestation than where natural means 
of infestation were employed. A survival figure of 21.00 percent was obtained 
at Monroe, Mich., in 1929 when eggs which had been laid on wax paper in the 
laboratory were transferred to corn. The paper on which the eggs had been de- 
posited was attached to the under side of the corn leaves by means of paper clips. 
The survival resulting from natural infestation under otherwise equivalent con- 
ditions was 26.02 percent. Assuming that this difference is somewhere near cor- 
rect the survival figures for the Indiana area would be 14.62 percent in 1929 and 
9.59 percent in 1930 on Reed's Yellow Dent corn which was the variety concerned. 

In 1929 the first infested plants were observed on June 27 and contained first 
instar larvae. Full-grown larvae were first noted on July 30. All the borers ap- 
pearing in collections made on September 3 were in the final instar and were full- 
fed. In 1930 the first infested plants containing newly hatched larvae were ob- 
served on June 29. Full-grown borers first appeared on July 25 and all of the borers 
of a collection made on August 21 were full-grown. 



338 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

An important feature of the 1930 situation was the effect of the high tem- 
peratures of July on larvae. Daily temperatures as high as 101 degrees F., were 
recorded. A collection of larvae made following this heat period revealed that 
12.00 percent of the larval population of the area had died as a result of the high 
temperatures. At this time, July 25, 38.00 percent of the borers were in the final 
instar while the remainder were principally in the fourth and fifth instars. The 
borers killed by the heat were without exception situated in the upper parts of 
the corn plants. The unfavorable conditions existing for the larvae occurring in 
this position was also evidenced by the presence of empty tunnels from which 
borers had migrated when seeking more comforatble quarters and by the presence 
of excessive quantities of silk which had been spun in an effort to protect them- 
selves from the heat. 

The favorable conditions for planting during the past season were responsible 
for a relatively uniform planting date and growth of corn which have apparently 
resulted in a more general and uniform distribution of borers throughout the in- 
fested regions of Indiana. 

Conclusions. The average dates of the occurrence of maximum pupation, 
moth emergence and egg disposition for the two years under discussion were 
June 17, July 5 and July 7 respectively. The mean date of the first appearance of 
infested plants was June 28, the first full-grown larvae appeared on July 27 and 
all larvae were in the final instar and full-fed on August 27. 

The extreme heat and drought of 1930 were responsible for the retarded 
spread of the borer into new territory, a smaller increase in the intensity of the 
infestation and a lessened accumulation of borers in the old infested area of Indiana 
than would have occurred during a normal season. This was brought about by 
a shortening of the length of life of the adults, a reduction in the number of eggs 
laid by individual moths, a relatively high larval mortality at the time of and 
following the period of hatching and establishment, and a more general and uni- 
form distribution of borers in the infested regions. 



The Amphibia of Montgomery County, Indiana 339 

THE AMPHIBIA OF MONTGOMERY COUNTY, INDIANA 



B. H. Grave, DePauw University 

The portions of Montgomery County that are drained by Rock River and 
especially its small tributaries are admirably adapted to furnishing shelter to 
amphibia, Salamanders are abundant in weathered and crumbling stony cliffs 
along the ravines of small streams. Some species also, are to be found under logs 
higher up upon the wooded hill sides. 

The following list of species is given in the order of their abundance: 

1. Plethodon dorsalis. 

2. Plethodon cinereus. 

3. Plethodon glutinosus. 

4. Spelerpes (eurycea) bilineata. 

5. Spelerpes longicauda. 

6. Spelerpes lusifuga. 

7. Spelerpes Sp? 

8. P Amblistoma maculatum. 

9. ^ Amblistoma Jeffersonianum. 
10. '% Desmognathus Sp? 

Two of these species show a remarkable variation particularly in color differ- 
ences. The color of the mid-dorsal stripe of Plethodon dorsals varies all the way 
from lemon yellow through orange to cinnamon or chocolate brown, so that almost 
a complete gradation between Plethodon cinereus and Plethodon dorsalis exists. 

Plethodon cinerenus is also represented by a few individuals with no dorsal 
stripe so that the speckled or mottled character of the ventral and latteral parts is 
carried over the entire body. This gives the appearance of a distinct species to all 
but expert systematists. Species No. 7 above, clearly belongs to the genus 
Spelerpes. It is plain yellow below and mottled brown above, but it has no lines 
or color bands. Nectuvus maculos and Amblitoma tigrinum occur in this county 
but they have not been collected by us. 

Frogs 

Frogs are represented by four or five species, which are named in the order 
of their abundance. All are common except Rana cotesbiana which is rare and 
scarcely ever seen. 

1 . Rana pipiens (Grass frog) . 

2. Rana clamitans (Green frog). 

3. Rana palustris (Pickerel frog) . 

4. Rana sylvatica (Wood frog). 

5. Rana catesbiana (Bull frog). 

Other Amphibia 

Acris Gryllus (Cricket frog) . 

Bufo americanus (Toad). 

Other species which occur rarely in this territory are Hyla pickeringi (Cruci- 
fer) and Hyla versicolor (Tree frog.) 

The great abundance of individuals and species of the general Plethodon and 
Spelerpes is an outstanding fact. One can collect dozens of each species in a single 
day. The great variability of some of these species is also observable in any con- 
siderable collection of individuals. 



Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 40: 339. (1930) 1931. 



Waste in Scientific Research 341 



WASTE IN SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH* 



Robert Hessler, Indianapolis 

For a number of years I have observed the trend toward mass production in 
the industrial field of our civilization, and it seemed to me that in scientific re- 
search one can also note an analogous trend in the prodigious activities sometimes 
made to solve some problem the solution of which was perhaps only within the 
grasp of some individual, that is, the individual effort of some synthesizer review- 
ing and generalizing the analytic work of many. 

After preliminary orientation one begins to give thought to the various scien- 
tific research activities with which one has had some acquaintance, and the evi- 
dence of waste in some of these activities multiplies as one's thesis develops. 

The waste in scientific research presents itself under two chief aspects: 
(a) waste of energy or effort; (b) waste of material or product. 

Under the head of "Waste of Energy or Effort" one may more or less readily 
classify those efforts put forth in the mere preparation for the task of scientific 
research, which preparation seems to involve so little waste that this aspect of our 
thesis might appear to require very little attention; and yet this unsuspected 
source of waste might literally be teeming with a whole menagerie of useless 
embryonic workers. 

The preparation for some great undertaking in the nature of scientific research 
has drawn from a layman the caustic observation that "The great laboratories 
that millionaires endow, though they multiply everywhere, seem to offer little 
effective competition to independent investigators. Many of them have produced 
nothing whatever save useless masses of scientific pedantry, and even those that 
have accomplished respectable work have scarcely justified their immense waste 
of money. . ." 2 

Also in the matter of securing research workers we must consider (a) the 
waste that occurs in giving proper education or training, and (b) the waste of 
effort in finding the particular field of work to which the student is adapted (where 
he finds a proper adjustment to conditions) and able to prove himself a success. 

For some time the industries and large mercantile establishments have set 
the pace for efficiency in the use of labor and materials, and during the war the 
Federal Government found laboratories full of plans and formulas for the elimina- 
tion or the utilization of the waste products in civil and in military life. 

Therefore it is today a comparatively simple matter to make observations 
and advise and apply the remedy in purely mechanical lines and in the mercantile 
life of the nation. But in the case of the scientific worker, the man whose efforts 
can not be measured either in intensity or extent of time involved, it is quite 
alarming to note to what extremes the worker may go in striving to accomplish 
something, in overcoming obstacles, or in the face of adverse criticism. 

If the scientific research worker could readily adjust himself to a machine 
pattern of existence, and react merely as an automaton to environmental condi- 
tions, he might find his way paved to a successful issue. But unfortunately the 



Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 40: 341-344. (1930) 1931. 

•Abstract. 

2 (Editorial by H. L. Mencken in The American Mercury, July, 1930). 



342 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

scientist is usually an individual, a personality (fortunately for science itself) and 
not a unit of an efficiency group, not a cog in the wheel. 

Generally speaking, men may be divided into two groups : those who can and 
are able to direct, and those who require directions or directing. The first is a small 
group, the other large. 

Likewise, research workers form two groups : those working on their own initi- 
ative, and those working under direction. The mental attitude of these two groups 
may differ widely, especially when considered from an economic viewpoint. 
It may sound like a platitude to say that the worker who is being paid (working 
on a salary) does not have worries in regard to the means of subsistence, but 
this is nevertheless true when contrasted with the lot of the isolated research 
worker in original or neglected fields who has worries of all kinds and where 
it may truly be said that "Der Ausgang giebt den Thaten ihren Titel," and where 
the end results alone determine whether his work, if not his life work, was a 
success or a failure. 

The man who is employed or hired most likely has his work outlined, and he 
may or may not carry his work home with him and into his dreams. The college 
teacher who takes up research work (probably in a laboratory not his own prop- 
erty) may not be worried in regard to ways and means to carry on, at least in 
work that is not too elaborate, and where the purpose or motive is a real contri- 
bution to knowledge, or perhaps merely the publication of a book, the ambition 
of many a college teacher. Contrast this with the condition of the isolated 
research worker in neglected fields, where he perhaps stands alone — his vision 
being the only stimulus to carry on. 

One peculiar but very important aspect of carrying on individual scientific 
research is that of publishing the results of work done. Most of the larger edu- 
cational institutions have a printing press, and the publication of professorial 
research is usually taken for granted; sometimes it may have been a matter of 
discussion before the work was even undertaken. On the other hand, the original 
worker may have difficulty in finding a publisher, or he may be compelled to 
publish at great financial loss to himself. 

In my complete paper there are considered in some detail the changes that 
have taken place in this matter of scientific research, from small scale to large 
scale investigations, and the facilities and the opportunities afforded for carrying 
on work. Various aspects of waste will be pointed out — at times enormous waste 
despite efforts for increased efficiency. This paper leads up to an aspect that is 
commonly overlooked or neglected in such inquiries, namely, the waste that 
results from a lack of appreciation of work already done — research that has per- 
haps been carried on for years, the results of which should be published more or 
less fully. 

Work may be grouped under two heads: analytic and synthetic. Most any 
one who has the necessary patience can carry on analytic work — can observe and 
record; but, generally speaking, worth while work should be followed by publica- 
tion; especially should this be done for the use of the synthesizer or generalizer, 
who draws the wider conclusions — conclusions based on the work of the many. 
Great synthesizers are few, we need only keep in mind a Darwin. It is well known 
that Darwin abstracted innumerable accounts given in the Proceedings and Trans- 
actions of scientific societies. 

Incidentally, biographies tell of work that was carried on more or less satis- 
factorily — and also the reverse. Some of the biographic sketches in the Ency- 



Waste in Scientific Research 343 

clopedia Britannica reveal how men had gathered much material, perhaps devoting 
a lifetime in a certain field or to a definite subject, but because they were unable 
to publish properly, for one reason or another, such men have very short bio- 
graphic sketches. The man who does not publish at all likely gets no mention. 

No research is ever fully completed. There is nothing that can be called abso- 
lute; all is an approximation. Often the solution of one problem leaves two new 
ones in its place. All this is trite to the experienced worker. But to the young 
one must tell the story of the student who applied to Linnaeus, because he doubted 
finding a field for original research. The great naturalist placed his hand on a tuft 
of moss and said, "Here is work for a life time." 

It should be emphasized that if research work is not published it is waste, 
and of no use to others — a waste of time and energy. If others do not know of the 
work done and the results accomplished, most likely there will be some to go over 
the same ground — meaning more waste — perhaps repeatedly, until some one does 
publish adequately, perhaps at the same time pointing out lines for future activi- 
ties, for needed additional research. 

Opportunities for "The Making of a Darwin," the title of a paper by the first 
president of our Academy, are still in a backward, if not choatic condition in our 
country. If we compare and contrast the life of Darwin with the lives of Huxley 
and Spencer — all great generalizes, using the simple observations of others — we 
may see how difficult is the problem indicated by Spencer in the very title of his 
paper on "The difficulty of having too much material," it is equivalent to saying, 
"the lack of proper working facilities and trained assistants." 

When Humboldt returned from his exploring expedition he assumed that he 
would be able to work up most of his material in two years. He actually required 
twenty. Today in our own country such a worker may find himself wholly unable 
to publish. The young man who is "a-going to do research work" may readily 
enough find backing — he can get a job. 

Therefore, this paper is virtually a plea for the conservation of the energy 
and the labor of the isolated (individual) research worker who is not connected 
with any institution and whose work demands not merely the machinery of re- 
search, but the constant application of the very synthetic efforts for which no 
formula has yet been discovered, and whose work may be lost forever, perhaps, 
for want of mere mechanical assistance in clerical hire, etc., which he is unable 
financially to provide, and compared to which the expenditure of his time (time 
that might have been profitably invested in commercialized lines) would be a 
mere trifle. 

ADDENDA 

Since my own "collecting difficulties" have become acute (classifying, 
digesting and evaluating notes and items of all kinds that run into the hundreds 
of thousands) I have sought out others who have or have had difficulty in pub- 
lishing. I found five men who have been collecting material (data), some for many 
years, and whose replies to my inquiries were in effect as follows: 

One has now given up the idea of ever publishing. "I am getting too old, and 
I have lost the grasp over my material." He has no desire to merely publish scraps. 

Another published a little, but complained that he was looked upon as a 
crank (insufficient publication accounts for it) . He too has practically abandoned 
the idea of ever being able to publish. 

"I still hope to publish," a third man replied. If he gets aid. 



344 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

One published minor aspects of phases of his life work, and now on account 
of financial difficulties sees only gloom ahead. 

Another has published practically in full, but at great financial loss to himself. 

I may add that these five men except one were philosophic, took matters as 
they found them, but hoped conditions might be better in the future. 

In discussion one gets all sorts of suggestions, for the paper proper, such as : 

"Bring out the fact that the man who is too far ahead of his time is likely 
looked upon as a crank" (But this has always been the fate of the pioneer or the 
founder of any new science, theory or philosophy) . 

"It is your duty to act as spokesman for those who have difficulty in publish- 
ing." (It is? To do the subject justice requires much time. My own time, at near 
seventy, is limited. However, I promised to do my best). 

"Take the case of Mendel. He carried on work along original lines. He pub- 
lished a little, buried his paper in an obscure journal — to be forgotten. Years 
later others worked in that field and the subject became one of great importance, 
and then the buried paper was found. The result — a new science was named after 
Mendel. Why not mention this to encourage the young worker to go ahead and 
publish. He may be looked upon as a crank, but if it is good work, good observa- 
tions, he will find his reward later, perhaps long after he is dead. His work will 
receive recognition. Tell the young worker to publish, even if only in an 'obscure 
publication,' for most likely the generalizer, who comes later, will give him credit 
for being a pioneer worker." (All true scientists will agree with these statements). 

"Consider the fact that a man working in some odd or neglected field has 
published a little, perhaps just enough to show his line of work. Others hesitate 
to enter his field, awaiting further publication. In time he gets the reputation 
of dawdling, because the difficulties in publishing more fully are not known. Shall 
one speak out, explain why — and offer his material to those who are able and 
willing to work it up." (In reply I had to tell of my own early collecting of natural 
history material, and that I had hoped some nephew might become interested and 
that I could turn the material over to him, including notes. Shall I too "speak 
out" and offer to turn material over to those interested? I should be pleased 
to hear from readers of this paper, both from those who have un-worked-up ma- 
terial, and those who might wish material; also from those who have "collating 
difficulties.") 

Men who are vitally interested are the keenest critics. 



The Relation of Oxygen Tension to Oxygen Consumption 345 



THE RELATION OF OXYGEN TENSION TO OXYGEN 
CONSUMPTION IN THE INSECTS AND THE CRAYFISH 



Wm. A. Hiestand, Purdue University 

It has been shown by many workers that among the higher animals oxygen 
consumption is independent of oxygen tension over a wide range. This is especi- 
ally true of the warm-blooded forms and of those whose blood contains respiratory 
pigments. Among the lower organisms (as is true of the Starfish) oxygen con- 
sumption may be dependent upon oxygen tension, that is to say, oxygen consump- 
tion grows less as the oxygen tension of the surrounding medium diminishes. 
This condition exists in fewer cases than an independence of oxygen tension. 

With the insects practically no work has been done to determine the degree 
of dependence upon oxygen tensions. Two papers have been published in Europe 
in relation to this subject. Both investigators used the same species of insects, 
the meal-worm (Tenebrio), in different stages of its metamorphosis. This insect 
which is an air-breather, a holopneustic form, was found to be able to consume 
oxygen at a uniform rate in tensions varying from three to 97 percent oxygen. 
No other references to insects have been found by the writer. 

Using the large Florida roach, (Periplaneta australasiae) , the writer has been 
able to produce results somewhat comparable to the aforementioned investiga- 
tions. However, not enough data have been collected to verify any definite con- 
clusions in regard to the respiration of this insect. 

The writer has been more interested in the respiration of aquatic insects. 
These forms offer varying possibilities in regard to oxygen consumption. In the first 
place the oxygen of the aquatic medium is not as easily available as oxygen in the air. 
Secondly, the respiratory mechanisms of aquatic insects are apparently less effi- 
cient than those of air-breathing ones. Lastly, the oxygen concentration of water 
varies greatly from time to time. Hence, it is important as well as interesting to 
ascertain to what extent the respiration of true water breathing insects is influ- 
enced by varying oxygen tensions. Only insects which received their oxygen from 
the water in a dissolved condition were used. Surface breathers were eliminated 
as they are not true aquatic forms. 

Two forms of insects, the nymphs of the dragon-fly, (Nasiaeschna pentha- 
cantha) and the larvae of the caddis-fly, (Limnaphius rhombiscus) were selected 
for the following investigations, and also the common crayfish, (Cambarus virilis) 
was used as a comparative arthropod known to possess a respiratory pigment. 
It should be stated at this point that the existence of respiratory pigments in the 
insects employed has never been demonstrated. In all probability some form of 
pigment exists as an aid to the respiratory mechanisms of these animals as may 
be seen from the results. We should expect to find with animals devoid of pig- 
ments quite a distinct correlation of oxygen consumption with available oxygen 
of the environment. 

The method employed consisted of measuring the oxygen tension of the water 
containing the insects at regular intervals and recording the results graphically 
in order to show the relation of oxygen consumption to the tension of oxygen 
The animals were kept in a closed container of distilled water from which small 
(10 cc.) samples were withdrawn at regular intervals for oxygen analyses by a 
micro-Winkler method. No outside air was permitted to come in contact with the 

Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 40: 345-346. (1930) 1931. 



34G Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

water during the procedure. Analyses were also made of carbon dioxide before 
and after each experiment. The methods were carefully tested and checked. All 
factors other than oxygen tension were eliminated. 

Results of the experiments will* dragon-fly nymphs: The nymphs 
were able to consume oxygen at a practically uniform rate from the water contain- 
ing oxygen at equilibrium with air down to less than one-half the normal satura- 
tion. At this latter point the oxygen consumption rapidly diminished and 
practically ceased. This result indicates that thess insects can adjust their 
oxygen consumption in such a way that they are virtually independent of oxygen 
tensions of water of normal to one-half normal saturation with air. 

In water containing free carbon dioxide the nymphs showed the ability to 
continue their oxygen consumption until much lower levels were reached. In 
fact oxygen consumption continued until the water contained only about one- 
fifth the original oxygen percentage. Evidently free carbon-dioxide in the sur- 
rounding medium stimulates the respiration of these insects and enables them to 
withstand tensions lower than otherwise. Also the rate at which oxygen is con- 
sumed is greater than when no free carbon-dioxide is present. 

By increasing the hydrogen-ion concentration of the water the same effect 
was produced as with free carbon-dioxide. Thus a lowered pH acts as a respiratory 
stimulant as well as carbon dioxide. It should be mentioned at this time that the 
combined effects of high carbon-dioxide content and a low pH do not have any 
augmentation effect greater than that produced by either alone. 

Results of the experiments with caddis-fly larvae: Caddis-worms 
showed the ability to consume oxygen at a very uniform rate until the oxygen 
concentration was reduced to about one-fourth normal. At this point the con- 
sumption practically ceased. 

If water containing a high oxygen content was employed (produced by shak- 
ing distilled water with pure oxygen) the rate of oxygen consumption was not 
altered, the animals continuing to use it at the same rate in spite of the abundance 
of it. 

If the oxygen tension was diminished too rapidly the rate of consumption 
showed an apparent dependence upon the tension. It was later proved that this 
condition resulted from a lack of time for the insects to accommodate themselves 
to the rapidly diminishing tensions. In other words the animals formed an oxygen 
debt as the oxygen grew less which continued until the point had been reached 
at which oxygen consumption ceased entirely. 

Thus it can be said that normally these aquatic insects are independent of 
oxygen tensions of the water to a low level at which point consumption practically 
ceases. They have the ability to regulate their respiration to compensate for the 
diminished amount of oxygen if given a long enough time to do so. 

These results would seem to indicate the presence of a regulatory mechanism 
which enables the insects to adjust their rate of oxygen consumption to fit the 
varying conditions of their environment. It seems highly probable that they pos- 
sess respiratory pigments to aid in compensating for a deficiency in oxygen. 

Results from experiments with the crayfish: It was found that the oxy- 
gen consumption of the crayfish agrees favorably with that of the insects. If 
allowed sufficient time for adapting themselves these animals can regulate their 
oxygen consumption over a range of all tensions above one-fourth that of the 
normal equilibrium of water and air. If the oxygen tension diminishes too rapidly 
they also form an oxygen debt due to the fact that they do not have sufficient 
time to effect an adjustment. 



Record of Indiana Dragonflies— V. 1930 347 



RECORDS OF INDIANA DRAGONFLIES— V. 1930 



B. Elwood Montgomery, Purdue University 

These records have been compiled from a collection of about 440 specimens 
of dragonflies, representing 49 species, collected in Indiana during 1930. The rec- 
ords from the northern half of the state, except those from Tippecanoe and Warren 
counties, were furnished by E. B. Williamson who was assisted in the field by 
Norman Shufelt, Eli Captain, Z. E. Malcolm and Fred Prough. Almost all of the 
other records are based on collections made by Esther Barrett Montgomery and 
the writer. Records taken from the Student Collection at Purdue University are 
indicated by the initials "P.U." A few earlier records are included, and these have 
the year indicated — all records without indication of the year are for the 1930 
season. Only records of rare species, new county records and notes on habitats 
or associations have been selected for publication. 

Esther Barrett Montgomery and the writer visited the water supply reservoir 
at Oakland City, which has been described in previous papers (Montgomery, 1929, 
1930) on July 1. The number of individual dragonflies present was noticeably 
less than in 1928 or 1929, but about the same species were found. The following 
species were captured: Enallagma civile, E. signatum, Ischnura verticalis, Epi- 
cordulia princeps, Tetragoneuria cynosura, Libellula luctuosa, Perithemis tenera, 
Erythemis simplicicollis, Pachydiplax longipennis, and Celithemis elisa. The same 
collectors visited Foot's Lake (Montgomery, 1929) on July 7. A species of mayfly 
was abundant, every tree and shrub near the lake provided a resting place for 
hundreds, but very few dragonflies were seen. Two females of a species of 
Gomphus were observed ovipositing; they hovered above the surface of the water, 
striking the abdomen against floating spatter dock stems. Specimens of Argia 
apicalis, Enallagma signatum,, Ischnura posita, I. verticalis and Pachydiplax longi- 
pennis were captured. 

Mr. Williamson also found the season poor for dragonfly collecting. On May 
5 he noted, "Only Trained lacerata, Pachydiplax longipennis, Anax Junius, 
Ischnura posita and /. verticalis seen at Doster's Ponds (Wells County). No large 
species at Dunwiddie's Pond or at Vanemon Swamp. Vanemon Swamp almost 
dead this year." The following notes were made at Monument City (Huntington 
County) June 14, '1930 is a poor year Calopteryx on creek in noticeably fewer 
numbers compared with 1929. Along river all odonate life comparatively rare. 
No Cordulegasters seen at bog in 1930." 

The numbers of Williamson's Indiana list (1917) are followed in this paper. 

3. Agrioti maculatum Beauvois. Warren Co., "High Bridge," Sept. 19. 

4. Uetaerina americana Fabricius. Johnson Co., Aug. 20, 1929 (P.U.); 
Warren Co., "High Bridge," Sept. 19, numerous. 

9. Lestes jorcipatus Rambur. Cass Co., marsh along Twelve Mile Creek, 
May 4; Miami Co., Ditzler's Pond, June 1; Owen Co.. roadside, May 24. 

15. Argia apicalis Say. Gibson Co., Foote's Lake, July 7, most common 
species present; Lawrence Co., White River, Aug. 14 (H. O. Deay, Collector). 

Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 40:000-000. (1930) 1931 



348 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

21. Enallagma antennatum Say. Monroe Co., roadside pool about five miles 
east of Bloomington, May 24, 25 males and 12 females taken. 

22. Enallagma aspersum Hagen. Miami Co., Ditzler's Pond, June 1. 

25. Enallagma civile Hagen. Tippecanoe Co., gravel pit, West Lafayette, 
May 23 (P.U.).' 

27. Enallagma divagans Selys. Wells Co., Flat Creek, July 6. 

38. Amphiagrion saucium Burmeister. Tippecanoe Co., West Lafayette, 
May 4 (P.U.). 

41. Ischnura posita Hagen. Monroe Co., pond near Bloomington, May 24. 

43. Ischnura verticalis Say. Miami Co., Ditzler's Pond, June 1; Monroe 
Co., roadside pool about five miles east of Bloomington and pond near Blooming- 
ton, May 24; Parke Co., pond along U.S. Road 41, Sept. 21. 

44. Anomalagrion hastatum Say. Owen Co., roadside, May 24; Tippecanoe 
Co., West Lafayette, May 3 (P.U.). 

45. Tachopteryx thoreyi Hagen. Huntington Co., bog, Monument City, 
June 14, two females. One was resting on sycamore tree from which it flew out 
frequently, catching moths; the other flew out from an oak and took an Argynnis. 
Only two seen in 1930 in Indiana. 

62. Gomphus spiniceps Walsh. Cass Co., Eel River, one female, hanging on 
weeds at edge of water; dark, cloudy day — no sun anytime. 

70. Boyeria vinosa Say. Huntington Co., bog, Monument City, July 20, 
one female. 

71. Basiaeschna Janata Say. Fulton Co., Tippecanoe River, north of 
Rochester, June 1, three males. 

72. Anax Junius Drury, Fulton Co., Tippecanoe River, north of Rochester, 
June 1. 

78. Aeshna umbrosa Walker. Huntington Co., bog, Monument City, two 
males and two females July 20 and three males July 27; Tippecanoe Co., in 
Agricultural Building, Purdue University, Sept. 16, a male. 

80. Nasiacschna pantacantha Rambur. Noble Co., Sand Lake, June 8, 
several seen, one male taken. 

84. Macromia pacifica Hagen. Wells Co.. Eli Captain saw this species 
flying along the Wabash River, east of Bluffton, April 13. 

89. Tetragoneuria cynosura Say. Gibson Co., water supply reservoir, 
Oakland City, July 1, one male. 

93. Somatochlora ensignera Martin. Wells Co., Flat Creek, July 6, 7 and 8, 
one female and 49 males. (Listed as S. charadraea Williamson in Williamson's list, 
but Walker, 1925, has shown this name to be a synonym of ensigcra Martin.) 

94. Somatochlora linearis Hagen. Clark Co., Purdue Forestry Camp, State 
Forest, Henryville, two males June 30, one male and two females undated (P.U.); 
Wells Co., Flat Creek, July 6, 7 and 8, two females and 17 males; Snyder Creek, 
July 10, one male. 

95. Somatochlora tcnebrosa Say. Huntington Co., bog, Monument City, 
July 20, one male and one female. 

100. Libellida pulchella Drury. Clark Co., Purdue Forestry Camp, State 
Forest, Henryville, July 12 (P.U.) ; Monroe Co., pond near Bloomington, May 24; 
Tippecanoe Co., Lafayette, May 21, 1926 (P.U.). 

104. Plathemis lydia Drury. Parke Co., pond along IT. S. Road 41, Sept. 21. 

105. Pcriihemis tencra Say. Clark Co., Purdue Forestry Camp, State 
Forest, Henryville, July 19 (P.U.) ; Parke Co., pond along U.S. Road 41, Sept. 21. 



Record of Indiana Dragonflies — V. 1930 349 

115. Pachydiplax longipennis Burmeister. Clark Co., Purdue Forestry 
Camp, State Forest, Henryville, July 6 and 13 (P. IT.); Tippecanoe Co., gravel 
pit, West Lafayette, May 8, 21, 23 and 24 (P.U.). 

121. Pantala flavescens Fabricius. Tippecanoe Co.. Lafayette, Oct. I, 
1926 (P.U.). 

Literature Cited 

Montgomery, B. Elwood, 1929-1930, Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci., 38:335-343; 
39:309-314. 

Walker, E. M., 1925, The North American Dragonflies of the Genus Soma- 
tochlora. Uni. Toronto Studies, Biol. Ser. 202 pp. 35 pi. 

Williamson, E. B., 1917, Uni. Mich., Mus. Zool. Misc. Publ. No. 2. 12 pp 
1 map 



Preliminary List of the Butterflies of Indiana 351 



PRELIMINARY LIST OF THE BUTTERFLIES 
OF INDIANA 



Robert W. Montgomery, Poseyville, Indiana 

Since the publication of a list of Indiana Butterflies by W. S. Blatchley (3) 
in 1892 many additions have been made to the known distribution of species 
within the state, and to the list of species occurring in the state. The present paper 
attempts to bring the records up to date by the use of all available data. 

The writer has records from Gibson, Knox, Posey, Tippecanoe and Vigo 
counties from his own collecting and from Allen, Gibson, Knox, Posey and Tippe- 
canoe counties from material collected by B. Elwood Montgomery. Brandt F. 
Steele and Dan Luten furnished records from DeKalb, Franklin, Kosciusko, 
Marion, Marshall, Morgan, Owen, Porter, Steuben and St. Joseph counties. 
Records from Fountain, Johnson, Morgan, Rush and Wells counties were ob- 
tained from specimens in the Student Collection at Purdue University. 

Records from Blatchley (3), Kwiat (4) and Weith (6) are indicated by the 
initials "(B)," "(K)," and "(W)" respectively. In a few cases local citations from 
Blatchley (3) and Moore (5) are given. 

For the listing of seasonal range each month has been divided into thirds; 
if a species has been taken in all three thirds of a month the name of the month 
only is given. 

The nomenclature and arrangement followed is that of Barnes and Mc- 
Dunnough (2) with a few changes according to Barnes and Benjamin (1). 

Papilionidac 

1. Papilio philenor L. Franklin, Gibson, Johnson, Marion, Posey, St. 
Joseph and Tippecanoe counties. May 10-31, June, July, August, September, 
October 1-10. 

2. Papilio polyxenes Fab. Franklin, Gibson, Johnson, Knox, Lake (K), 
Marion, Morgan, Owen, Posey and Tippecanoe counties. May 10-31, June, July, 
August. 

3. Papilio cresphontes Cram. Johnson, Marion, Montgomery (B), Tippe- 
canoe and Wabash (B) counties. June, July, August. 

4. Papilio turnus L. Franklin, Gibson, Johnson, Kosciusko (B), Marion, 
Marshall, Morgan, Porter, Posey, Steuben, St. Joseph, Tippecanoe and Vander- 
burgh (B) counties. April 21-30, May, June, July, August, form glaucus L. 
Johnson, Posey, Tippecanoe and Vanderburgh (B) counties. May, June, July, 
August, September, October 1-10. 

5. Papilio troilus L. Franklin, Gibson, Knox, Lake (K), Marshall, Owen, 
Porter, Posey and Tippecanoe counties. May 1 1-31, June, July, August, 
September. 

6. Papilio ajax L. Franklin, Gibson, Johnson, Knox, Marion, Marshall, 
Monroe (B), Morgan, Owen, Posey, Steuben, Tippecanoe and Vigo (B) counties. 
April 10-30, May, June, July, August, September. 

Proc. Ind. Acad. Sri. 40: 351-355 (1930) 1931. 



352 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

Pieridae 

7. Pieris protodice Bdv. and Lee. Franklin, Gibson, Knox, Marion, Marshall, 
Morgan, Owen, Porter, Posey, Steuben, St. Joseph, Tippecanoe and Vigo (B) 
counties. March 20-31, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, 
November. 

8. Pieris napl L. Kosciusko (B) and Tippecanoe counties. March 21-31, 
November 1-20. 

9. Pieris rapae L. Fountain, Franklin, Gibson, Johnson, Knox, Marion, 
Marshall, Morgan, Owen, Porter, Posey, Rush, Steuben, St. Joseph, Tippecanoe, 
Vigo and Wells counties. April, May, June, July, August, September. 

10. Nathalis iole Bdv. Gibson, Jefferson (B), Lake (B), Posey and Vander- 
burgh (B) counties. September 21-30, October 1-10. 

11. Zegris olympia Edw. Lake county (B). May 1-10. 

12. Zegris genutia Fab. Posey and Vanderburgh (B) counties. April 10-20. 

13. Catopsilia euhule L. Gibson, Posey, Tippecanoe and Vanderburgh (B) 
counties. July, August, September, November 11-20. 

14. Catopsilia philea L. Jefferson county (B) . 

15. Zerene caesonia StolL Lake (B), Posey, Vanderburgh (B) and Vigo (B) 
counties, August 21-31, September 21-30, October 20-31. 

16. Colias eurytheme Bdv. Franklin, Gibson, Knox, Kosciusko, Marion, 
Marshall, Monroe (B), Morgan, Owen, Porter, Posey, Putnam (B), Steuben, 
St, Joseph and Tippecanoe counties. April, May, June, July, August, September, 
October. 

17. Colias philodice Godt. Allen, Franklin, Gibson, Johnson, Kosciusko, 
Knox, Marion, Marshall, Morgan, Owen, Porter, Posey, Steuben, St. Joesph, and 
Tippecanoe counties. April, May, June, July, August, September, October, 
November 1-20. A male specimen taken from debris in a wooded ravine near 
Lafayette by B. E. Montgomerjr, December 7, 1924. At the time of capture it 
was quite active. 

18. Terias nicippe Cram. Fayette (B), Gibson, Marion, Posey, Tippecanoe 
and Vigo (B) counties. April 10-30, September, October. November 1-20. 

19. Terias lisa Bdv. Decatur (B), Gibson, Lake (B), Marion, Posey, 
Tippecanoe and Vanderburgh (B) counties. August, September, October, 
November 11-20. 

Danaidae 

20. Danais plexippus L. Franklin, Gibson, Johnson, Knox, Marshall, Owen, 
Porter, Posey, Steuben, Tippecanoe and Vigo counties. April 11-30, June, July, 
August, September, October, November 11-20. 



Satyridae 

21. Debts portlandia Fab. Marion, Posey and Steuben counties. August. 

22. Cissia eurytus Fab. Gibson, Lake (K), Marion, Posey and Tippecanoe 
counties. April 20-30, May, June, July, August, September 1-10. 

23. Satyrodes canthus L. Elkhart (W), Lake (B), Marion and Steuben 
counties. June, July, August. 

24. Cercyonis alope Fab. Allen, Elkhart (W), Lake (B), Marshall, Steuben, 
Wabash (B) and White (B) counties. July, August, September 1-21. 



Preliminary List of the Butterflies of Indiana 353 

Nymphalidae 

25. Dione vanillae L. Vanderburgh County (B). 

26. Euptoieta claudia Cram. Elkhart (W), Gibson, Marion, Posey, Tippe- 
canoe, and Vigo (B) counties. July 10-31, August, September, October 1-10. 

27. Argynnis idalia Drury. Elkhart (W), Fayette (B), Lake (B), Marshall, 
Monroe (B) and Vanderburgh (B) counties. July. 

28. Argynnis diana Cram. Vanderburgh county (B). June 20-30, July, 
August 1-20. 

29. Argynnis cybele Fab. Allen, Franklin, Marion, Marshall, Owen, Porter, 
Posey, Steuben and Tippecanoe counties. June, July, August, September 1-20 

30. Argynnis aphrodite Fab. Marshall county. July. 

31. Argynnis atlantis Edw. Lake (B) and Vanderburgh (B) counties. 

32. Brenthis myrina Cram. Lake (K), Marshall, Steuben and Vanderburgh 
(B) counties. July, August. 

33. Brenthis bellona Fab. Marion county, August 10-20. 

34. Euphydryas phaeton Drury. Decatur (B), Monroe (B), Vanderburgh 
(B) and Vigo (B) counties. June. 

35. Phyciodes nycteis Dbl. and Hew. Marion and Marshall counties. July, 
August. 

36. Phyciodes tharos Drury. Franklin, Gibson, Johnson, Knox, Kosciusko, 
Marion, Morgan, Owen, Porter, Posey, Steuben, St. Joseph, Tippecanoe and Vigo 
counties. April 20-30, May, June, July, August, September, October 1-20, 
November 21-30. 

37. Polygonia i7iterrogationis Fab. Gibson, Johnson, Marion, Posey, and 
Tippecanoe counties. April 20-30, May, June, July, August, September, October, 
November 1-10. 

38. Polygonia comma Harr. Gibson, Marion, Marshall, Posey and Tippe- 
canoe counties. March 20-31, April, May, June, July, August, September, 
October. 

39. Polygonia progne Cram. Marion and Marshall counties. 

40. Vanessa j-album, Bdv. and Lee. Decatur (B), Lake (B) and Vander- 
burgh (B) counties. July, August. 

41. Vanessa milberti Godt. Allen, DeKalb, Lake (B) , Marion, Marshall, 
Steuben, Tippecanoe and Vanderburgh (B) counties. July 10-31, August, Sep- 
tember 1-20. 

42. Vanessa emtio pa L. Johnson. Marion, Marshall, Posey, Steuben and 
Tippecanoe counties. March 20-31, April, June, July, August, September, 
October 1-10. 

43. Cynthia atalanta L. Franklin, Gibson, Kosciusko, Marion, Morgan, 
Owen, Porter, Posey, Steuben, St. Joseph and Tippecanoe counties. April 10-30, 
May, June, July, August, September, October 1-10. 

44. Cynthia huntera Fab. Gibson, Marion, Posey and Tippecanoe counties. 
April 20-30, May, August, September, October 1-10. 

45. Cynthia cardui L. Gibson, Marion, Posey, Steuben, Tippecanoe and 
Vigo (B) counties. March 21-31, April, June, July, August, September, October, 
November 11-20. 

46. Junonia coenia L. Gibson, Jefferson (B), Lake (B), Marion, Marshall, 
Posey, Tippecanoe, Vanderburgh (B) and Vigo (B) counties. June, Jufy, August, 
September, October, November 11-20. One specimen in Student Collection at 
Purdue University labelled Lafayette, Indiana, 1-20-1920. 



354 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

47. Basilarchia, astyanax Fab. Franklin, Gibson, Johnson, Knox, Kosciusko 
Marion, Marshall, Morgan, Owen, Posey, Steuben and Tippecanoe counties. 
June, July, August. 

48. Basilarchia arthemis Drury. Lake county (B). June, July, August. 

49. Basilarchia archippus Cram. Fountain, Franklin, Gibson, Johnson, 
Kosciusko, Marion, Marshall, Morgan, Owen, Porter, Posey, Steuben, St. Joseph 
and Tippecanoe counties. May 10-31, June, July, August, September, October. 

50. Chlorippe celtis Bdv. and Lee. Gibson, Marion, Porter, Posey, Steuben, 
Tippecanoe and Wabash (B) counties. July, August. 

51. Chlorippe clyton Bdv. and Lee. Gibson, Marion, Morgan, Posey and 
Wabash (B) counties. July, August. 

52. Anaea andria Scud. Gibson, Marion, Posey, Tippecanoe, Vanderburgh 
(B) and Vigo (B) counties. April 12-31, May, June, July, August, September. 

Libytheidae 

53. Libythea bachmani Kirt. Gibson county, August 10-20. One specimen 
observed in Posey county October 3, 1930. 

Lycaenidae 

54. Atlides halesus Hbn. Lake county (B). 

55. Strymon cecrops Fab. Monroe county (B). August 17, 1890. 

56. Strymon m-album Bdv. and Lee. Jefferson (B) and Lake (B) counties. 

57. Strymon melinus Hbn. Marion, Marshall and Porter counties. May, 
June, July, August. 

58. Strymon tit us Fab. "In all parts of the State—. July and August." 
Blatchley (3). 

59. Strymon edwardsii Saund. "Found up to the present only in the northern 
part of the state." Blatchley (3). 

60. Strymon calanus Hbn. Marion county. July 10. 

61. Strymon liparops Bdv. and Lee. "All over the State." Blatchley (3). 

62. Mitoura damon Cram. Lake county (B) . May, August. 

63. Incisalia henrici G. and R. Jefferson (B) and Posey counties. April, 
May 1-10. 

64. Incisalia polios Cook and Wats. " This butterfly has been taken 

near the Michigan boundary in Indiana, ." Moore (5). 

65. Feniseca targuinius Fab. Jefferson (B), Marion and Posey counties. 
April 10-20, May 10-31, July, August, September 1-20. 

66. Lycaena thoe Bdv. Marion, Marshall, Posey and Tippecanoe counties. 
May, June, July, August, September, October 1-11. 

67. Lycaena epixanthe Bdv. and Lee. Lake county (B). July, August. 

68. Lycaena hypophleas Bdv. Franklin, Gibson, Kosciusko, Lake (K), 
Marion, Morgan, Marshall, Owen, Porter, Posey, Steuben, St. Joseph and Tippe- 
canoe counties. April 20-30, May, June, July, August, September, October 1-10. 

69. Everes comyntas Godt. Gibson, Johnson, Kosciusko, Knox, Marion, 
Morgan, Owen, Porter, Posey, Steuben, St. Joseph and Tippecanoe counties. 
May, June, July, August, September, October 1-20. 

70. Plebins scudderi Edw. Lake county (K). 

71. Lycaenopsis pseudargiolus Bdv. and Lee. Franklin, Gibson, Kosciusko, 
Lake (K), Marion, Marshall, Morgan, Owen, Porter, Posey, Steuben, St. Joseph, 



Preliminary List of the Butterflies of Indiana 355 

Tippecanoe and Wabash (B) counties. March 21-31, April, May, June, July, 
August, September. 

Literature Cited 

1. Barnes, Wm. and Benjamin, F. H. 1926. Check List of the Diurnal 
Lepidoptera of Boreal America. Bull. Calif. Acad. Sci. 25 (1) : 3-27. 

2. Barnes, Wm. and McDunnough, J. 1917. Check list of the Lepidoptera 
of Boreal America. 

3. Blatchley, W. S. 1892. A Catalogue of the Butterflies Known to Occur 
in Indiana. Ann. Rep. Ind. St. Geol. 17: 365-408. 

4. Kwiat, Alex. 1908. A Day's Collecting with Description of a new Noc- 
tuid. Ent. News, 19 (9): 420-424. 

5. Moore, Sherman. 1922. A list of Northern Michigan Lepidoptera. 
Occ. Papers Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., No. 114. 

6. Weith, R. J. 1896. Insect Collecting at Elkhart, Indiana. Ent. News, 7 
(4): 104. 



Records of Indiana Coleoptera. I. Cicindelidae 357 



RECORDS OF INDIANA COLEOPTERA. I. CICINDELIDAE 



B. Ei/vvood Montgomery, Purdue University and 
Robert W. Montgomery, Poseyville, Indiana 

During the past ten years the authors have collected a large number of beetles 
in various parts of the state. The records from these captures increase the known 
range of many species within the state and add some species to the state list. 

As each of us now has a major interest in another group of insects and our 
collection of Coleoptera is being scattered we have attempted to list our captures 
before the records are lost. In this paper the family Cicindelidae is considered. 

In several studies on Indiana insects the county has been used as a unit of 
recording distribution (Blatchley, 1910; Williamson, 1917). This practice is 
followed in this paper, but specific localities are also given if available. In addition 
to our own captures we have listed records from the collections at Purdue Uni- 
versity, records sent to us by Mr. A. B. Wolcott and by Dr. V. E. Shelf ord, which 
are indicated by the initials "P.U.," "A.B.W." and "V.E.S." respectively. The 
specimens in the Purdue Collection (used for these records) were, with a few ex- 
ceptions, collected by students in Entomology as a part of their class work; the 
label "Lafayette, Ind.," is prescribed for all specimens taken in Tippecanoe County 
and as a matter of fact, almost all are collected within a short distance from the 
Purdue University campus. A few specimens furnished by other collectors have 
been recorded and proper credit is given in each case; all other records are taken 
from captures by the authors. For the sake of completeness county records 
(without specific localities or dates) have been repeated from Blatchley, 1910, and 
Goldsmith, 1917; these are indicated by the initials "(B)" and "(G)," respectively. 

Leng's (1920) numbers and nomenclature have been used; Blatchley's (1910) 
numbers are also listed, in parenthesis before the name of each species. 

30 (1). Tetracha virginica Linn. Crawford Co., (B); Knox Co., (B); 
VII-31-1924 (B. A. Porter); Posey Co., (B); VII-2-1922, two specimens VII-28- 
1923, VII-31-1923; Tippecanoe Co., VII-3-1914, VIII-23-1929 (P.U.); Vigo Co., 
(B). Our specimens were taken from beneath boards or piles of hay. 

39b (7). Cicindela formosa generosa Dej. Gibson Co., (G); V-4-1924, 
V-5-1921, V-8-1923, VI-8, 26-1923, VI-14-1925; Knox Co., VI-8-1924 (B.A. 
Porter); Lake Co., (B) : Pine V-20-1895, V-28-1905, VI-3-1896 (A.B.W.); Gary 

VI-3-1896 (A.B.W.) ; Clarke Junction IX-9-1906 (A.B.W.), V-31-1906, VI-29 , 

VII-9 — - (V.E.S.) ; Miller VII-13-1907 (A.B.W.), V-ll , VIII-20-1906 

(V.E.S.) ; Mineral Springs, IX-1, 2-1925; Laporte Co., (B); Perry Co., (B); 
Porter Co., (B); Posey Co., (B); IX-15-1923; Tippecanoe Co., V-4, 26-1930, 
IX-21-1925, (P.U.); Vigo Co., (B). We have taken this species in considerable 
numbers at various times in Gibson and Posey counties; it was found by the hun- 
dreds on sandy soil with sparse vegetation on the south and west slopes of a hill 
about three miles north of Poseyville. 

42(6). Cicindela purpurea Oliv. Crawford Co., IX-8-1902 (A.B.W.) ; 
Perry Co., (G); Pike Co., (G); Posey Co., New Harmony IV-16-1908 (A.B.W.;) 
V-6-1923. 



Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 40 :357-359. (1930) 1931. 



358 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

48 (9). Cicindela ancocisconensis Harr. Dubois Co., (G); Fountain Co., 
(G); Fulton Co., (B); Kosciusko Co., (G); Lake Co., ("One of the Chicago 
collectors has taken a specimen at Hammond" — -A. B. Wolcott, in litt., September 
23, 1924); Miami Co., (G); Monroe Co., (G); Newton Co., (G). 

49 (11). Cicindela duodecimgultata Dej. Cass Co., Mud Creek, near Hoover, 
V-4-1930; Fulton Co., (B); Gibson Co., V-29-1927; Lake Co., (B); Pine, 
V-27-1906, VI-16-1907 (A.B.W.); Miller, V-30-1906 (A.B.W.); Mineral Springs, 
IX-2-1925; Posey Co., (B); IV-3-1921, 1V-29-1922, V-5-1924, VI-26-1923, 
VII-3-1923; Starke Co., (B); Tippecanoe Co., V-30-1926, VI-1-1926 (P.U.); 
X-12, 19-1924; Vigo Co., (B). We have taken this species in several localities 
but have not found it as frequent nor as numerous as the related C. repanda. 

50 (10). Cicindela repanda Dej. Blatchley lists this species as "Throughout 
the state; frequent," Goldsmith found it in 18 counties scattered over the state. 
Wolcott and Shelford have numerous records from Lake County and the latter 
a record from Wells County, VI-17-1902. The Purdue Collection contains nu- 
merous specimens collected in Tippecanoe County from April 5 to October 10. 
We have found it common in Adams, Cass, Gibson, Lake, Tippecanoe and 
Posey Counties. 

51 (12). Cicindela hirlicollis Say. Lake Co., (B). Wolcott and Shelford 
have several records from this county also; Shelford has contributed these obser- 
vations: VII-6-1906, "Larvae in first and last stages;" VII-23-1906, "after severe 
storm saw five larvae crawling on beach in 1/16 mile;" V-28-1907, "larvae found 
on top of dunes two days after heavy rain." 

53 (8). Cicindela tranquebarica Hbst. Blatchley says, "Throughout the 
state; common," Dubois Co., (G); Gibson Co., (G); V-l-1922, V-4-1924, 
V-29-1927, VI-8-1925; Knox Co., V-18, 27-1924; Lake Co., Clarke, VI-4-1905 
(A.B.W.) ; Clarke Junction, IX-9-1906, (A.B.W.) ; several records from Buffington, 
Pine and Clarke Junction from April 17 to September 23 (V.E.S.); Monroe Co., 
(G); Perry Co., (G); Pike Co., (G); Posey Co., New Harmony, VII-11-1908 
(A.B.W.); two specimens, "roadside" 111-20-1921, IV-30-1922, V-3-1923, V-6- 
1922, VI-6-1925, VI-22-1923; Spencer Co., (G). 

68a (3). Cicindela scutellaris lecontei Hald. Gibson Co., IV-30-1922, 
V-4-1924; Knox Co., Vincennes, VI-5-1924, VII-13-1924; Decker, VI-16-1924; 
Lake Co., (B); Hessville, V-l-1904, IX-22-1907 (A.B.W.); Pine V-21-1905 
(A.B.W.); Clarke Junction IX-9-1906 (A.B.W.); Gary VI-3-1906 (A.B.W.); 
numerous records from Miller, Clarke, Pine, Clarke Junction, East Chicago, 
Chesterton, Porter (V.E.S.); Mineral Springs, IX-1, 2, 4-1925; Porter Co., (B); 
Posey Co., VI-14-1925; Tippecanoe Co., IX-15-1930. We have found this 
species associated with C. formosa generosa on the slope of the hill described in 
the discussion of that species above. The white markings are quite extensive in 
all our specimens from Mineral Springs, even a wide marginal white band in some 
specimens. The specimens from Gibson, Knox and Posey counties have the white 
markings much reduced, only a narrow apical lunule and a marginal dot being 
present in some specimens. 

69 (4). Cicindela sexguttala Fab. "Throughout the state; frequent" — 
Blatchley. Dubois Co., Huntingburg, V-9-1908 (A.B.W.); Gibson Co., V-29- 
1927; Knox Co., VI-1-1924; Kosciusko Co., (G); Winona Lake (R. Voris); 
Lake Co., Hessville V-30-1910 (A.B.W.); Laporte Co., Otis (V.E.S.); Lawrence 
Co., Bedford, VI-16-1927 (L. F. Steiner); Monroe Co., (G); (R. Voris); V-24- 
1930; Orange Co., (G); Perry Co., (G) ; Posey Co., "Grand Chain" IV-25-1905 



Records of Indiana Coleoptera. I. Cicindelidae 359 

(A.B.W.) ; many records from April 3 to May 13; Porter Co., Suman, VI-15 — — , 

VIII-6 ; Wheeler V-21-1908 (V.E.S.); Spencer Co., (G); Tippecanoe Co., 

many specimens in Purdue Collection, March 7 to May 30, one specimen XI-1- 
1925; Wells Co., IV-28-1901, VI-1-1902 (V.E.S.). 

70(5). Cicindela patruela Dcj. Lake Co., (B); Hessville, V-30-1912 
(A.B.W.) ; Mineral Springs IX-2, 4-1925; Lawrence Co., (B); Starke Co., 
North Judson V-24-1911 (A.B.W.); Tippecanoe Co., IX-22-1923 (P.U.). 

74 (13). Cicindela punctulata Oliv. "Throughout the state; one of the most 
common and widely distributed of tiger beetles," — -Blatchley. Goldsmith recorded 
it from 11 scattered counties. We have taken this species in Gibson, Knox, 
Lake, Posey and Tippecanoe Comities. The Purdue Collection contains 
numerous specimens from Tippecanoe County, July 4 to October 20, and one 
specimen from Bedford, Lawrence County, VIII-5-1927 (L. F. Steiner). 

81 (6). Cicindela rufiventris Dej. Crawford Co., (B); VI-26, 29-1902, 
VII-1-1902 (A.B.W.); Tippecanoe Co., a specimen in Purdue Collection bears 
the label "Lafayette, Ind." 

*91 (— ). Cicindela celeripes Lee. Posey Co., Big Creek, about two miles 
from Wabash River, VI-29-1923, fifteen specimens; Black River creek, two and 
one half miles north of Poseyville, VII-31-1924, one specimen. This species new 
to the state, was found on moist, bare soil near the streams. 

93 (2). Cicindela unipunctata Fab. "Southern half of state" — Blatchley. 
Crawford Co., (B); VI-26-1902 (A.B.W.); Gibson Co., ravine at Foote's Lake 
hills, VII-17-1925; Posey Co., (B); Putnam Co., (B); Tippecanoe Co., IV-22- 
1923, V-7-1929, V-10-1930, V-19-1922, V-22-1930 (P.U.); Vigo Co., (B). 

108 (14). Cicindela, cuprescens Lee. Posey Co., VIII-12-1927; near Posey- 
ville, attracted to lighted window at night, VII-3-1923; along Black River creek, 
VII-7-1923; Putnam Co., (B); VII-5-1901 (A.B.W.). 

108a (14). Cicindela cuprescens macra Lee. Lake Co., (B); Pine, VII-23- 
1905 (A.B.W.); Porter Co., (B). 

110 (15). Cicindela lepida Dej. Lake Co., (B) ; Pine, VI1I-6-1905 (A.B.W.) ; 

Miller, VII-9 , X-20 , (V.E.S.); Clarke Junction, V-18 , V-29 

(V.E.S.); Porter Co., (B). 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Blatchley, W. S., 1910, An Illustrated Descriptive Catalogue of the Coleop- 
tera or Beetles (exclusive of the Rhynchophora) known to Occur in Indiana. Bull. 
No. 1. Ind. Dept. Geol. Nat. Res. 1386 pp. 

Goldsmith, William M., 1917, Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci., 26: 447-454. 

Leng, Charles W., 1902, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, 28: 93-186, PI. 1-4. 1920, 
Catalogue of the Coleoptera of America, North of Mexico. 470 pp. 

Williamson, E. B., 1917, Univ. Mich., Mus. Zool. Misc. Publ. No. 2. 12 pp., 
1 map. 



Herpetological Report of Morgan County, Indiana 361 



HERPETOLOGICAL REPORT OF MORGAN COUNTY, 

INDIANA^ 



Jean Piatt, Butler University 

The purpose of this brief paper is two-fold: (1) to record the summation of 
species taken in Morgan County, Indiana during three years collecting, (2) to 
compare the quantitative results with the number, both actual and tentative, of 
those species occurring in the state. The assumed value of the dichotomy will be 
readily grasped in the former, in the latter probably with hesitation. The merit 
of the last becomes more perspicuous when the rhythm and compensations of dis- 
tribution are felt, even though the scope of these notes is limited and the data 
are almost negligible for the instigation of such. Even the most rigid of sciences 
are after all only a-Tetpo?. 

Morgan County as a choice was not altogether arbitrary; it is a county in 
which the topography warrants an average vertebrate fauna though due to its 
lack of large water courses, extensive prairies, and swamps it naturally excludes 
certain forms. A county bordering the Ohio River, for instance, would offer 
environment for several species not inhabiting Morgan County. This county is 
composed of stretches of level fields moderately cut through by small streams 
while large parts are of a hilly nature, viz., steep little ravines and shale bottomed 
brooklets. The entire region is interspersed with tracts of deciduous forest, 
especially the uneven parts; there is an abundance of old logs and similar places 
of retreat for salamanders, snakes, etc. The fact that Morgan County is compara- 
tively near to the central portion of the state and yet enough south to furnish 
groups seldom found much farther north makes it a fortiori more desirable. These 
points would, then, logically guarantee an average representative fauna, that is, 
simply a normal county taxonomically speaking. It is only this type of county 
that should be checked against the whole state, not one characterized through 
position or physiographical features by a paucity of species or its antithesis. I feel 
certain, however, that protensive collecting will reveal forms not here listed. 

The list immediately following is a catalogue of the species actually taken 
within the limits of Morgan County, Indiana. The second list explains itself. 

Necturus maculosus (Rafinesque). Taken from White River. Several of this 
species were caught on hook and line by fishermen who with one accord proclaimed 
the squirming animal to be very poisonous. 

Triturus viridescens riridescens (Rafinesque) . Two in the second larval stage 
captured beneath a pile of logs at the mouth of a small ravine. Great contrast in 
size; one being 83 mm., the other 42 mm. 

Ambystoma opacum (Gravenhorst). A full sized individual from under an old 
railroad tie on the summit of a "Knob." The ground was fairly dry and the sala- 
mander was just emerging from a burrow. Two more taken in the near vicinity 
and under similar circumstances. In Indiana I have always found this species in 
relatively dry places but in the south it apparently prefers very moist situations. 



Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 40: 361-368 (1930) 1931. 
•Exclusive of turtles. 



362 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

Amby stoma maculatum (Shaw). One specimen taken from the interior of a 
rotten log. The time of year was early and due to the small size of the creature 
I presume it had passed the winter in this environment. I have found it under the 
same conditions before. It is undoubtedly common about water in this county 
at breeding season. 

Plethodon cinereus (Green). With the possible exception of P. glutinosus this 
form is the most abundant to be met with in the whole region. It is best found 
under loose shale and debris on the north side of steep, sylvan ravines. Under and 
in old logs also; never discovered very close to water. It is possible that both this 
species and the next are perennially terrestrial. 

Plethodon dorsalis (Cope). It is safe to assume that for about every one hun- 
dred and fifty of the above form there is usually a corresponding individual of 
this species. Seven found altogether; none discovered without the zigzag stripe on 
the dorsum. Smaller. One was taken beneath a flat piece of shale about one foot 
from a little brooklet. This is the closest I have ever seen the species to water. 

Plethodon glutinosus (Green). Notoriously common. Taken from beneath 
almost every moist log or stump. Agile but not extremely elusive. I have ex- 
amined an albino individual of this species from the territory and find it to be 
normal in every respect except dermal pigmentation. 

Eurycea bislineata bislineata (Green). The chief habitat of this urodele is 
beneath flat shale slabs in or very near the water of brooklets flowing into Syca- 
more Creek. Very numerous. I have noticed that it appears consistently darker 
in the early fall, strikingly more so than in the spring. This is true of E. longicauda 
also. This may find partial explication in the fact that the closer contiguity of the 
chromatophores is concomitant with the change in metabolism in preparation for 
hibernation. 

Eurycea lucifuga (Rafinesque). Though not exactly common this species is 
well represented in the county and it is more abundant locally. Three taken 
from a rocky, cavernous orifice in a shallow depression of the ground. A typical 
cave in miniature. It is extremely difficult to catch, dashing from crevice to ledge 
with bewildering rapidity. One was taken from under a plank in a pump-house 
with a floor of damp gravel. 

Eurycea longicauda (Green). This, unlike most beautiful things, is common. 
It is found under conditions similar to E. b. bislineata with the marked exception 
that I have never seen it in the water but under rocks on the moist sides of the 
brook. It is not unusual to find several beneath the same piece of shale. 

Bufofowleri (Garman). Everywhere common. Found in fields and sparse 
woods, sometimes occurring under the heavy, loose bark of fallen trees. Rapid 
and intense metachrosis manifested in this form. 

Bufo americanus (Holbrook). This toad has been found only occasionally 
in the county. It prefers moist situations and only rarely is it to be discovered 
in the dry, open fields. It lias been my experience to find Bufo americanus 
only about the larger water courses of the state, and in no place is it as 
abundant as the preceeding species. 

Acris gryllus (LeConte). Very numerous, filling the air at evening with their 
staccatic trills. Found about old ponds and other appreciable bodies of water. 
Especially abundant in wet, luxuriant patches of grass. 

Pseudacris triseriata (Wied). Locally common. Many seen in a shallow, 
woodland pool in which half submerged logs and the muddy bottom offered 
places of concealment. At night, and many times through the clay, its rhythmic 



Herpetological Report of Morgan County, Indiana 363 

cadence is heard. The note is a steady rise and fall — a musical paean to the great 
god Water. 

Hyla crucifer (Wied). Recognized in early March by its shrill, sweet peep. 
Found in moist woods during the day, secreting itself beneath loose bark. At 
dusk it frequents the margins of sedged pools and streams. Wide-spread. 

Hyla versicolor versicolor (LeConte). The habits of this species resemble those 
of the spring peeper. It is generally, though, found higher up on knots of tree 
trunks, and sitting at the mouth of small openings in rotten beech. Always more 
arboreal. 

liana pipiens (Schreber). Everywhere, especially at breeding season in and 
about perennial pools of water and streams in which the current is not too turgid . 

Rana clamitcms (Latreille). Generally seen in small lakes and ponds. Aquatic 
and retiring. I have taken a pair of Rana in coitu, the male being, pipiens and the 
female, clamitans. 

Rana catesbeiana (Shaw). Heard and taken along the border of sluggish 
streams and from the dismal recesses of stagnant ponds. Common. 

Rana sylvatica (LeConte). One taken from moist hillside in woods. Again, 
five found about a small, sequestered brook flowing between steep, wooded hills. 
Merits the name of wood frog. 

Plestiodon fasciatus (Linne). Very abundant, nearly always found underneath 
loose, coarse bark of large fallen trees and logs in the neighborhood of tiny brooks. 
Numerous adults taken from about timber on ground and several times rather 
high up in trees. 

Sceloporus undulatus (Latreille). More common toward the southeastern part 
of the county. Very active, often running from log or rail fences to the stem of a 
tree where it rapidly ascends a spiral course in a series of erratic dashes. This form 
has a predilection for comparatively dry wooded areas. 

Carphophis amoena (Say). Moderately common but always secretive. This 
diminutive snake is found beneath rocks, dead leaves, and logs. Old chips seem to 
suit its fancy for concealment admirably. 

Diadophis punctatus edwardsii (Merrem). Very plentiful, hiding under loose 
bark of rotten logs and stumps. It favors damp ground and is often discovered 
upon turning over half buried slabs of rock. This is the only form of ring-neck 
snake I have found in Indiana. In lieu of my collecting in the southeastern states 
and the intensive search for constant variation among the Indiana Diadophis 
I must say, despite my very limited knowledge, that there are a greater number 
of varieties in the literature than in our woods and fields. 

Heterodon contortrix (Linne). Bids fair to become common; two adults and 
one young taken. One of the adults was the melanistic phase. This is a serpent 
that is found at the most unexpected times and places. Seems to enjoy sandy 
country. 

Opheodrys aestivus (Linne). One taken from a small tree among the green 
foliage; another from some blackberry bushes. Unbelievably difficult to discern 
when in this habitat. Reliable reports of other greensnakes come to me but it is 
impossible to tell whether they are this species of Liopeltis vernalis. The occurrence 
of the latter within the county is more than a probability. 

Coluber constrictor constrictor (Linne). Wide-spread and very common. 
It is rather hard to determine whether this black-snake or the pilot is more com- 
mon in this region. This nervous creature is an inhabitant of the woods and hill- 
sides, its roaming propensities frequently proving disasterous since many are run 



364 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

over on the roads. Always to be looked for near some rocky outcropping in the 
heart of a brambly thicket. Very quick. 

Elaphe obsoleia obsoleta (Say). As numerous as the preceding. Very arbor- 
eal, several being caught high up in the branches of large trees. A much gentler 
snake than the blue-racer and never displaying that nervous tendency so charac- 
teristic of all Colubers. A female deposited eleven eggs while in captivity, July 
30, 1929. 

Natrix sipedon sipedon (Linne). Found everywhere along water courses and 
ponds. Secretive to a certain extent in the daytime being found under flat stones. 
A very vicious reptile, considerably more so than any other Indiana snake. 
A gravid female contained twenty-six young. 

Natrix septemvittata (Say). Locally common; not in such numbers as the 
preceding form. This and the above snake often observed together beneath the 
same rock. One of the mildest and prettiest of the water snakes. 

Storeria dekayi (Holbrook). One taken about four o'clock in the afternoon 
crossing a path on the summit of a ridge. Probably very abundant and should 
be looked for at night. 

Thamnophis sirtalis sirtalis (Linne). Wide-spread; taken from low bushes, 
under logs, and in the open. A shy species and not so numerous as would be 
expected. 

Agkistrodon mokasen (Beauvois). One found dead, possibly beaten to death 
by some farmer. Several reports of the copper-head have been given to me by the 
"natives" of Morgan County but as yet the sole authentic account rests upon the 
dead specimen. Probably uncommon. 

Crotalus horridus (Linne). Two taken; one of them very large. Apparently 
limited to the southeastern part of the region. Numerous reports by farmers with 
but few substantiated by the "rattles." Since rattlesnakes even in districts where 
they are known to be common are seldom seen, it seems logical to assume that the 
paucity of this form in the county is perhaps only ostensible. 

There are several species, which, though not actually taken by myself from 
Morgan County, undoubtedly occur there since their abundance elsewhere in 
regions of immediate propinquity evinces their presence here beyond a doubt. 
They are: Ambystoma tiqrinum (Green), Amby stoma microstomum (Cope), Siren 
lacertina (Linne), Liopeltis vernalis (Harland), Natrix kirtlandii (Kennicott), 
Storeria occipito-maculata (Storer), and Thamnophis sauritus (Linne). 

Following is a tabulation of all species, both those occurring and those which 
might possibly be expected to occur in the state of Indiana. 

a — Indicates species not yet found in Morgan County but occurring else- 
where in the state. 

A — Indicates species not yet taken from Indiana but whose ranges make it 
plausible that occurrence would not be wholly improbably. 

T — Indicates species taken from Morgan County, Iudiana. 

t — Indicates species certain to be found in the county. 

1 T Necturus maculosus (Rafinesque). 

2 a A mphiuma means (Garden). 

3 a Cryplobranchus alleganiensis (Daudin). 

4 T Triturus viridescens viridescens (Rafinesque). 

5 t Ambystoma tiqrinum (Green). 



6 


T 


7 


t 


8 


T 


9 


a 


10 


A 


11 


a 


12 


T 


13 


T 


14 


T 


15 


A 


16 


A 


17 


T 


18 


T 


19 


T 


20 


A 


21 


a 


22 


t 


23 


T 


24 


T 


25 


T 


26 


T 


27 


a 


28 


A 


29 


T 


30 


a 


31 


T 


32 


A 


33 


T 


34 


a 


35 


a 


36 


T 


37 


T 


38 


A 


39 


T 


40 


A 


41 


A 


42 


A 


43 


T 


44 


a 


45 


a 


46 


a 


47 


T 


47 


T 


49 


a 


50 


T 


51 


A 


52 


A 


53 


T 


54 


a 


55 


t 


56 


T 



Herpetological Report of Morgan County, Indiana 365 

Ambystoma opacum (Gravenhorst). 
Ambysto?na microstomum (Cope). 
Ambystoma maculatum (Shaw). 
Ambystoma jeffersonianum (Green) . 
Ambystoma talpoideum (Hoolbrok). 
Hemidactylium scutatum (Schlegel) . 
Plethodon cinereus (Green). 
Plethodon dorsalis (Cope). 
Plethodon glutinosus (Green). 
Gyrinophilus porphyriticus (Green). 
Pseudotriton ruber ruber (Sonnini). 
Eurycea bislineata bislineata (Green). 
Eurycea lucifuga (Rafinesque) . 
Eurycea longicauda (Green). 
Eurycea guito-lineata (Holbrook). 
Desmognathus fuscus fuscus (Rafinesque). 
Siren lacertina (Linne). 
Bufo americanus (Holbrook). 
Bufo fowleri (Garman) . 
Acris gryllus (LeConte). 
Pseudacris triseriata (Wied). 
Pseudacris feriarum (Baird ) . 
Hyla cinerea cinerea (Schneider). 
Hyla versicolor versicolor (LeConte). 
Hyla squirella (Latreille) . 
Hyla crucifer (Wied). 
Hyla phaeocrypta (Cope). 
Rana pipiens (Schreber). 
Rana palustris (LeConte). 
Rana areolata (Baird and Girard) 
Rana catesbeiana (Shaw). 
Rana clamitans (Latreille) . 
Tana sphenocephala (Cope). 
Rana sylvatica (LeConte). 
Rana cantabrigensis (Baird). 
Rana septentrionalis (Baird) . 
Gastrophryne carolinensis (Holbrook). 
Sceloporus undulatus (Latreille). 
Ophisaurus ventralis (Linne) . 
Cnemidophorus sexlineata (Linne) . 
Leiolopisma later ale (Say). 
Plestiodon facsiatus (Linne). 
Carphophis amoena (Say). 
Farancia abacura (Holbrook) . 
Diadophis punctatus edivardsii (Merrem). 
Diadophis punctatus stictogenys (Cope). 
Diadophis punctatus arnyi (Kennicott). 
Heterodon contortrix (Linne). 
Heterodon simus (Linne). 
Liopeltis vernalis (Harlan). 
Opheodrys aestivus (Linne). 



366 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

Coluber constrictor constrictor (Linne). 

Coluber constrictor flaviventris (Say) . 

Elaphe obsoleta obsoleta (Say). 

Elaphe guttata (Linne). 

Elaphe vulpinus (Baird and Girard) . 

Pituophis sayi (Schlegel). 

Lampropeltis triangulum triangulum (Lacepede) . 

Lampropeltis triangulum syspila (Cope). 

Lampropeltis calligaster (Harlan). 

Lampropeltis getulus holbrooki (Stejneger). 

Lampropeltis getulus niger (Yarrow). 

Natrix sipedon spiedon (Linne). 

Natrix sipedon fasciata (Linne) . 

Natrix rhombifera (Hallowell). 

Natrix septemv ittata (Say). 

Natrix grahamii (Baird and Girard). 

Natrix cyclopion (Dumeril and Bibron). 

Natrix kirtland ii (Kerricctt). 

Storeria dekayi (Holbrook). 

Storeria occipito-maculata (Storer). 

Virginia elegans (Kennicott). 

Virginia valeriae (Baird and Girard). 

Potamophis striatulus (Linne). 

Tropidoclonion lineatum (Hallowell) 

Thamnophis butleri (Cope). 

Thamnophis proximus (Say). 

Thamnophis radix (Baird and Girard) . 

Thamnophis sir talis sirtalis (Linne). 

Thamnophis sauritus (Linne) . 

Micrurus fulvius (Linne). 

Agkistrodon mokasen (Beauvois). 

Agkistrodon piscivorus (Lacepede). 

Sistrurus catenatus catenatus (Rafmesque). 

Crotalus horridus (Linne). 

The subsequent table gives two percentages: (1) the ratio in percent of actual 
species known from Morgan County to the actual species known from Indiana, 
(2) the ratio in percent of the tentative species plus those actually taken from the 
county to the tentative species plus those actually taken from the state. Adhering 
to this plan the two average ratios of W. S. Blatchley (Vigo Co., Ind.), and S. H. 
Springer (Marion Co., Ind.) are given to enable the comparison with those of the 
present paper. 

Caudata Salientia Lacertilia Ophidia Av. Pi. Av. Sp. Av. Bl. 

1. 55.5% 71.4% 40% 36.36% 50.81% 44.9% 57.9% 

2. 59.09% 50', 40% 37.2% 46.57% 38.2% 47.1% 

This comparison of percentages proves, of course, nothing; however we may 
surmise three conclusions. 

(1) In the majority of cases, the percent of species of a county (or an area 
similar to a county) to that of a territory (comparable to a state) is approximately 
50 percent. A fair average when the contrast in size is realized. 



57 


T 


58 


a 


59 


T 


60 


A 


61 


a 


62 


A 


63 


a 


64 


a 


65 


a 


66 


A 


67 


a 


68 


T 


69 


a 


70 


a 


71 


T 


72 


A 


73 


A 


74 


t 


75 


T 


76 


t 


77 


a 


78 


A 


79 


A 


80 


A 


81 


a 


82 


a 


S3 


a 


84 


T 


85 


t 


86 


a 


87 


T 


88 


a 


89 


a 


90 


T 



Herpetological Report of Morgan County, Indiana 367 

(2) We see that the forms, both of a large tract and a small, fall into three 
groups : (a) permanent fauna (b) variable fauna (c) rare exotic fauna. 

(3) The fact that the ratio of the small, actual to actual and of the larger, 
actual to actual is an approximate constant to the ratio of the small, tentative to 
tentative and of the larger, tentative to tentative. A prognostication that is not 
without significance. 

Generally speaking I would like to reiterate that the fauna of any definite 
area is constantly undergoing modification and change. The rigid tabulation of 
one period will undoubtedly fail of congruence to that of another. Groups and 
varieties are ceaselessly pushing out, lengthening the Highways of Dispersal here, 
severing them completely in another. The "becoming" of things is as surely to be 
met with in these herpetological microcosms as in the rush of the planets. Faunal 
aggregations are dynamic not static. 

It should be remarked that the assemblage of species possible to Indiana is 
wholly arbitrary. I have rejected some such as G. S. Myers', Lampropeltis elap- 
soides elapsoides or W. S. Blatchleys', Abastor erythrogrammus, as an undue warp- 
ing of range; later they may be legitimate. I am of the opinion that if faunal zones 
were always employed instead of the highly artificial boundaries of states, the dis- 
tribution problem would be upon a sounder basis. 

Literature Cited 

Blanchard, Frank N. — Revision of King Snakes: Genus Lampropeltis 
Bull. 114, U. S. Nat. Mus. 1921. 

Blanchard, Frank N. — Key to Snakes of North America, Canada, and Lower 
California. Mich. Acad. Sci., Arts, and Letters, 4, Part 2. 1924. 

Blanchard, Frank N. — Southern Indiana Reports. Mich. Acad. Sci., Arts, 
and Letters, 5. (1925) 1926: 367-388. 

Blatchley, W. S. — -Notes on Batrachians and Reptiles of Vigo Co., Ind. Jour. 
Cin. Soc. Nat. Hist., 14, Part 1: 22-35. 1891. 

Blatchley, W. S. — Notes on Batrachians and Reptiles of Vigo Co., Ind. 24th 
Ann. Rep. Geol. Sur., Ind. Part 2. pp. 537-552. 1900. 

Cope, Edward Drinker — Crocodilians, Lizards, and Snakes of North America. 
Ann. Rep. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1898. 

Cope, Edward Drinker — Batrachia of North America. Bull. 34, U. S. Nat. 
Mus. 1889. 

Davis, W. S., Jr., and Rice, Frank L.— Descriptive Catalogue of North 
American Batrachia and Reptilia East of Miss. River. 111. Nat. Hist. Sur., l,No.5. 
1883. 

Dickerson, Mary C. — Frog Book. 1906. 

Ditmars, Raymond Lee — Reptile Book. 1907. 

Dunn, Emmett Reid — Salamanders of the Family Plethodontidae. Smith 
College 50th Anniversary Publication. 1926. 

Evermann and Clark — -Lake Maxinkuckee. 1920. 

Garman, H. — Synopsis of Reptiles and Amphibians of Illinois. 111. Nat. Hist. 
Sur., 3 Art. 13. Oct., 1892. 

Garman, H. — Notes Reptiles and Amphibians of Illinois, Including Several 
Species Not before Recorded from North-eastern states. 111. Nat. Hist. Sur., 
3 Art. 10 Sept., 1890. 

Hay, Oliver Perry — Batrachians and Reptiles of Indiana. 17th Rep. Geol. 
Sur. Ind. 412-609. 1892. 



368 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

Jordan, David Starr — Manual of Vertebrate Animals of Northeastern United 
States. 13th Ed, 1929. 

Myers, George Sprague — Synopsis for Identification of Amphibians and 
Reptiles of Indiana, Proc. Ind. Arad. Sci., 35: 277-294. 1925. 

Myers, George Sprague — Notes on Indiana Amphibians and Reptiles. 
Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci., 36: 337-340. 1926. 

Pratt, Henry Sherring — Manual of Vertebrate Animals of United States 
(Ex. of Birds). 1923. 

Ruthven, Alexander G. — Variations and Genetic Relationships of the Garter 
Snakes. Bull. 61, U. S. Nat. Mus. 1908. 

Ruthven, Alexander G. — Reptiles of Michigan. Mich. Geol. Biol. Sur. No. 10. 
63. 1912. 

Springer, Stewart Horace— List of Reptiles and Amphibians taken in Marion 
Co., Ind. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci., 37: 491-492. 1927. 

Stejneger, Leonard and Barbour, Thomas— Check List of North American 
Amphibians and Reptiles. Sec. Ed. 1923. 



Local Movements of Birds 369 



LOCAL MOVEMENTS OF BIRDS 



Louis Agassiz Test and Frederick H. Test, Purdue University 

By no means least among the many problems which may be studied by bird 
banding is that of the local movements of birds. Are the "resident" birds which 
winter in a certain locality the same individuals which will nest there the following 
summer? How restricted are the movements of a bird during its winter or summer 
residence in a certain locality? How extensive a feeding range do our migrants 
cover in the few days they remain with us'r A satisfactory answer can be given 
to such questions only by systematic banding in a particular locality. 

The observations here recorded are some of the results of six years bird band- 
ing at a small station on the outskirts of West Lafayette and should be considered 
merely as a preliminary report. 

The bluejay will generally be considered a typical resident bird. In banding 
some 120 individuals of this species there have been approximately 10 percent 
returns, all from West Lafayette, either at the original banding station or within 
a few blocks of it. Most of those not taken at the station were found dead by 
neighbors. A few typical examples of birds captured more than once are: 338352 
banded Dec. 11, 1924, recaptured March 18, 1925, April 4, 1925, Jan. 15, 1927; 
284364 banded Oct. 29, 1925, Jan. 11, 1926, May 21, 1926. These two birds would 
certainly have to be considered as true residents. On the other hand captures 
have been more frequent in late summer and early spring which may indicate a 
more or less general movement at these times, or simply that the young are 
beginning to spread out in search of food or that breeding season makes the food 
problem more acute. 

Juncos may be taken as typical winter residents and migrants. The results 
of banding something over 300 juncos indicate that many individuals are true 
winter residents remaining in a particular locality much of the winter, visiting the 
same feeding station again and again. Some typical examples taken from our 
junco records are of special interest. The record of capture for six birds are: 
78168 Dec. 19, 1925; Jan. 26, Feb. 12. 27, 1926, Mar. 27, 1926. 78174 Jan. 10, 13, 27, 
Mar. 27, 1926. 78176 Jan. 11, 14, 27, Feb. 12, 27, 1926. 185806 Nov. 22, Dec. 27, 
1926, Jan. 22, 1927. 469716 Nov. 29, 1928, Jan. 2, Feb. 1, 9, 12, 1929. A169360 
Nov. 15, 23, and 15 times between Nov. 23 and Dec. 24, 1929. 78168 shows a resi- 
dent period of over three months. 

It is of interest to note that during December, January and February most 
of the birds visiting the traps are banded individuals and in all cases have been 
banded at this station. The large number of unban ded birds caught in late fall 
and spring with few repeats, seems to indicate that these birds pass on quickly 
both north and south and are not winter residents as those caught in the winter. 

In the spring of 1930 an experiment was undertaken to learn something defi- 
nite of the feeding range of birds. An additional banding station was established 
on the grounds of Prof. Dukes, a little less than a quarter of a mile from our main 
station at 511 Russell St. and separated from it in a direct line by open fields. Here 
a Government sparrow trap was maintained under a tangle of native bushes and 
vines near the driveway leading to the house. Conditions were not greatly 

Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 40: 369-370. (1930) 1931. 



370 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

different from those at our home station except that the place was a little more 
isolated and the bushes offered more protection. The same bait, mixed seeds, 
chick feed and bread, was used at both stations and the traps visited usually three 
times a day. 

The first captures made at this new station were two song sparrows banded 
March 18 and the last captures two bobwhites banded May 12, a period of eight 
weeks. During this time 214 birds were banded representing 23 species. Of these 
68 were banded at the new and 146 at the main station, 16 species being banded at 
each place. The only species of which large numbers were taken at one station and 
very few at the other was bronzed grackle, 61 being banded at the main station 
and only one at the new. 

Of the 214 birds banded many repeated from one to more than 30 times but 
only five individuals, of three species were taken at both stations, a bluejay, 
three j uncos and a white-throated sparrow. The only bluejay caught at the new 
station was A309436 April 7. which repeated at the main station April 17. At the 
latter station five blue jays were banded none of which repeated during this period. 

Next to the grackles the juncos were second in abundance, 37 being banded 
at the home station and 17 at the new. Although there were many recaptures at 
both stations only three, two banded at the new station and one at the home were 
recaptured at the other station. Junco A169390 banded March 19 at the new 
station was recaptured at the main station March 25. Junco Al 69395 banded at 
the new station March 21 was recaptured at the main station March 25 three 
times in two different traps and was captured again at the new station March 26 
during a blizzard. Junco A169405 banded March 25 at the home station repeated 
at the same station March 30 and was captured at the new station April 11. One 
junco repeated 24 times at the new, but was not caught at the home station, while 
another repeated 21 times at the home station but was not captured at the new. 
The only other bird trapped at both stations was white-throated sparrow Al 69392 
banded at the new station March 19 and recaptured at the home station March 25. 
This bird was later caught at the new station on the following dates: April 15, 26 
(three times), 29, 30, May 7, 9. It seems remarkable that this bird should have 
spent nearly eight weeks in the locality before continuing its migration north. 
It was the first of the white-throats to arrive this spring and the last to leave. 

It is of interest that Song sparrow A169388 caught at the new station and 
banded March 18 repeated more than 30 times in less than a month but was never 
seen at the other station. 

Of the 16 species of birds banded at the new station all but two, Fox sparrow 
and Towhee have at various times been taken at the home station, and during 
this experiment some of the species were caught in about equal numbers at each 
station. 

The only other banding station in this locality is one maintained for the past 
five years by A. W. Cole about a mile from our station. During this period though 
we have each banded many hundreds of birds, in only three instances have birds 
taken at one station been taken at the other also. A Tufted titmouse and two 
Downy woodpeckers banded by Prof. Cole at his station were later taken at our 
station. 



Birds of Tippecanoe County 371 



BIRDS OF TIPPECANOE COUNTY 



Louis Agassi? Test and Frederick H. Test, Purdue University 

Butler, in his birds of Indiana (Indiana State Geologist's Report for 1897), 
makes frequent reference to records from Tippecanoe County, but so far as the 
writers are aware, no attempt has ever been made to publish a complete list for 
the county. 

The facts here recorded cover a more or less interrupted period of observa- 
tions for the past forty years by one or both of the writers, the records of the 
Purdue Bird Club for 1903-1904 and other available data from various sources. 
The observations were particularly intensive during the periods 1890-1897 and 
1924-1930. Bird banding was also carried on during the latter period. 

Tippecanoe County lies somewhat north and west of the center of the state, 
is almost square, generally level and has an area of 624 square miles. Lafayette, 
the county seat, combined with West Lafayette is the only large town, having a 
population of about 30,000. 

Originally, most of the county was heavily wooded with a very diversified 
growth of hardwoods in which oaks predominated, and often there was much 
underbrush. The Wea plains in the south part of the county furnish some prairie 
country. The Wabash river flows directly through the county and with three other 
streams of fair size, the Tippecanoe, Wild Cat, and Wea, all flowing into it, furnish 
abundant water courses. In the early days, the Erie canal passed through La- 
fayette and furnished an attraction for water birds. Wide water, a widening of the 
canal north of town, being particularly attractive. 

Most of the land in the county is now cultivated, though along the water 
courses some of it is still heavily wooded and much broken by ravines and bluffs. 

The county has no large marshes and only a few small ponds. The largest 
of these, situated some five miles northwest of Lafayette, is Hedley's Lake, a shal- 
low pond with muddy bottom and little or no vegetation growing in it. The lake 
is perhaps three quarters of a mile long by one hundred to two hundred yards 
wide in a wet season and sometimes almost without water in a dry season, pre- 
senting at such times an extensive muddy shore line very attractive to a large 
variety of shore birds. Of the smaller ponds and marshes, Ross's pond three 
miles northwest of Lafayette, some two hundred yards across and overgrown at the 
edges with cattails and other vegetation, offers an attractive retreat for water 
birds, rails, etc. Whitsell's pond, a mile farther north, is somewhat similar 
but is in the middle of a pasture. Another small marsh some six or eight miles 
north of Lafayette, which we have called the "Willow Pond," is about the size 
of Whitsell's pond but is surrounded by willows, mostly dead. It is overgrown 
with spatter-dock, with rank grass and rushes at the edges. A rather heavih r 
wooded tract of more or less swampy land used to occupy much of the county 
between what is now Ross's Pond and Hedley's Lake, but for the past 25 or 30 
years it has been mostly cleared and cultivated. This will be referred to merely 
as "the swamp." Formerly, a heavily wooded tract existed on the west side of the 
Wabash River for some three or four miles north of Lafayette, where large trees 
and much undergrowth extended from the river's edge for a mile over the bluffs 
and ravines. 



Proe. Ind. Acad. Sci. 40: 371-373, (1930) 1931. 



372 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

Forty years has brought extensive changes in the character of the country 
and some notable changes in the bird life. The old canal has disappeared, and 
now, only a few small ponds remain to mark its course. The extensive woods have 
been largely cut away, and cultivated fields and pasture lands have taken their 
place. Where 35 or 40 years ago one might in many places, even near Lafayette, 
walk for two or three miles without getting out of the woods there are now only 
small patches of woodlands and narrow fringes along the streams. 

There were formerly extensive plantings of evergreens serving as wind-breaks 
on the north and west sides of the Purdue University campus, which harbored 
many species of birds and served as ideal nesting sites and roosting places for 
grackles, doves and robins. Here the American crossbill was a frequent visitor, 
some seasons being common for months at a time. Now, as the evergreens have 
been almost entirely removed, these birds are rarely seen, and none have been 
noted for several years. 

These changes have quite naturally affected the bird life of the county, some 
species becoming less common or entirely lacking, while others have increased in 
numbers. 

Forty years ago, the passenger pigeon was occasionally seen, the last record 
known to the writers being that of a specimen taken in the "swamp," September, 
1892, the skin of which is in our collection. This same "swamp" was likewise the 
home of many short-eared owls and great horned owls, which now seem to have 
almost entirely disappeared from the county. Red-tailed hawks were abundant 
and their nests common, but now, though these hawks are occasionally seen, their 
nests are very rare. Woodcock, formerly common, nesting in the "swamp" and 
elsewhere in the county, are now rare and found only in a few places. Prairie 
chickens, now quite rare, occurring in one or two favored places, in the nineties 
were common on the Wea plains and were even occasionally flushed on the Purdue 
Campus. 

On the Tippecanoe River there was, for many years, a heronry, where several 
pairs of great blue herons nested in the sycamores on the Van Natta farm, north 
of Battle Ground, but they have long since disappeared, and now, only an occa- 
sional one nests in the county, though the birds are not uncommon. 

Among the smaller birds which were formerly common, lark sparrows, orchard 
orioles, Carolina wrens, black-capped chickadees, horned larks, and eave swallows 
are now rare or entirely absent, though in 1926 a colony of about forty pairs of 
oavc swallows was found nesting about six miles south of Lafayette. No lark 
sparrows have been seen for a number of years, and the horned larks, which were 
abundant and nested on the Purdue Campus, are found only in very restricted 
numbers in certain localities. As the orchard oriole has decreased, the Baltimore 
seems to have become more abundant. 

The first county record known to us of the bewick wren is of a pair which 
nested in West Lafaj^ette in 1890. At that time it was considered rare but has 
increased until now it is not uncommon, usually arriving some weeks ahead of the 
house wren. Cardinals have never been rare but seem to be more abundant now 
than formerly, especially in town. The English sparrow, which for a time increased 
very rapidly, now appears to be on the decrease, at least, in the city, while at the 
same time, the starling is making a place for itself in our bird life. First seen in 
the county in the spring of 1926, the starling has increased rapidly, especially in 
the country, and this fall large flocks came every evening with the grackles to 
roost in the trees of the town. The winter ranges of some of our birds seem to have 



Birds of Tippecanoe County 373 

changed in the time covered by these observations, notably so in the case of the 
bronzed grackle, which used to be rarely seen during the winter but now is a regu- 
lar winter resident in some numbers, at least, in We t Lafayette. Robins and 
mourning doves, also, are regular winter residents in small numbers, more notice- 
ably so in the last few years. The same is true of the flicker, while the red-headed 
woodpecker seems to have become a less regular winter resident as the forests have 
been cut away. 

The total number of species reported in the county, so far as we have been 
able to estimate, is 216. For convenience, the birds of the county may be divided 
roughly into nesting birds 107, residents 32, summer residents 75, winter residents 
8, transients 75, and visitors 15. 

The complete list will be published later. 



A New Ilynassa 375 



A NEW ILYNASSA* 



H. I. Tucker 
Ilynassa (Parnassa) aratimi deleonensis, n. var. Fig. 1 




Fig. 1. 

Shell somewhat inflated, moderately heavy, with about seven whorls. Spire 
acute. Suture distinct. Entire shell unevenly spirally threaded. Spiral threads 
vary in width and spacing. Usually interspaces wider than the lines. Longitudinal 
sculpture of fine growth lines. Canal short, slight fasciole. Outer lip thickened, 
internally Urate. Usually about six or seven lirations. 

This variety is distinguished from /. aratum Say by the continuation of the 
spiral ribbing over the apical whorls and by the marked irregularity of the spiral 
sculpture. It differs from I. isogramma Dall in its more acute spire, its less elevated 
form. 

Holotype: Collection H. I. Tucker, deposited Cornell University. 
Range: Nashua Pliocene. 
Locality: DeLeon Springs, Florida. 



Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 40:375. (1930) 1931. 

*Thanks are due Dr. K. V. Palmer for careful comparison of my types with specimens in the 
Harris Collection at Cornell University. The author is indebted to Mr. Robert Hamilton for the 
excellent drawing of the species. 



Members 377 



MEMBERS 1 



t Abbott, George Alonzo, Univ. North Dakota, Grand Forks, N. D 2 NR08 

Abbott, Howard C, Dept. Biology, Evansville College, Evansville 2 M30 

Abbott, Raymond B., 339 Sylvia St., W. Lafayette M24 

Abell, Edward LaRue, Box 642, Terre Haute M25 

Adams, C. F., State House Annex, State Capitol, Indianapolis M27 

Adams, Esther, 518 S. Fifth St., Moberly, Mo M23 

Adams, William B., 432 W. Walnut St., Bloomington M19 

Addington, Archie, State Teachers College, Fresno, California M21 

Aldred, Jacob Win. H., Yellow Spring, Ohio M29 

Aldred, Meredith Conrad, 1354 Home, Fort Wayne M29 

fAldrich, J. M., U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. C NR22 

Aldrich, Mary Virginia, 210 Yellowstone, Billings, Montana M28 

Allee, W. R., 221 E. Fourth St., Bloomington M22 

Allen, Mrs. Elizabeth, 415 Vine St. W., W. Lafayette .M21 

Allen, Frederick J., 112 S. Grant St., W. Lafayette M30 

Allen, William Ray, Univ. Kentucky, Lexington, Ky M12 

Allison, Robert B., Everglades Exp. Sta., Belle Glade, Fla M25 

Allyn, William Preston, Indiana State Normal School, Terre Haute M25 

Alman, Wm. Herbert, 1541 S. 20th St., Terre Haute M30 

Alquist, Francis N., Dept. Chemistry, Purdue University, Lafayette M26 

Alter, Chester M., R. R. 4, Rushville M26 

Amatis, Sister, St. Mary-of-the- Woods M25 

Amidei, Terzo Paul, 712 E. Cottage Grove Ave., Bloomington M26 

*Anderegg, Frederick Osband, 206 Fulton Bldg., Pittsburg, Pa Ml 8, 2 F24 

Anderson, Beatrice E., Westport M28 

Andrews, Frances, 715 E. 10th St., Bloomington M27 

* Andrews, Frank M., 901 E. 10th St., Bloomington M96, Fll 

Andrews, John Scott, 217 S. Grant St., West Lafayette M28 

Armington, John H., II. S. Weather Bureau, Indianapolis M21 

*Arther, J. C, 915 Columbia St., Lafayette M Charter, F93 

Artist, Russel C, 4250 E. 34th St., Indianapolis M30 

Auble, Robert N., 1121 Tecumseh Ave., Indianapolis M22 

x^ufderheide, Mrs. Hellen, 4012 Broadway, Indianapolis M28 

Axtell, William Bates, 30 Robinson St., Schenectady, New York M29 

Ayers, John H., 4113 Harmon St., Marion M29 

Babcock, Clarence L., 211 University St., W. Lafayette M26 

*Badertscher, J. A., 312 S. Fess Ave., Bloomington M14, F17 

Bailey, Clennie E., Ball Teachers College, Muncie M28 

x Addresses given arc the latest on file. If address is known to be incorrect the address is 
followed by (I). 

*Fellow. 

tNon-Resident Fellow. 

2 Figures following M, F. and NR indicate date of election to membership, fellowship, Mini 
non-resident fellowship respectively. 



378 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

Bair, W. H., Clarkson College of Technology, Potsdam, N. Y. .......... . M24 

Baker, Edgar G. S., R. F. D. 3, Bourbon M29 

Baker, Lora M., Hartford City M20 

Baker, Lowell F., Carmel M28 

Balas, George M., Hanover M27 

Baldinger, Lawrence H., 128 N. Frances St., South Bend M30 

Baldwin, Ira Lawrence, Dept. Agri. Bact., Univ. Wis., Madison, Wis M19 

Bard, Frank B., 300 E. Howard, Crothersville M27 

Barnett, Horace L., R. R. 7, Indianapolis M30 

Barnhill, Dr. J. F., I. U. School of Medicine, Indianapolis M16 

Barr, Harry L., Box 1175, Normal Station, Natchitoches, Louisiana Mil 

Barth, Dorothy May, 1277 Everett Ave., Louisville, Ky M30 

Bartle, Glen Gardner, Kansas City Junior College, Kansas City, Mo M23 

Bauermeister, C. Carlyle, 136 So. Arlington Ave., Indianapolis M30 

Baumgartner, Frederick M., 430 Buckingham, Indianapolis M28 

Beabout, Reuben, Michigan town M30 

Beck, John, 613 N. 7th St., Lafayette M25 

Becker, Charles, 340 W. Broadway, Logansport M30 

Becktel, Albert R., 708 W. Wabash Ave., Crawfordsville M20 

Beebe, Ralph E., 724 Ashland Ave., Muncie M26 

Beecher, Alva, 303 Russel Ave., Crawfordsville M22 

Beecher, Brazier, 1125 N. Courtland, Kokomo M27 

Begeman, Hilda, Winn wood School, Lake Grove, Long Island, New York .M19 
Beghtel, Floyd E., Indiana Central College, Indianapolis M25 

*Behrens, Charles A., 1020 Third St., W. Lafayette M16, F17 

Behrens, Otto, Jr., 804 N. 5th St., Anderson M27 

Belcher, Carl James, Pilot Knob M25 

Bell, Bessie, 11016 Esmond St., Morgan Park, Chicago, Illinois M26 

Benitz, William Logan, 724 Cedar St., Notre Dame M27 

*Bennett, Lee F., 614 Fitzhugh St., Saginaw, Michigan M98, F16 

Benton, Curtis, Box 495, W. Lafayette. M27 

*Benton, George W., 88 Lexington Ave., New York City, N. Y. . .MCharter, F96 

Berg, George F., 1702 E. 12th St., Indianapolis M22 

Berg, Irol C, 549 Mill Street, New Lexington, Ohio M30 

Berry, Willard, 2354 Indiana Ave., Columbus, Ohio M29 

Betzner, Ruth A., Bunker Hill M26 

Bishop, George N., Mitchell M27 

Bittel, Wm. H., 207 W. Blvd., Peru M29 

Black, Homer F., 118 E. 26th St., Chicago, Illinois M16 

Black, Lovick G., 303^ State Street, W. Lafayette M28 

Black, Roy Denzil, Box 255, Wabash M25 

Blalock, Grover Cleveland, 336 West Lutz Ave., W. Lafayette M24 

*Blanchard, Win. M., 1008 College Ave., Greencastle M09, F14 

*Blatchley, W. S., 1558 Park Ave., Indianapolis MCharter, F93 

Blaydes, Glenn Wm., 213 W. Weber Rd., Columbus ,Ohio M23 

Bloye, Amy Irene, 521 State St., W. Lafayette M23 

Bockstahler, Harold W., 608 Waldron St., W. Lafayette M26 

Bockstahler, Lester, 2203 Ridge Ave., Evanston, Illinois M20 

Bocskei, Stephen Charles, 1634 S. Scott, South Bend M29 

Bodine, Emma T., 4 Mills Place, Crawfordsville M21 



Members 379 

Boggs, Alton H M R. F. D. No. 6, Warsaw M30 

Bolen, Homer R., 201 E. Santa Rosa St., Victoria, Texas M22 

Bolenbaugh, Alta, 422 S. Hawthorne Drive, Bloomington M24 

Bolinger, Maurice G., 221 Lyon Street, Cincinnati, Ohio M26 

Bond, Charles S., 112 N. Tenth St., Richmond MOO 

Bond, Dr. George S., 5312 N. Pennsylvania St., Indianapolis M16 

Bott, Herbert J., 1313 E. Campeau St., South Bend M27 

Bourke, A. A., 2304 Liberty Ave., Terre Haute M09 

Boyd, Mary E., 351 N. Walnut St., Columbia City M28 

Brackmier, Gladys H., 126 Spencer Ave., Indianapolis M26 

Bradt, Wilber E., Dept. Chem., State College of Washington, Pullman, 

Wash M25 

Brandt, Helen Rowan, 2234 High St., Logansport M23 

fBrannon, Melvin A., Univ. of Montana. Helena, Montana NR 

*Breeze, Fred J., 4828 Montrose Ave., Ft. Wayne M98, F10 

Brewer, P. H., 145 E. Oak St., W. Lafayette. M21 

Brightly, H. S., P. O. Box 308, Bedford M24 

Briscol, Herman T., Chemistry Dept., Indiana University, Bloomington.. .M25 

Brock, James E., 818 Northwestern Ave., W. Lafayette .M22 

Brooks, Earl, 139^ N. 9th St., Noblesville * M28 

Brooks, Stanley, Salem M29 

Brosey, Charles L., 4034 Carrollton Ave., Indianapolis M22 

Brown, H. Paul, Kurtz M30 

Brown, Jeannette, 1518 N. North, Muncie. M27 

Brown, Louis Francis, Windfall . M28 

Brown, Marshall Herbert, 305 West Railroad St., Urbana, Illinois (I) M28 

Brown, Oliver W., 526 N. Washington St., Bloomington. M25 

*Bruce, Edwin, 2108 N. 10th St., Terre Haute M18, F26 

*Bruner, Henry Lane, 324 S. Ritter Ave., Indianapolis M92, F99 

Bryan, Kenneth V., Smith Hall, Purdue Univ., W. Lafayette M24 

*Bryan, Wm. Lowe, Bloomington M93, F14 

Bufler, Dorothea E., 112 E. Sycamore St., Liberty M30 

Bulfer, Gilbert, 511 N. Seventh, Mishawaka .M27 

Burkett, George W., Winamac M30 

Burkhart. Peter A., Marr, Ohio M29 

Burmaster, Rosa M., 219^ S. Jefferson, Muncie M26 

Burnett, Arthur, Brazil . ; M27 

fBurrage, Severance, Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado NR17 

Burton, Everett T., Bell Tel. Lab., 463 W. St., New York City. N. Y M20 

Burtsfield, Frank A., 813 N. Main St., W. Lafayette M24 

Bushnell, T. M., Agr. Exp. Sta., W. Lafayette M22 

Busteed, Robert Charles, R. R. 2, Milan : . . . M29 

Buswell, Vernon L., Kentland M27 

*Butler, Amos W., 52 Downey Ave., Indianapolis (Honorary 

Fellow— 1927) MCharter, F93 

Bybee, Halbert P., 210 S. Madison St., San Angelo, Texas M12 

Byers, Cecil Wesley, Box 332 Univ. Sta., Grand Forks, N. D M19 

Byrum, Irvin R., 313 E. North St., Winchester M28 

Cade, Helen, 714 Michigan Ave,, Urbana, Illinois M30 

Cain, John Thomas, Milan M28 



380 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

*Cain, Stanley A., Butler University, Indianapolis M21, F28 

Callis, Chas. D., Greentown M25 

f Campbell, D. H., Stanford University, Stanford, California NR 

Campbell, Wm. Guy, Hanover M24 

Campbell, M. Samuel, 29 N. Hawthorne Lane, Indianapolis M21 

Canis, Edward N., Route 2, Box 447, Indianapolis M09 

Cannon, Rev. Dominic J., Univ. of Notre Dame, Notre Dame M25 

Carey, Lewis J., Lyons Hall, Notre Dame M27 

Carman, J. Ernest, 277 14th Ave., Columbus, Ohio M28 

Carmella, Sister, Providence Convent, St. Mary-of -the- Woods M25 

Carpenter, Ethel, 328 Johnson Block, Muncie M29 

Carpenter, F. F., Roosevelt High School, Dayton, Ohio M26 

*Carr, Ralph Howard, 27 N. Salisbury St., W. Lafayette M14, F22 

Carringer, Zillah, 622 M. Dr. Woodruff PL, Indianapolis M30 

Carter, Annice, Ball Teachers College, Muncie M26 

Carter, Catharine, R, R, 4, Box 43, Muncie M30 

Carter, Edgar Brock, 818 East 58th St., Indianapolis M18 

Cartwright, Wm. Bell, 600 Twenty-sixth St., Sacramento, Calif M25 

Cassady, Emil V., 3048 N. Delaware St., Indianapolis M20 

Caufman, Grace, Gallipolis, Ohio , M30 

Cavins, Alexander, 221 S. Sixth St., Terre Haute M20 

Champion, C. C, 1941 N. 10th St., Terre Haute M26 

Chandler, Leo, 418 N. Center, Terre Haute M29 

Child, Alfred T., 2305 N. 10th St., Terre Haute M25 

Childs, Mrs. Laura Goff, 921 Atwater Ave., Bloomington M24 

Childs, Lewis, West Baden M26 

Chittum, Joseph Frederick, 108 N. Salisbury, W. Lafayette M28 

Cho, Eung Tyun, Dept. of Physics, Bloomington M27 

Christie, George Irving, Gwelf , Ontario, Canada M23 

*Christy, O. B., Ball State Teachers College, Muncie M19, F26 

Church, Josiah M., 205 East Oak St., Louisville, Kentucky M25 

jClark, Howard Walton, Steinhart Aquarium, Golden Gate Park, San 

Francisco, California NR 

Clark, Jediah H., 128 E. 4th St., Connersville : M09 

Clarke, Herbert M., R. R. 6, Franklin M29 

Clowes, G. H. A., Eli Lilly Company, Indianapolis M20 

Clute, Willard N., Butler University, Indianapolis M28 

Coffel, Hal Herbert, Pennville M23 

*Cogshall, Wilber A., 423 S. Fess Ave., Bloomington . . M05, F06 

Condon, W. Chalmer, R. R. 2, Logansport M28 

Conner, S. D., 204 S. Ninth St., Lafayette M12 

Conover, James F., 2230 N. 7th St., Terre Haute M25 

fCook, Mel T., Rio Piedras, Porto Pico F02, NR08 

Cook, Rolla Vergil, Bethany, West Virginia M21 

Cooper, Delmar C, 108 Langdon, Madison, Wisconsin M26 

Cooprider, J. L., Central High School, Evansville M26 

Copeland, Joseph J., Dept, Biol, Coll. City New York, New York M26 

Copp, Paul T., 812 Union St., Valparaiso M27 

Corns, Marjorie, R, R. 3, Vevay M30 

Coryell, H. N., Dept, of Geology, Columbia Univ., New York City, N. Y. ... Ml 4 



Members 381 

*Coulter, Stanley, Care, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis (Honorary 

Fellow— 1928) MCharter, F93 

Cover, H. S., Chippewa, Knoll, South Bend. . M30 

*Cowles, Henry C, Dept. of Botany ,Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois M26, F30 

Cox, Alvalon C, 2948 Indianapolis Ave., Indianapolis M28 

Cox, C. F., 528 N. Oxford St., Indianapolis M22 

Cratt, Nettie, 600 East Monroe, Franklin M30 

Cravens, Irene E., Bloomfield M30 

Craw, Joe R., Hagerstown M29 

Crawford, Wiley W., 113 So. Walnut St., Crawfordsville M30 

Crone, John T., Jr., Newton, Ohio M30 

Crooks, Donald M., 1623 University Ave., Muncie M29 

Crouch, Frances E., Hanover M27 

Culbertson, John A., Shortridge High School, Indianapolis .M24 

Cullman, Frank P., Purdue University, Lafayette M24 

*Cumings, Edgar Roscoe, 327 E. 2nd St., Bloomington MOO, F06 

Cummins, John A., Indiana Central College, Indianapolis M23 

Cummins, Margaret, 1216 Hunter, Bloomington M27 

Curtis, Lila, 809 E. 10th St., Bloomington M20 

Cutler, Garnet Homer 901 N. Main, W. Lafayette M28 

DaCosta, Herman G., 210 Papin Ave., Webster Groves, Mo M28 

D'Amour, Fred E., Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois M28 

Danglade, Ernest, Vevay M20 

Danglade, John A., Jr., R. R. 4, Vevay M28 

Darnell, Warren E., 600 W. 122nd St., New York City, N. Y M27 

Darragh, Margaret Louise, 209 E. Main, Delphi M28 

Daubenmire, Rexford F., 2325 N. LaSalle, Indianapolis M28 

fDavis, B. M., University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan NR16 

Davis, Hazel Jane, 110 N. Fruitridge Ave., Terre Haute M30 

Davis, Hugh L., 701 S. Wood St., Chicago. Illinois M21 

*Davis, John J., Purdue University, W. Lafayette M20, F24 

Davis, Marvin R., R. R. No. 5, Greensburg M29 

Dawson, Ray F., 2340 Walnut St., Anderson M28 

*Deam, Charles C, Bluffton MOO, F10 

Deay, Howard Owen, 23 Waldron Street, Lafayette M29 

DeKay, H. George, School Pharmacy, Purdue University, Lafayette M29 

Demaree, Delzie, Stanford University, California M20 

Deppe, C. A., Franklin Mil 

Deppe, Charles F., 898 E. Jefferson St., Franklin M30 

DeVol, Charles E., 4208 So. Landess St., Marion M28 

DeVries, Thomas, 153 Sheetz St., W. Lafayette M26 

Dickens, Albert Edward, 218 S. Race St., Princeton M28 

Dicus, Aaron W., 416 E. 4th St., Bloomington M28 

Dietrich, Irene, Borden M30 

Dietz, Emil, 3225 Boulevard Place, Indianapolis M21 

*Dietz, Harry F., State House, Indianapolis M09, F22 

Diggs, John C, State Dept. of Conservation, Indianapolis M20 

Diltz, Charles D., 3121 Fairfield Ave., Fort Wayne M20 

Doak, Kenneth, Agr. Exp. Sta., Lafayette M27 

Doan, Martha, Iowa Wesleyan College, Mt. Pleasant, Iowa M96 



382 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

Dobyns, Porter D., 324 W. Madison St., Franklin '. M30 

Dolan, Joseph P., Syracuse . . . . . , M95 

*Donaghy, Fred, Box 12, Terre Haute , M25, F30 

Douglass, Benjamin W., Trevlac Ml 6 

Downhour, Elizabeth, 725 N. Pennsylvania, Indianapolis M15 

Dugan, Elizabeth, Michigan State Sanatorium, Howell, Michigan M22 

Dunbar, Miriam, 760 Oliver Bldg., South Bend M27 

Dunham, David H., 429 Main St., W. Lafayette M20 

*Duteher, John B., 1212 Atwater Ave., Bloomington M07, F15 

Eagleson, Halson V., 536 N. Lincoln St., Bloomington M30 

Easter, Clifford, 303 Park Ave., Watseka, Illinois M30 

Eaton, Durward L., Indiana Central College, Indianapolis M22 

Eavey, J. Carter, 1301 S. 25th, Terre Haute M29 

*Edington, Wm. Edmund, DePauw University, Greencastle M24, F27 

Edmonson, Clarence E., 618 Ballentine Road, Bloomington M12 

Edwards, P. D., Ball State Teachers College, Muncie M27 

Elliott, Edward Charles, Purdue Univ., W. Lafayette M23 

Elliot, Merril E., 643 Barbour Ave., Terre Haute M24 

Elliott, Frank R., Valparaiso Univ., Valparaiso ; M29 

*Emerson, Charles P., 602 Hume-Mansur Bldg., Indianapolis M15, F28 

Emerson, John D., Ligonier M25 

*Enders, Howard Edwin, 249 Littleton St., W. Lafayette M06, F12 

Engels, William L., 324 S. Van Buren, Green Bay, Wisconsin M30 

Esarey, Ralph E., 523 E. Smith St., Bloomington M23 

*Esten, Sidney R., 4112 Graceland Ave., Indianapolis M24, F30 

Etter, Austin, 1602 Frances Ave., S. E. Grand Rapids, Michigan M20 

Evans, Frank C, Crawfordsville M29 

Evans, Richard I., 1 133 Fulton St., Fort Wayne M20 

fEverman, Barton W., Calif. Acad. Sci., Golden Gate, San Francisco, 

Calif. . . , MCharter, XR 

Ewers, James E., 1220 N. 9th St., Terre Haute M25 

Feldman, Horace W., Dept. of Zoology, Univ. of Mich., Ann Arbor, Mich. .M20 

Ferguson Luther S., 716 E. 8th St., Lafayette (I) M20 

Ferguson, W. W., 1022 First St., W. Lafayette M30 

Ficht, George A., 308 W. Elm Ave., Monroe, Michigan M30 

Fillingham, Judith, 1218 Broadway, Vincennes M26 

Finger, Glenn C, Chem. Building, Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois M28 

Finley, Dr. Geo. W., 18 E. National Ave., Brazil M23 

Finster, Ethel B., Mathiston, Mississippi (I) M23 

Fischer, Mrs. Geneva Robertson, 403 N. State St., Ann Arbor, Michigan. .M27 

Fischer, George W., 403 N. State St., Ann Arbor, Michigan M26 

Fish, William E., 1716 Greenbush St., Lafayette M26 

*Fisher, Martin L., Dean of Men, Purdue Univ., W. Lafayette M08, F19 

Fix, Philip F., 440 E. Second, Bloomington M29 

Fleetwood, Charles W., Kurtz M30 

Flemion, Florence D., Boyce Thompson Institute, Yonkers, New York. . . M23 

Fletcher, Hazel Marie, Modoc M28 

Fletcher, Worth A., Dept. Chemistry, Univ. Wichita, Wichita, Kansas. . . . M26 
Flood, Sister M. Aquinas, Mary Manse College, 2413 Collingwood Ave., 

Toledo, Ohio M27 



Members 383 

Florintine, Sister M., St. Mary's College, Notre Dame M27 

Foerste, August F., 129 Wroe Ave., Dayton, Ohio M29 

*Foley, Arthur L., 744 E. Third St., Bloomington M94, F97 

Foohey, Wm. Logan, 33 Delaware Ave., Pennsgrove, New Jersey .M27 

Ford, Annie Birkbeck, Main St., New Harmony M27 

Foresman, George K, 601 S. 9th St., Lafayette M14 

Foutch, Ruth E., 114 S. Crowder St., Sullivan M30 

Fowke, Gerard, Box 283, Madison. M24 

Francke, Harry, Henryville M28 

Frandzel, Ben W., 1900 S. 3rd St., Terre Haute M30 

Franks, Estel A., Silver Lake M29 

Frazier, Jesse M., Sulphur Springs M23 

Frazier, John C., Illinois Wesleyan Univ., Bloomington, Illinois M28 

Freed, Richard G., Wakarusa M29 

French, Sidney J., Franklin College, Franklin M28 

Friesner, Mrs. Gladys M., 3707 N. Gladstone Ave., Indianapolis . M23 

*Friesner, Ray C, Butler University, Indianapolis M19, F25 

Froning, Henry Bernhart, 415 Pokagon St., South Bend M20 

Frushour, J. H., Lucerne M30 

Fulford, Margaret, Osborn Bot. Lab., Yale Univ., New Haven, Conn. . . . .M29 

Funk, Austin, 404 Spring St., Jeffersonville . . M95 

Galloway, Jesse J., Columbia University, New York City, N. Y M10 

Gamble, Mary Edith, 120 Chancey Ave., W. Lafayette M23 

Gardner, Everett, 425 W. Washington, Monticello. M27 

*Gardner, Max William, Purdue Agr. Exp. Station, W. Lafayette M19, F23 

Garner, Murvel R., Earlham College, Richmond . M25 

Garver, Frederick R., Fairland. : . M21 

Gassensmith, Rev. Frederick M., Notre Dame M27 

Gatch, Dr. Willis D., 605 Hume-Mansur Bldg., Indianapolis M15 

Gates, Florence Anna, 3435 Detroit Ave., Toledo, Ohio M09 

Gayler, Dona G., Indiana State Normal School, Terre Haute M20 

Geier, Ester B., Star City M27 

Geisler, Florence, 2267 N. Dearborn St., Indianapolis M25 

Geisler, Walter C, 2267 N. Dearborn St., Indianapolis M30 

Gemmecke, Richard H., 610 S. Main, Martinsville M28 

George, R. H., 332 W. Stadium Ave., W. Lafayette. M24 

Germann, Dr. A. F. O., 1532 E. 86th St., Cleveland, Ohio. M26 

Gettelfinger, Wilfrid C, Ramsey M28 

Gibbons, Robert C, 1425 North Ave., Waukegan, Illinois M26 

Giddings, Glenn W., DePauw University, Greencastle M30 

Gingery, Walter G., Washington High School, Indianapolis M18 

Giordano, Dr. Alfred S., Epworth Hospital, South Bend M26 

Girton, Raymond E., 132 DeHart St., W. Lafayette M28 

Gleason, May, 926 E. Jefferson St., Franklin M30 

Glenn, Earl R., New Jersey State Teachers College, Montclair, N. J M09 

Glenn, Gail Geneve, Ramsey M28 

Glenn, Oliver E., 127 McKinley Ave., Lansdowne, Pa M28 

Goldsmith, Wm. M., Southwestern College, Winfield, Kansas M14 

Gracy, Dr. Alice 1222 Twenty-fifth St., South Bend M26 

Graham, Frank V., Ball Teachers College, Muncie M20 



384 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

Grainger, Gertrude, 110 Langhorne Lane, Lynchburg, Virginia M27 

Grass, Arthur M., 339 B, N. E., Linton M27 

Grave, Benjamin H., DePauw Univ., Greencastle M20 

. Gray, Nina E., 415 N. Murray St., Madison, Wisconsin M28 

Green, Darrell B., 291 E. State St., Athens, Ohio. M25 

Greenawalt, Stewart, Madison, Pennsylvania M24 

f Greene, Charles W., 814 Virginia Ave., Columbia, Mo NR 

Greene, Frank C, 1434 Scuicinnate, Tulsa, Oklahoma M08 

Greene, Laurenz, 920 Stadium Ave., W. Lafayette M24 

Greenwood, William R., 520 S. 9th St., Lafayette . M28 

Gregory, Chas. T., 1022 First St., W. Lafayette. M22 

Gregory, Howard Wilbur, 416 Harvey Ave., W. Lafayette M24 

Grosjean, Thomas H., 1312 S. Center St., Terre Haute M25 

Gross, Catherine L., Manilla M30 

Groves, L. Spencer, 8 N. Brookville Ave., Indianapolis M28 

Guard, Arthur T., West Lafayette (I) M29 

Guernsey, E. Y., 1420 O St., Bedford M21 

Guthrie, Ned, Hanover College, Hanover M27 

Guthrie, W. A., 10 E. Market St., Indianapolis M20 

*Haas, Flora A., A.S.T.C. Normal Sta., Conway, Arkansas M14, F23 

Haas, Mrs. Marie, Sorrento, Florida, Box 71 M22 

Hadley, Joel W., 718 E. 34th St., Indianapolis M19 

Hafel, Clare Philip, 106 N. Hooker St., Caney, Kansas M27 

Hale, Ruth V., Oakford M27 

Hall, Faye, 419 N. Talley Ave., Muncie M29 

Hall, Jonas C, High St., Rising Sun M28 

Hall, William Clayborne, 3305 S. 7th St., Terre Haute M28 

Halloran, Mona M., 2025 N. 13th St., Terre Haute M29 

Hamilton, John M., Franklin M29 

Hamlet, Deluz, 713 Woodlawn, Bloomington M27 

Hanna, U. S., 828 Atwater Ave., Bloomington M14 

Hansford, Hazel Irene, Madison State Hospital, N. Madison M16 

*Hanson, Albert A., Agr. Exp. Sta., W. Lafayette M21, F25 

Harcourt, Opal, R, R. 3, Rushville M28 

. Hardin, Mrs. G. M., 425 Jefferson St., Rochester M20 

Harger, Rolla Neil, 5015 Graceland Ave., Indianapolis M23 

Hargitt, George, Dept. of Zoology, Duke Univ., Durham, N. Carolina . . . .M27 

Hargitt, Thomas F., 111. Wesleyan Univ., Bloomington, Illinois M23 

Hargrave, Ellis, 818 N. Drexel St., Indianapolis M23 

Harmon, Daniel L., St. Mary 's-of -the- Woods M25 

Harmon, Jesse, Chem. Dept., Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois M27 

Harmon, Paul M., 505 Ballantine Road, Bloomington M15 

Harrell, Helen E., 98 Central Ave., Franklin .....' M30 

Harris, Ernest H., 1423 St. Marys Ave., Ft, Wayne M27 

Harris, Mary Frances, 1128 Woodward, South Bend M29 

Harrison, Thomas, Box 4, Spiceland . . . M30 

Hartley, Paul A., 710 N. Mulberry St., Muncie M29 

Harvin, Glenn B., Manning, South Carolina M23 

Haslem, John Robert, 1435 S. 6th St., Terre Haute M28 

Hatfield, Nicholas W., 3302 Fall Creek Blvd., Indianapolis M29 



Members 385 

Hawkins, Stacy O., Station A., Box 1270, Homestead, Florida M24 

Hazard, Clifton T., 344 N. W. Ave., W. Lafayette M26 

Hazel, Herbert C, 1000 S. Lincoln St., Bloomington M25 

Hazlett, Donald C, Russellville M30 

Headlee, W. Hugh, American University, Cairo, Egypt M26 

Heath, Dwight F., 700 W. Jefferson, Franklin M24 

Heaton, Conley E., R. R. 1, Moores Hill M28 

Hebert, Peter E., Notre Dame University, Notre Dame M27 

Heck, Joseph E., Connersville M26 

Hecker, Margaret B., 27 S. Butler Ave., Indianapolis M28 

Heiser, Joseph Alan, Notre Dame University, Notre Dame M27 

Heiss, Elizabeth M., 403 University St., W. Lafayette M30 

Helman, Howard H., North Manchester M27 

Helmen, Fred J, Jr., 1523 Kenyon St., South Bend M30 

Henderson, Marshall C, R. R. No. 1, Franklin M30 

Hendricks, Jesse C, 1126 N. Broadway, Greensburg (I) M24 

Hendricks, Victor K, 401 N. Lombard Ave., Oak Park, Illinois MOO 

Hennel, Cora B., 822 Atwater Ave., Bloomington M25 

Hennion, George F., 1115 West Oak, South Bend M28 

Herr, Shirl, 700 S. Water St., Crawfordsville M28 

Hershmen, J. Bernard, Indiana University Bloomington M26 

*Hess, Walter N., Clinton, New York. M17, F23 

*Hessler, Robert, 25 S. Bolton St., Indianapolis MCharter, F99 

Hiestand, Wm. A., 113 Varsity Apts., W. Lafayette M30 

Higgins, Frank R., 1719 N. 9th St., Terre Haute M25 

Hile, Ralph O., University Museums, Ann Arbor, Michigan M26 

Hill, Martha, 237 N. Green St., Tipton M30 

Hills, Donald C, 532 W. 31st St., Indianapolis M22 

Hinman, Jack J., Jr., P. O. Box 313, Iowa City, Iowa M12 

Hinton, Henry David, 509 W. Navarre, South Bend M28 

Hobrock, Raymond H., 419 W. DeWald St., Fort Wayne M24 

*Hoffer, George N., 434 Littleton St., W. Lafayette M22, F2G 

Hoffman, A. C, 5760 Lowell Ave., Indianapolis M22 

Hoffman, George L., 216 Jenkins Arcade, Pittsburgh, Pa Mil 

Holdermann, Mary Elizabeth, 511 S. Monticello, Winamac M28 

Hole, Allen D., 615 National Road, West Richmond M01 

Holl, Carl Waldo, North Manchester M26 

Holloway, Ancil D., Zoology Dept., Indiana University, Bloomington M28 

Hood, Charles Wm., 513 S. 15th St., Terre Haute M28 

Hooper, Florence, 2930 College Ave., Indianapolis M24 

Horan, Frank W., 914 Diamond Ave., South Bend M27 

Hoskins, John H., Univ. Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio M27 

Howell, L. B., Wabash College, Crawfordsville M24 

Howick, Howard, Ball Teachers College, Muncie M21 

Howlett, Berton A., 2217 S. 7th St., Terre Haute M19 

Huddle, John W., Dept. of Geology, Indiana University, Bloomington . . . . M30 

*Hufferd, Ralph, Greencastle M20, F29 

Hufford, Francis, G., 427 S. 5th St., St. Charles, Illinois M24 

Hufford, Gayle N., 216 Seeser St., Joliet, Illinois M26 

*Hufford, Mason E., 514 Woodlawn, Bloomington M14, F16 



386 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

Hughes, Howard Kibble, 510 Russell, W. Lafayette. . . . M28 

Hughes, Wm. Lawrence, R. R. Delaware, Ohio M29 

Hull, Daniel, Univ. Notre Dame, Notre Dame M27 

Halpieu, H. R., 115 E. Walnut, Indianapolis M30 

Hunt, Herschel, Hazelton M28 

Hunt, Raymond S., Empire Oil & Refg. Co., Dept. of Geology, Bartles- 

ville, Oklahoma M23 

Hussong, Joe O., 1706 N. 9th, Terre Haute M29 

Huston, Ernest C, R. R, 4, Pekin M28 

Hutchinson, Emory, Norman Station M15 

Hutton, Joseph G., State College, Brookings, S. D Mil 

Hyatt, George F., R, R, 2, Versailles M25 

Hyatt, Joseph L., Hanover M30 

Hyman, Hugh H., 538 E. Jefferson St., Franklin M30 

Hyslop, George H., 136 E. 64th St., New York City, New York M14 

Inskeep, Anna M., Monticello M24 

Irons, Vernal, Jason ville M 

Irving, Thomas P., Univ. of Notre Dame, Notre Dame M14 

Iske, Mrs. Paul G., 20 E. 69th St., New York City, N. Y M24 

* Jackson, Herbert Spencer, Univ. of Toronto, Toronto, Canada M15, F19 

Jackson, Jas. Wm., Central H. S., Chattanooga, Tenn. (I) M18 

Jacobs, Thomas B., 2537 N. 12th St., Terre Haute M28 

Jacobson, Walter, 1016 41st St., Lagrange, Illinois M27 

James, Charles M., 443 Wood St., W. Lafayette M21 

James, Luther, 119 Madison Blvd., Terre Haute , .M28 

Jamieson, W. A., Eli Lilly & Company, Indianapolis M30 

Johnson, Mrs. Wauneta Smock, R. R. 1, Bloomington M25 

Johnson, William, R. R, 15, Box 401, Indianapolis M26 

Johnson, William Ainslee, 1121 Maple St., Terre Haute M28 

Johnson, Willis H., Wabash College, Crawfordsville M28 

Jordan, Charles B., Purdue University, Lafayette M24 

t Jordan, David Starr, Stanford University, Calif Honorary F28, M93, NR 

Jordan, Ruth, 230 Harrison St., W. Lafayette M24 

Jordan, William, 119 First Ave., Oakland City M26 

Junker, Paul E., 1621 Boulder Ave., Helena , Montana M28 

Just, Theodor, Univ. of Notre Dame, Notre Dame M29 

Kaczmarek, Regidius M., Univ. of Notre Dame., Notre Dame M14 

Kaley, Leona M., Chem. Dept., Womans College, Montgomery, Ala M23 

Kaufmann, Fred, 810 Lincoln Ave., Valparaiso M27 

Kaylor, J. F., Dept. Conservation Div. Forestry, Indianapolis M27 

Keily, E. Lowell, 917 14th St., Greeley, Colorado (I) M26 

Kendall, Mrs. R. M., 1425 Grand Ave., Evansville M22 

Kennedy, Clarence H., Ohio State Univ., Dept. of Zoology, Columbus, Ohio M22 
Kennedy. Glenn D., 266 Littleton, W. Lafayette M23 

*Kern, Frank D„ State College, Pa M05, F12 

Kiesling, Norman, R. R. 10, Logansport M28 

Killian, Donald B., 2209— 9th St., S. W., Canton, Ohio M30 

Kimmell, Anna May, Kimmell M30 

Kinnet, Russell, Milroy M23 

*Kinsey, Alfred C, 615 S. Park Ave., Bloomington M20, F27 



Members 387 

Kintner, Edward, 1004 East St., North Manchester M26 

Kin tner, Kenneth E., 1004 East St., North Manchester M29 

Kiplinger, Walter C., 2234 Park Ave., Indianapolis M22 

Kline, James Edward, Notre Dame Univ., Notre Dame M27 

Kline, Loretta E., Box 211, Milan M30 

Klopp, G. Donald, 1075 E. Hanna Ave., Indianapolis M30 

Knecht, Christian, 207 N. Dunn St., Bloomington M22 

Knipmeyer, Clarence C, 2611 N. 8th St., Terre Haute M.5 

jKnipp, Chas. T., 915 W. Nevada St., Urbana, Illinois NR 

Knott, Gladys E., 1811 Spring St., New Albany M29 

Knotts, Armanis F., Yankeetown, Florida M17 

*Koch, Edward W., Univ. Buffalo, N. Y. Med. School, Buffalo, N. Y.. .M14, F17 

*Kohl, Edwin J , 218 Fowler Ave., E. Lafayette. Ml 7. F30 

Krause, Heinrich, 2938 Normal Ave., Chicago, Illinois M28 

Kraybill, Henry R., 302 Waldron St., W. Lafayette M26 

Lahr, John Paul, Y. M. C. A., Indianapolis (I) M27 

Lambertson, Margot G., Moores Hill (I) M27 

Lamey, Carl A., 2131 1 4 Ridge Ave., Evanston, Illinois M28 

LaMotte, Ralph R., 1122 E. Washington, Muncie M28 

Lanam, Margaret, 149 South Home Ave., Franklin M30 

Lancaster, Forrest W., 1421 Congress St., W. Lafayette (I) M26 

Lanham, Bess, Newport M22 

Lanterman, W. F., 909 Argyle St., Chicago, Illinois M25 

Lathrop, F. H., P. O. Box 167, Vincennes M30 

Leach, Wm. J., Biol. Dept. Temple Univ., Philadelphia, Pa M26 

Leamon, Grace B., Stockwell M24 

Lee, Charles O., 600 Robinson Ave., W. Lafayette M26 

Lee, Paul, R. R. 6, Portland M29 

Leer, Wayne E., 349 W. Thornell, W. Lafayette M24 

Lefforge, Jesse H., 328 Lawn Ave., Lafayette M28 

Lefler, Glenn Q., Warren M28 

Lefler, Ralph W., 455 Wright St., LaSalle, Illinois M26 

Lehman, Rachel Marguerite, Box 50, Westervelt, Illinois M28 

Lemon, Lola May, Larwill M29 

LeRoy, Ernest E., 39 Lake Ave., Williamson, New York M30 

Leslie, Elsie May, 3249 N. Capitol Ave., Indianapolis M29 

Lett, Briscoe, Franklin M29 

Levine, Wm. T., State Univ. of Iowa, Zoology Dept., Iowa City, Iowa M30 

Lewis, Julia Lucile, 125 S. Sycamore, Fairmount v . . M27 

*Lieber, Richard, State House, Indianapolis M19, F27 

Lieber, M. Jeanette, 3119 N. Meridian St., Indianapolis M29 

Lilly, Eli, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis M30 

Lindsay, Frank B., Coll. Eng. & Arch., Univ. of Minn., Minneapolis, Minn. . M28 

Lindsey, Alva J., Brownsburg M30 

Linville, Ralph B., 832 S. Harrison St., Shelby ville M27 

Liston, Jesse G., R. F. D. No. 2, Lewis M16 

Little, Neil, 425 Littleton St., W. Lafayette M26 

Lloyd, Mrs. W. H., 210 Garfield Ave., Valparaiso M28 

Lockenwitz, A. E., 314 E. Baker St., Bloomington, Illinois M25 

Lock wood, Lewis B., 125 Lutz Ave., W. Lafavette M28 



388 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

*Logan, Wm. N., 924 Atwater Ave., Bloomington M16, F17 

Long, Betty, Residence Hall, Bloomington M26 

Long, Mrs, Gertrude, 2111 S. Jefferson St., Muncie . . . .M26 

Long, James K., 138 Chauncey Ave., W. Lafayette M29 

Loop, Mary Louise, 710 S. Locust St., Greencastle M2S 

Loughridge, Gasper A., Goodland M23 

Louraine, Frank E., 646 E. Street, N. E., Washington, D. C M24 

Love, Louise M., 600 S. 19th St., Terre Haute : M27 

Lowe, Grace D., 224 Gilbert Ave., Terre Haute M28 

Ludwig, C. A., Fixed Nitrogen Lab., Dept. Agric, Washington, D. C Mil 

Ludy, Llewellyn V., Purdue Univ., W. Lafayette M08 

Luten, Daniel B., 1056 Consolidated Bldg., Indianapolis M18 

Lutz, Rosemary C., 311 E. Main St., Beloit, Kansas M28 

*Lyon, Marcus Ward, 214 Laporte Ave., South Bend M22, F26 

McAllister, Charles, St. Thomas Military Academy, St. Paul, Minn M28 

McAtee, W. L., 200 Cedar St., Cherrydale, Va M28 

McAvoy, Blanche, Illinois State Normal University, Normal, Illinois M21 

McCarthy, Joseph L., 744 E. Third St., Bloomington (I) M28 

McClelland, Earl F., 59 W. Banta St., Franklin M30 

McClintock, Ralph Blackwood, Park House, Sunnyside Park, Long Island 

City, N. Y * M26 

McConaha, Fred, Oaklandon M30 

McCoy, Scott, 3444 N. Illinois St., Indianapolis M28 

McDonald, Clinton C, Univ. of Wichita, Wichita, Kansas M22 

McEachron, Karl B., 23 Waverley St., Pittsfield, Mass M21 

McFarlane, 2816 Second St., Wyandotte, Michigan M29 

McFerran, Harry, 4519 Southern Parkway, Louisville, Ky M28 

McKee, Madge, Goodland. M29 

McKeon, Frederick T., Notre Dame M27 

McLennan, Andrew, 1307 East Oak St., New Albany M30 

McMahon, Frances, G., 277 Littleton, W. Lafayette M24 

McMillin, Ona, Franklin M30 

fMcMullen, Lynn Banks, Northern Ariz,, Normal School, Flagstaff, Ariz. (I) . .NR 

McPartlin, Marian Agnes, 6941 Oglesby Ave., Chicago, Illinois M28 

McVeigh, Patrick F., Capitol Hill, Helena, Montana M29 

McWilliams, Thelma, 126 Lutz Ave., West Lafayette (I) M23 

fMacDougal, Daniel Trembly, Desert Laboratory, Tucson, Arizona XR 

MacGillivray, Purdue University, W. Lafayette M25 

*Mackell, James F., R. R. A., Terre Haute M25, F29 

Maehling, J. J., 1357 Third Ave., Terre Haute M28 

*Mahin, Edward G., Notre Dame Univ., Notre Dame M16, F22 

*Mains, E. B., Dept. of Botany, Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. . . M16, F25 

Mallon, Marguerite, 451 Littleton St., W. Lafayette M26 

Malott, Burton J., Technical High School, Indianapolis M16 

*Malott, Clyde A., 708 Woodlawn Ave., Bloomington M14, F25 

Malott, Ruth Boyd, 629 Carlisle Place, Indianapolis M22 

*Markle, M. S., Earlham College, Earlham M10, F19 

Markus, H. F., 746 N. Riley Ave., Indianapolis M30 

Marsh, Homer Floyd, 1303 S. 1132 St., Terre Haute M28 

Marshall, Jerry Reuben, 425 Littleton, W. Lafayette (I) M28 



Members 389 

Marshall, Win. R., 4830 Hutchinson St., Chicago, Illinois . .M29 

fMarsters, Vernon F., 123 Railway Ex., Kansas City, Mo. (1) NR 

Martens, J. Louis, Box 37, Anchor, 111 M28 

Martin, Ersie 8., 134 Drexel St., Indianapolis M22 

Martin, Frank D., 215 Waldron St., Lafayette M26 

Martin, Lawrence, 1429 E. Miner St., South Bend M26 

Martin, Lois E., Walton M30 

Martin, R. Earl, Hanover M25 

Martin, Mrs. Viva Dutton, 134 Drexel St., Indianapolis M22 

Martindale, Ruth, Clermont M30 

Marting, Dorsey P., Eckerty M26 

Malek, George, Gardner, Illinois . M27 

Mason, Thomas E., 103 Waldron St., W. Lafayette M05 

Mathers, Frank C, 419 N. Indiana Ave., Bloomington M28 

Mathias, Harry R., 1421 Castle Ave., Indianapolis M25 

Matthews, Prof. Mary L., 629 Waldron St., W. Lafayette M24 

Maxwell, Harold, Dupont Ammonia Corp., Exp. Sta., Wilmington, Del M26 

May, Ansley I., 505 W. Main Street, Boonville M26 

Means, Karl Stone, Butler University, Indianapolis M28 

Medsker, Francis, 435 Poplar Road, Indianapolis M30 

*Mees, C. L., The Walden, Terre Haute M94, F27 

Mehrlich, Ferdinand, A. H. P. C. Exp. Station, Honolulu, Hawaii M24 

*Mellon, Melvin G., 9 Russell St., W. Lafayette. . M21, F28 

Merry, Jessie Bell, 650 E. 13th St., Indianapolis M26 

Meyer, A. H., 505 Calumet Ave., Valparaiso (I) M26 

Meyer, Huston, 110 Lin wood Ave., Indianapolis M25 

Meyers, N. W., 502 State Street, Columbus M30 

Michael, Charles L., 123 Garfield Ave., Indianapolis M24 

Michael, Curtis B., Oconee, Illinois M26 

Michael, Lyle Jordan, Indiana Central College, Indianapolis M22 

Michaud, Howard H., 1034 Delaware Ave., Fort Wayne M29 

*Middleton, Arthur R., 705 Russell St., W. Lafayette M06, F18 

Middleton, Robert E., 2089 Carter Ave., St. Paul, Minn M24 

Mikesell, Herbert S., Richmond Ave., Richmond M30 

Miller, Fred A., R. R. 2, Greenfield M08 

Miller, Glen T., 432 Russell St., Lafayette M28 

f Miller, John Anthony, Swarthmore, Pa F93, NR08 

Miller, John T., IT. S. Dept. Agr., Bureau of Chem. and Soils, 

Washington, D. C M29 

Miller, Paul R., Rockport M29 

Miller, Robert L., 508 N. College Ave., Valparaiso M28 

Miller, Sayers J., 1009 S. 12th St., W. Lafayette M26 

Miller, Virgil H., Ill Glenn Ave., Council Bluffs, Iowa M15 

Miner, Wallace B., 719 W. Oak St., Union City M28 

Misselhorn, Richard A., 229 Newman Ave., Kendallville M27 

*Moenkhaus, Wm. J., 320 Fess Ave,, Bloomington M93, F01 

Malony, Rev. Wm. Hayes, Notre Dame University, Notre Dame M22 

* Montgomery, B. Elwood, Dept. Entomology, Purdue Univ., Lafayette M22, F29 

Montgomery, H. T., 208 Dean Bldg., South Bend M98 

Moore, Arthur Everett, 1216^ North St., Logansport M28 



390 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

f Moore, George T., Missouri Botanic Garden, St. Louis, Mo M09, NR 

Moore, Gerald E., 712 Arlington Court, Champaign, Illinois M24 

Moore, John A., 114 S. Ritter Ave., Indianapolis M26 

Moore, John Irwin, 233 W. Twohig, San Angelo, Texas M22 

Moore, John M., 4901 North Illinois St., Indianapolis M24 

Moorhead, John Gerald, Physics Dept., Westminster College, New Wil- 
mington, Pa M22 

Mootz, Frank Joseph, 1958 Ashland Ave., Indianapolis M27 

Morgan, Frank W., 816 State Street, New Orleans, La M20 

Morgan, Lowell B., 220 Waldron, W. Lafayette (I) M29 

*Morgan, W. P., 4105 Otterbein Ave., Indianapolis M20, F30 

*Morrison, Edwin, Michigan Agric. College, E. Lansing, Michigan. . . M07, F15 
Morrison, Harold, Bureau of Entomology, Washington, D. C M10 

*Mottier, David M., 215 Forest Place, Bloomington MCharter, F93 

Mullen, Lowell, State College, Dept. of Botany, Pullman, Washington .... M25 

Mullendore, Naomi, Franklin M22 

Munro, Esther L., R, F. D. No. 1, Geneva M30 

Munroe, George W., 202 Waldron St., W. Lafayette M17 

Mnrch, Rev. Raymond Martin, Notre Dame M27 

Murphy, Rosemary Anne, 505 W. LaSalle Ave., South Bend M28 

Murray, Merritt J., Howe M29 

Myers, Dr. B. D., 424 N. Walnut St., Bloomington Mil 

Myers, George Sprague, Natural History Museum, Stanford Univ., Calif. . . M25 
Myers, Raymond J., ZooL Lab., 38th & Woodland Ave., Philadelphia, Pa, . . M28 

*Naylor, Joseph, Greencastle MCharter, F03 

Necker, Walter L., Lincoln Park at Clark & Center Sts., Chicago, Illinois. . . M30 

Neff, Joseph Edgar, 132 S. Scott, South Bend. M23 

Neild, Harold Wallace, 11 Elmwood PL, Hornell, New York M29 

Nelson, J. C, Danville M30 

Nelson, Ralph E., 232 Littleton St., W. Lafayette M14 

Nester, Henry G., 2832 N. Capitol, Indianapolis M23 

Newsom, Clara Mary, Elizabethtown M28 

Newton, Roy F., 526 Hayes St., W. Lafayette M26 

Nicholson, Thomas E., 519 N. Fess Ave., Bloomington M18 

*Nieuwland, Father J. A., University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame M08, F14 

Niles, Edward H., 4450 Guilford Ave., Indianapolis M20 

Noble, Willis Bernard, Box 495, W. Lafayette M22 

Norris, Allen Ansom, 208 N. Marion St., Elkhart M27 

Noyes, Dr. Bessie, 1607 N. 7th St., Terre Haute M29 

Noyes, Harry A., New Rochelle Research Lab., New Rochelle, N. Y M16 

t Noyes, Win. Albert, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois F93, NR0S 

O'Connell, Eugene D., Box 106, Notre Dame M27 

O'Hara, Francis J., St. Edward's University, Austin , Texas M27 

O'Neal, Claude E., Ohio W T esleyan University, Delaware, Ohio M12 

Oberholser, Harry C, 2805 18th St., N. W., Washington, D. C M14 

Oderkirk, Galen C., Dept. Entomol., Purdue Univ., W. Lafayette M25 

Offutt, Andrew C, S. Madison Ave., Greenwood M30 

Orahood, Harold, Union Mills M14 

Organ, James F., R. R, 1, Vincennes M29 

Orton, Clayton R,, Dept. Plant Pathology, West Va., Univ., 

Morgantown, W. Va M10 



Members 391 

Osborn, O. C, 1228 Woodward Ave., South Bend M29 

Otten, Ralph E., Philadelphia Gen. Hospt., Philadelphia, Pa M23 

Overturf, Frank Barrett, Holton M28 

Owen, Dr. Douglas W. ? 2202 Portage Ave., South Bend. M28 

Owen, Mrs. Marjorie Blake, 2202 Portage Ave., South Bend M28 

Packard, C. M., Box 495, W. Lafayette M26 

Paff, George H., 2208 Edgewood Rd., Cleveland, Ohio M28 

Painter, Henry R., Box 495, W. Lafayette. M21 

Painter, Louise, Springport M26 

* Palmer, C. M., Butler University, Indianapolis. M25, F29 

Parfitt, Elliott H., 1025 Third St., W. Lafayette M23 

Parker, Druley, New Augusta . M30 

Paschen, Everett H., Box 563, Howe M24 

Payne, Clarke B., R. R. 2, Box 89, Winchester M30 

*Payne, Fernandus, 620 Ballantine Road, Bloomington M13, F16 

Pearce, Joseph Roberts, Willow Hill, Illinois M24 

Pearson, Nathan E., Dept. Zoology, Butler University, Indianapolis M22 

Peddle, John B., Rose Polytechnic Inst., Terre Haute M25 

Pedlow, J. Thomas, 511 E. Anderson St., Greencastle M28 

Peffer, Harry C, 1022 Stadium Ave., W. Lafayette M14 

Pence, Samuel R., Jr., Rossville M30 

Perkins, III, Samuel E., Inland Bank Bldg., Indianapolis M27 

Perkins, Wendell L., Indiana State Teachers College, Terre Haute M25 

Petry, Edward J., 507 W. Davis St., Fayette, Missouri Mil 

Philbrick, Shailer S., 2130 Sherman Ave., Evanston, Illinois M28 

Phillips, Alice V., R, R. 2, Box 409, Indianapolis M28 

Piatt, Jean, 344 Northern Ave., Indianapolis M30 

Pickett, Fermen L., College Station, Pullman, Washington M09 

Pierce, Marjorie E. ; Wolcottville M30 

Pinkerton, Earl, Box 447, Walters, Okla M16 

Pitkin, Edward M., Martinsville Sanatorium, Martinsville M22 

Pittenger, John S., 494 Bauer St., Hammond M26 

Pittenger, Samuel Arthur, Selma M26 

Pittman, Lenard E., Fairbanks M26 

Plasterer, Eiffel G., 213 Wright, Huntington M29 

Plummer, Louisa G., 975 North F. St., Hamilton, Ohio M28 

Poffenberger, John, Butler M26 

Pollard, Cash B., 415 Russell St., Lafayette (I) M21 

Poorman, Alfred Peter, 329 Russell St., W. Lafayette M24 

Porter, Charley Lymar, 484 Northwestern Ave., W. Lafayette M23, F28 

Porter, John N., 924 N. Main St., W. Lafayette M30 

Post, Mrs. Ida M., 920 N. Center St., Terre Haute M25 

Potter, Andrey A., 1012 Seventh St., W. Lafayette M24 

Potter, Prilda H., 529 E. First St., Bloomington M27 

Potzger, John E., 610 E. Third St., Bloomington *. . M26 

Powell, Dr. G. Maxwell, 605 J. M. S. Bldg., South Bend M28 

Powell, Horace M., 3947 N. Illinois St., Indianapolis M26 

Powers, Roscoe, R. 6, Box 384, Indianapolis M27 

Price, Gladys, Route 1, Box 68, Rensselaer M26 

Price, Otho J., 605 Grant, Terre Haute ' M25 



392 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

Price, J. Waide, 1219 N. Alabama St., Indianapolis. .'., M27 

Price, Walter A., Purdue University, W. Lafayette M19 

Pritchard, Harmon, 357 Downey Ave., Indianapolis M27 

Province, Wm. D., 99 N. Water St., Franklin M30 

Quakenbush, Cloyce V., Route 1, Orleans M28 

Quick, Carl J., 507 Waldron St., W. Lafayette M25 

Quick, Tunis J., 138 Castillo Ave., San Antonio, Texas .M27 

Quinn, Robert B., R. R. 2, Valparaiso M29 

Rabb, Albert L., 1351 Consolidated Bldg., Indianapolis M21 

Railsback, Fern Lucille, Memorial Hall, Bloomington (I) M26 

Railsback, O. L., Teachers College, Charleston, Illinois M24 

Rainey, Homer P., 198 South State St., Franklin M30 

Ralston, George W., Milford M27 

Ramsey, Hugh S., 615 E. Third St., Bloomington M28 

* Ramsey, Rolla R,, 615 E. Third St., Bloomington M04, F06 

Randolph, Thorne Fitz, 519 Circle Tower, Indianapolis M26 

Rankin, Horace, Care, Shell Petroleum Corp., Tyler, Texas M27 

Ransom, Clemie E., 2202 N. Capitol Ave., Indianapolis M27 

Ransom, Gilbert T., 319 S. Fair St., Olney, Illinois M30 

f Ransom, James H., James Milliken Univ., Decatur, Illinois F02, NR18 

Rauth, Adolph W., Consumers Power Bldg., Jackson, Michigan M25 

Rawles, Wm. Post., Science Hall, Madison, Wis M20 

Reagan, Albert B., Ouray, Utah M87 

Rechenberg, Elizabeth Ann, 805 Brown St., Valparaiso. M27 

Record, Ralph L., Edinburg M20 

Reed, Fredda Doris, Mount Holyoke College, South Hadley, Mass M25 

Reed, Harry J., Purdue University, W. Lafayette M23 

Reep, Geraldine, 3110 Broadway, Indianapolis M30 

Reeves, June, Converse M27 

*Rettger, Louis J., Indiana State Teachers College, Terre Haute M93, F96 

Reynolds, Albert E., Staunton M29 

Reynolds, Hazel, 2128 Broadway, Indianapolis M27 

Reynolds, J. J., Notre Dame University, Notre Dame M27 

Richards, Dr. & Mrs. Aute, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Okla. .... . M16 

Richter, Arthur, 1820 E. 10th St., Indianapolis M26 

Reicken, Wm. E., 7 Oak Hill Ave., Delaware ,Ohio M23 

Rifenburgh, S. A., 246 Marstellar St., W. Lafayette M16 

Riley. H. K., Dept. Entomology, Purdue Agri. Exp. Sta., Lafa3^ette M27 

Riley, Katharine, 620 Riverside Drive, New York City, N. Y M16 

Robbins, Charles K, 418 Vine St., W. Lafayette M27 

Roberts, Harry John, Route 1, Lafayette M22 

Roberts, Otis S., 328 S. Grant St., W. Lafayette M25 

Roberts, R. Chester, Dept, of Chemistry, Colgate Univ., Hamilton, N. Y.. .M19 

Robertson, Floyd C, Union ville M24 

Robertson, Frank S., Ewing, Box 127 M24 

Kockne, Knute K., Univ. of Notre Dame, Notre Dame M27 

Rochm, John C, R. R. 2, White Pigeon, Michigan M24 

Rogers, Robert L., 1030— 7th Ave., Terre Haute M30 

Rose, James B., 447 Bosart Ave., Indianapolis M27 

Rosenbaum, John Robert, Wanatah M30 



Members 393 

Ross, Oran Edgar, Jr., 200 E. South St., Winchester M26 

*Rothrock, David A., 1000 Atwater Ave., Bloomington M98, FOG 

Rothrock, Henry S., DuPont Research Laboratories, Wilmington, Del M26 

Russell, WilburS., 2015 S. 8th St., Terre Haute M25 

Samson, R. W., 21 Waldron St., W. Lafayette M28 

Scally, Lena, 317.W. Franklin, Elkhart M30 

Schafer, Pearl Catherine, Bremen M26 

Schlender, Emma, 1919 Ruckle St., Indianapolis M24 

Schnarr, Glenn, 219 East Franklin St., Winchester M25 

*Schockel, Bernard H., lnd. State Normal School, Terre Haute M13, F17 

Schroeder, Russell A., 136 Sheetz St., W. Lafayette M28 

Schumacher, Matthew, College of St. Thomas, St. Paul, Minn M27 

Scofield, Robert, Crisman M28 

Scott, J. R. S., Beebe Plain, Vermont M24 

•Scott, Will, 525 S. Park, Bloomington M05, F14 

Sears, Miss Cecil, Tennyson M28 

Sears, Velma L., 1616— 15th St., Bedford M28 

Seaton, Jerome P., 216 Russell St., W. Lafayette M24 

Seelinger, George F., 9118— 118th St., Richmond Hill, N. Y M30 

Setzler, Frank M., U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. C M29 

Shaw, Otho, Griffin M28 

Shaw, R. Wm, 1028 State St., W. Lafayette M26 

Sheaffer, Frank B., 3816 Byram, Indianapolis M27 

Shelley, Robert L., 520 W. Miller, Bluff ton M28 

Shepherd, Marston V., Dupont M28 

Sherman, George W., 304 W. Oak St., W. Lafayette M18 

Sheean, J. Lyman, Box 107, Culver Mil. Acad., Culver M30 

Shideler, William H., 110 S. Campus Ave., Oxford, Ohio M29 

Shilts, Walter L., 714 E. Corby St., South Bend M27 

Shock, N. W., 5733 Kenwood Ave., Chicago, Illinois M25 

Shonle, Horace A., 3493 Birchwood Ave., Indianapolis M19 

Showalter, Ralph W., Eli Lilly Co., Indianapolis M15 

Shrock, Robert R., Science Hall, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis M23 

Silvey, Oscar Wm., College Station, Texas M09 

Simons, J. Clyde, 2317 Miami St., South Bend M28 

Simpson, Paul F., 700 E. 8th St., Bloomington M27 

Simpson, Robert C, Box 88, R. R. 2, Vincennes M29 

Skelton, Maurice Z., 333 E. Georgia, Brazil M25 

Skinner, Chas. Henry, Marquette Univ., Milwaukee, Wisconsin M25 

Skinner, Olind, R. R. 2, Crown Point M25 

Slavin, Arthur D., 2001 St. Paul St., Rochester, N. Y M27 

Slusser, Mack W., 224 E. Pearl St., Lebanon M30 

Small, Virginia, 202 Washington Place, Indianapolis M26 

Smelser, George, Box 159, Earlham M27 

Smith, Benjamin H., Dept. of Botany, I. S. N. S., Terre Haute M25 

Smith, Charles Piper, Senior High School, San Jose, California M03 

Smith, Elmer A., 735 Ninth St., Secaucus, New Jersey M26 

Smith, Ernest R., 628 E. Walnut St., Greencastle M21 

Smith, Herbert F., 301 S. 8th St., W. Terre Haute M29 

Smith, John E., 709 W. 5th St., Roswell, N. Mexico M19 



394 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

Smith, Miriam Irene, 459 N. Grant, W. Lafayette M29 

Smith, Norman M., R. R. 1, Dillsboro M28 

Smith, Orrin Harold, 613 Anderson St., Greencastle M25 

Smith, Pressnall, 2007 Guilford, Huntington M27 

Smithberger, Andrew, Univ. Notre Dame, Notre Dame M27 

Smoots, Lewis, 1307 Maple Ave., Terre Haute M29 

Snow, Charles C, Williams St, & Fruit Ave., Oakland City M27 

Snowden, Gale, R, R. 3, Box 33, Huntington M26 

Sousley, Clarence P., Dept. Math., Rose Poly, Terre Haute M25 

Southgate, Helen A., Michigan City M14 

Sowa, Frank J., 435 Young St., Woodburn, Oregon M30 

Spangler, Iva, Decatur M23 

Sperry, Theodore M., 3464 Birchwood Ave., Indianapolis M28 

Spieth, Herman, Delta Chi House, Bloomington M26 

Spindler, George W., 9— 37th St., W. Lafayette M24 

Spitzer, George, Agr. Exp. Sta., Purdue University, Lafayette M09 

Sprague, J. Maurice, Trafalger M30 

f Springer, Alfred, 312 E. Second St., Cincinnati, Ohio NR 

Springer, H. Stewart, Box 62, Biloxi, Miss. M24 

Stair, Edward C, Purdue Univ., Dept. Horticulture, Lafayette M24 

Stanley, Oran B., 917 E. 46th St., Indianapolis M29 

Stanton, Joseph H., 624 Swan St., Terre Haute M26 

Stark, Mrs. Connie R., 245 S. Arlington, Indianapolis. M25 

Steele, Brandt F., 5703 E. Washington St., No. 9, Indianapolis M24 

Steinbach, Leslie I., 425 E. Ormsby, Louisville, Kentucky M29 

Stiver, Frances L., 616 W. Charles, Muncie M29 

Stock, Orion L., Dept. Draw. & Math., Rose Poly, Terre Haute M25 

*Stockdale, Paris, Ohio State Univ., Dept of Geology, Columbus, Ohio . . Ml 8, F29 
Stoelting, Dorothy, 318 N. Arsenal Ave., Indianapolis M30 

*Stoltz, Charles, 311 W. Jefferson Blvd., South Bend M09, F19 

Stone, Ralph B., 615 Russell St., W. Lafayette M14 

Stout, Emmett C, 417 School St., Crawfordsville M29 

Stout, Wilber, 154 Erie Road, Columbus, Ohio M29 

Strickler, Alvin, Evansville College, Evansville M22 

Stratton, Everett F., Cambridge City M27 

Studebaker, Leo, Lucerne M28 

Stump, Lois Rosamond, R, 3, Bloomington M28 

Sturgeon, Wm, 803 E. St. Vincent St., South Bend M27 

Sullivan, Russell, 1431 N. Meridian St., Indianapolis M30 

Sullivan, Walter T., Jr., 113 S. Hoopes Ave., Auburn, N. Y M30 

Sulzer, Elmer G., Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky Ml 8 

Swain, Jesse A., 209 E. Broadway, Alexandria M26 

Swain, Louise S., 415 E. State St., Pendleton M27 

Swanker, Wilson A., 509 Lenox Road, Schnectady, N. Y M29 

Swanson, Caroline, 7816 Cregier Ave., Chicago, Illinois M27 

*Switzer, J. Elmer, 523. S. Park Ave., Bloomington M23, F26 

Taggart, Matt F., 1528 Lincoln Way East, South Bend M27 

Tallman, Arthur W., 435 State St., W. Lafayette M28 

Tasker, Roy C, Zoo. Lab., Cornell Univ., Ithaca, New York M22 

Tate, James H., Jr., R. R. No. 4, Connersville „ , ,M30 



Members 395 

Taylor, George O., 2101 S. 59th Ave., Cicero, Illinois M22 

Taylor, Merrel A., 4143 Boulevard Place, Indianapolis M30 

Teder, John H., Jasper .... M26 

Terre, Wilbert L., 2730 Chicago Road, Chicago Heights, Illinois M30 

Terry, Oliver P., 215 Sheetz St., W. Lafayette M14 

Test, Frederick H., 511 Russell St., W. Lafayette M27 

Test, Louis A., 511 Russell St., W. Lafayette M18 

*Tetrault, Philip A., 124 Thornell St., W. Lafayette Ml 4, F25 

Tharp, Wm. E., Bureau of Chem. & Soils, U. S. D. A., Washington, D. C. . . . M25 

Thomas, Dorothy A., 721 Washington St., Apt. 11, Gary (I) M26 

Thompson, Clem O., School of Education, Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, 111. Mil 
Thompson, James T., Colo. Univ. School of Med., 4200 E. Ninth Ave., 

Denver, Colorado M20 

Thompson, W^allon H., R. R. 6, Madison M28 

Thornbury, Wm. David, Dept. of Geology, Ind. Univ., Bloomington M24 

Thrasher, Mrs. John R., 4903 Washington Blvd., Indianapolis M21 

Titus, Edith V., 1925 W. Jackson St., Muncie M27 

Toole, Eben Henry, U. S. Dept. of Agric, Bureau Plant Industry, 

Washington, D. C. . M17 

Toussaint, Walter, 108 B. Morris St., Charleston, W. Va M28 

Tranter, Frank, 448 E. Madison St., Franklin. M30 

Tranter, Robert R., 448 E. Madison St., Franklin M30 

Trent, Horace M., Dept. of Physics, A. & M. College, Miss M28 

Troop, James, 123 Sheetz St., W. Lafayette M14 

Trueblood, Audrey S., Bot. Dept., Univ. of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio.. .M28 

Tucker, Gordon, 99 W. Wayne, Franklin. . M30 

Tucker, Helen I., R. R. 6, Box 12, Greencastle M24 

*Tucker, William M., 1556 Roosevelt Ave., Fresno, Calif M10, F23 

Turner, B. B., I. U. Medical School, Indianapolis M16 

Turner, William P., 222 Lutz Ave., W. Lafayette M08 

Tweedy, Ruth E., R. R. 5, Wabash. M28 

Unger, Kenneth W., R. R. 3, Wabash M29 

Urey, George M., R. C. A. Photophone, Room 506, New Orpheum Bldg., 

Seattle, Wash. M28 

Valentine, Oscar W., Claypool M30 

Vance, Ira W., Wallace M29 

Vandivier, Leo E., Franklin M30 

*VanHook, James M., 639 N. College Ave., Bloomington MOO, Fll 

VanHoozen, Ethel C, Route 6, Fort Wayne M27 

Vaughn, Thomas H., 619 N. Cushing, South Bend M29 

Veatch, Harry L., 4404 Indiana Ave., Fort Wayne M29 

Vestal, Edgar G., 82 Wilson St., Franklin M28 

*Visher, Stephen S., 817 E. Second St., Bloomington M19, F24 

Vogt, Richard R., R. R. No. 3, South Bend M30 

Volkers, Clyde E., 1025 N. 6th, Terre Haute M30 

fVon Kleinsmid, R. B., Univ. of S. Calif., Los Angeles, Calif NR 

Voorhees, Herbert S., 804 W. Wildwood Ave., Fort Wayne M96 

Voris, Ralph, Southwest Missouri State Teachers College, Springfield, Mo. . . M24 

*Wade, Frank B., Shortridge High School, Indianapolis M03, F14 

Wagener, Edward F., 411 Marott Hotel, Indianapolis M23 



396 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

Wallace, Frank N., State House, Indianapolis M20 

Wallingsford, Duff N., 1603 W. Adams, Muncie M30 

Warren, Harris G., 510 Herkimer St., Joliet, Illinois . . . M26 

Watson, Ivan D., Russiaville M23 

Watts, Harry, 921 Helm St., Logansport M28 

Weatherby, Jesse H., 3535 College Ave., Indianapolis M30 

*Weatherwax, Paul, 416 S. Dunn St., Bloomington M13, F22 

Webb, Harold D., R, R. 6, Franklin M30 

Weber, Russell, Butler University, Indianapolis M25 

Webester, Lewis B., 618 Swan St., Terre Haute M13 

Wedel, Arthur, Box 73, Lockhart, Texas M24 

Weeks, Ora E., 1304 S. 4th St., Terre Haute M28 

Wefler, Charles Wm., 721 National Ave., Terre Haute M28 

Weir, Dewey C, Hanover M27 

Weis, Willard L., Box 434, W. Lafayette M30 

Welch, Winona, 25 S. Vine St., Greencastle M24 

Wells, Dr. Agnes E., 420 N. Indiana, Bloomington M24 

Wenninger, Rev. Francis Joseph, Univ. of Notre Dame, Notre Dame M20 

Wenzke, Herman Henry, Univ. of Notre Dame, Notre Dame M27 

Wetherill, Richard B., 525 Columbia St., Lafayette M24 

Whitacre, Francis M., Dept. Chem. Engineering, Case School of Science, 

Cleveland, Ohio M29 

White, Edith Louise, 648 Maryland Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa M28 

White, Harold E., Mass. Agric. College Field Station, Waltham, Mass.....M27 

White, Helen L., Larwill M29 

White, John, Dept. Chemistry, Rose Polytechnic Inst., Terre Haute .M25 

Whitehead, Martha E., New Harmony M27 

Whitlatch, George, Charlestown M28 

Wiancko, Alfred T., 230 S. 9th St., W. Lafayette M09 

Wible, Paul Gerald, Springport M27 

Wickmire, Grant T., Hanover M28 

Wickwise, George C, Angola M24 

Wilbur, John W., Smith Hall, Purdue University, W. Lafayette M24 

Wilcox, Ralph F., Room 133, State House, Indianapolis M26 

Wildman, Earnest A., Earl ham College, Richmond M18 

Wiley, Ralph Benjamin, 777 Russell St., W. Lafayette M14 

Wilhelm, Ernest J., 607 Lafayette Ave., Palmerton, Penn M27 

Wilhelmus, Mary Coriene, Newburgh M30 

Wilhite, Ida B., 25 W. 16th St., Apt. 48, Indianapolis. M21 

Wilkinson, Paul D., 1636 S. 4th St., Terre Haute M21 

Wilkinson, Ross, 115 S.'Dix St., Muncie M29 

Wilier, Wm. Arnold, 1302 Indiana Ave., New Albany M29 

Williams, Mildred I., 382 W. Elm, Canton, Illinois M28 

*Williamson, E. B., Bluffton Mil, F14 

Willis, Fred, 1920 S. 6th St., Terre Haute M26 

Wills, Irvin A., Gretna Farm, Wheaton, Illinois. . . M27 

Wilson, Mrs. Etta S., 9077 Clarendon Ave., Detroit, Michigan M15 

Wilson, Harley B., R. R. No. 2, Galveston M30 

Wilson, Ira T., Heidelberg College, Tiffin, Ohio M19 

Wimmer, Merle, R. 1 , Greentown M26 



Members 397 

Winkenhofer, Walter, Huntingburg M20 

Wirt, Landis H., 544 Associates Bldg., South Bend M29 

Wisch, Kathryn H., 1405 Virginia St., Lafayette M28 

Wischmeyer, Carl, 203 Madison Blvd., Terre Haute M25 

Witmer, Samuel W., 1406 S. 8th St., Goshen. '. M21 

Wolfe, Harold E., 314 N. Washington St., Bloomington M20 

Wood, Harry W., 1311 Ardmore, Chicago, Illinois M12 

W r ood, Harry W., 6610 Kenwood Ave., Chicago, Illinois M1J2 

Woodrow, Walter H., Indiana State Normal School, Terre Haute M25 

Woodruff, Albert E., 614 South Cuyler Ave., Oak Park, Illinois M21 

Wright, Howard Ford, 4452 Winthrop Ave.. Indianapolis M28 

*Wright, John S., Eli Lilly & Co., Indianapolis (Life Member 1927) .... M93, F94 

Wright, Mrs. M. B., Greencastle, R. R. 3 M25 

Wyatt, Mrs. Ima A., 1801 Lincoln Ave., Evansville M27 

Wynkoop, Iris B., R. R. 4, Frankfort. . M24 

Yarwood, Cecil Edmund, Huntington, British Columbia, Canada M29 

Young, Gilbert A., 739 Owen St., Lafayette M08 

*Youncker, Truman C, 620 Highwood Ave., Greencastle M19, F23 

Zebrowski, George, Buck Creek M20 

Zehring, Wm. A., 303 Russell St., W. Lafayette. M07 

jZeleny, Charles, Dept. of Zoology, Univ. of Illinois, Urbana NR17 

Zerfas, Leon G., Care, Indianapolis City Hospital, Indianapolis M21 

Zetterberg, Clifford, New Point M29 

Zetterberg, Edward, 1101 N. Jefferson St., Muncie M26 

Zierer, Clifford M., Univ. of Calif, at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, Calif M22 

Zimmerman, Harold A., 109 Rector Apts., Muncie M28 

*Zinszer, Harvey A., Kansas State Teachers College, Hays, Kansas . . .M25, F28 
Zinter, Jules G., 538 Carlyle PL, Indianapolis M30 

Active Members 896 

Fellows* 84 

Non-resident membersf 21 

Total membership 1001 



398 INDEX 



Page 

Academy Foundation Committee'. 6, 15 

Acid base balance of the blood 193 

Algae 107, 111, 123 

Algae of Indiana 107 

Alphonsus. Brother C.S.C.— Memorial 31 

Andrews, F. M 5, 6, 11, 67, 68, 69 

Archaeology Survey Committee . 6, 15 

Areal geology of Putnam county 209 

Arthur, J. C 5 

Astronomy program 14 

Audio-frequency, a laboratory oscillator 267 

Auditing Committee 6, 16 

Bacteria, absorption of dyes 175 

Bacteriology program 12 

Barkley, Grace-Memorial 21 

Baumgartner, F. M 295 

Behrens, C. E ' 5, 6 

Berry, Willard 207 

Biological Survey Committee 6, 16 

Birds of Green and Noble counties 323 

Birds in Indiana, four rare species 321 

Birds, local movements 369 

Birds, Marion county 295 

Birds of Tippecanoe county 371 

Blanchard, W. M '. 5, 6 

Blatchley, W. L 5 

Botanical Congress, Fifth International 61 

Botany program 11 

Bowlus, H 203 

Bradt, W. E 141 

Breeze, F. W 6 

Bruce, E. M 6 

Bruner, H. L 5 

Burrage, S 5 

Bushnell, T. M 209 

Busteed, R. C 73 

Butler, A. W 5, 6, 15 

Butterflies of Indiana 351 

Cain, Stanley A. (Editor) 5, 6, 16 

Carr, R. H 165 

Chemistry exhibitions 189 

Chemistry in farm overalls 165 

Chemistry program 12 

Christy, O. B. 6 

Cogshall, W. A 5 

Coleoptera of Indiana 357 



Index 399 

Page 

Committees 5-6 

Cosmolar rays 281 , 287 

Coulter, Stanley 5, 6 

Crowell, Melvin E 31 

Culbertson, J. A 6 

Cumings, E. R 5 

Daubenmire, Rexford F 75 

Davis, J. J 307 

Deam, C. C 5, 6, 16, 77 

Deppe, C. A 6 

DeWulf , Emiel— Memorial 22 

Dietz, Harry F 6 

Dragon flies of Indiana, V 347 

Dyes, absorption of 175 

Eagleson, Halson V 259 

Ecological relationships of mosses 87 

Edington, Will E. (Press Secretary) 5, 6, 16, 17, 45 

Editors report 16 

Enders, H. E. 5, 6, 17, 19 

Esten, S. R 6, 321, 323 

European corn borer 335 

Executive Committee 5 

Fault, near Bretzville 251 

Ficht, G. A 335 

Flora, additions 75, 77, 107, 119 

Foley, A. L . 5, 6, 17 

French, Sidney J 171, 175 

Friesner, Ray C. (Secretary) 5, 6, 9 

Freesia corms, rate of growth 1 03 

Freezing apparatus 81 

Fungi on wooden lids 68 

Gas circulating absorption stirrer 179 

Gates, Florence A 51 

Geography program 13 

Geologic structure in Martin county 217 

Geology Program 13 

Girton, Raymond E 81 

Glenn, Gail G 87 

Glenn, Oliver E 265 

Gurnsey, E. Y 6, 15 

Haas, Alma Marie Bell, Memorial 23 

Hadley, Joel W 6 

Hamilton, John M 171 

Hay, Oliver P., Memorial . 24 

Hay, W. P 30 

Hemotoxins, Serum neutralization 181 

Herbarium, The Stanley Coulter 115 

Herpetological report of Morgan County 361 

Hershman, J. B 267 



400 Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science 

Page 

Hessler, Robert 5, 341 

Hiestand, Wm. A 345 

Horan, F. W 6 

Howlett, B. A 6 

Huddle, J. W 213 

Hufferd, R. W 6 

Humidity, the effect on reverberation 259 

Hydrogen sulphide, production 185 

Ilynassa, a new species 375 

Indicators, metallic electrode 171 

Insects of Indiana for 1930 307 

Insects, relation of oxygen tension to oxygen consumption 345 

Jasper county flora . 119 

Jordan, David Starr 5 

Lemanea Ill 

Liverworts 67 

Logan, W. N 0, 19 

Lyon, Marcus W., Jr. (Treasurer) 5, 6 

Lyons, R. E 185 

Mahin, E. G. 5 

Malott, Clyde A 217 

Markle, M. S. (Vice-President) 5 

Martin, E. S. 6 

Martin, R. E 6 

Martin, Viva D 6" 

Mathematics program 14 

Mees, M. S 5 

Mellon, M. G. 57 

Members, of the Academy. 377 

Membership Committee 6, 17 

Memorials 21-32 

Mental performance 193 

Metallic electrodes 171 

Michael, L. J 103 

Micro-organisms from shale 207 

Miller, John T 235 

Minutes of the Spring Meeting 8 

Minutes of the Winter Meeting 10 

Minutes of the General Session 19 

Moenkhaus, W. J 5 

Montgomery, B. Elwood 347, 357 

Montgomery, Robert W 351, 357 

Morgan, W. P 103 

Mottier, D. M 5, 6 

Naylor, J. P 5 

Nieuwland, J. A 6, 179, 203 

Noyes, W. A 5 

Officers (Present) 5 

(Past) 7 






Index 401 

Page 

Owen, David Allen, Memorial 30 

Palmer, CM 107, 11 1 

Parke County flora 75 

Pearson, N. G 6 

Pecten, new species 243 

pH in relation to absorption of dyes 175 

Photo-electric phenomena 291 

Physics, Past and Present, President's Address 33 

Physics program 14 

Phytoplankton 123 

Piatt, Jean 361 

Pittenger, L. M 6 

Plants new or rare to Indiana, XVI 77 

Pollen studies, VI 69 

Porter, C. L 115 

Porter, J. N 115 

Powell, H. M 181 

Power tube, the load of 271 

President's address 33 

Program 10 

Program Committee 6 

Proton and electron masses 277 

Publication of Proceedings Committee 6 

Pyrausta nubilalis 335 

Ramsey, R. R. (President) 5, 33, 271 

Reaction of boron fluoride with alcohols and glycols 203 

References to scientific literature 57 

Relation of Academy to State Committee 6 

Research Committee 6 

Rettger, L. J 5 

Richest and poorest counties, a contrast 247 

Schizomeris . , Ill 

Scholarship intelligence and personality 45 

Science literature, references to 57 

Science teaching 51 

Scientific research, waste in 341 

Scudder, E. D 185 

Secondary schools 51 

Selenium 141 

Serum neutralization 181 

Sheean, J. Lyman 189 

Shock, N. W 193 

Silurian outcrops 213 

Smith, E. A 277, 281, 287 

Smith, E. R. 6 

Smith, J. E 6 

Soils, Pike county 235 

Soil survey 209 

Spring Mill Park 67 



402 Proceedings of Indian \ Academy of Science 

Page 

Stable asteroid, theoretical lower limit to the mass of a 265 

State Library Committee 6 

Stoltz, ( Jharles 6 

Strickler, Alvin 6 

Subterranean cut-offs in Crawford county 237 

Tertiary Pectens 243 

Test, Frederick H 369, 371 

Test, Louis Agassiz 369, 371 

Thornbury, W. D 237 

Treasurer's report 18 

Tucker, H. I. . 243, 375 

Uncinula circinata 73 

Van Hook, J. M 6 

Vaughn, Thomas H 203 

Visher, Stephen S 247 

Vogelmann, J. A 277, 281, 287 

Vogt, R. R 179 

Wade, F. B 5, 6 

Wallace, F. N 6 

Waste in scientific research 341 

Welch, Winona H 87, 119 

White, Helen L 123 

Whitlatch, George. . . 251 

Wildman, E. A 6 

Williamson, E. B 5, 6 

Wright, J. S 5, 6 

Wright, Wm. H 175 

Yuncker, T. G 22, 61 

Zinszer, Harvey A 291 

Zoology Program 13